Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 4–(Phala )Paatham 4–(‘ Phala pada’)Summary-

Before the adhikaranas of this pada are taken up it is felt necessary to give a description of the
entire setup of Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka and Divya nagara.

The resource materials for the above are Kaushitaki upanishad, Moksha dharma parva contained in Santhi parva of Sri Mahabharatha,
Pancharathra samhithas, Sri Lakshmi Hayagreeva Sahasranama stotram and based on the above the Stotrarathnam of Sri Alavandar,
Sri Vaikunta Gadyam of Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja, Srimad Rahasyatraya sara and Sri Paramapada sopanam of Sri Vedanta desika.

The description of Sri Vaikuntham as per Kaushitaki upanishad is as follows.
Before dealing with the description of Parama pada (Sri Vaikuntha) the upanishad says that those who leave
the mortal bodies come to moon. There are two categories of Jivas who come to moom.
The first category comprises of those jivas who have not done either Bhakthi yoga or Saranagathi
at the feet of the Lord Sriman Narayana. These jivas go to Swarga loka and not to Moksha that is Sri Vaikunta Divya loka.
These jivas are called as Avidwans or Ishtadhikaries.

The second category of jivas who have done Bhakthi yoga or prapatti (Saranagathi) goes to Moksha.
These jivas are called as Vidwans and they go to Moksha through Archiradi marga after conversing with moon.
These are also called as Mokshadhikaris. In this context it is reminded that all jivas come under three categories.
(a) Anishtadhikaris – who do only sinful acts – They do not reach moon and they go to hell (naraka)
(b) Ishtadhikaris who do a virtuous deeds including yagas – They reach moon and then go to heaven (Swarga)
through dhoo madi marga also called as Pitruyana.
(c)Mokshadhikaris as explained above who have done bhakthi or prapatti go to Moksha through
archi radi marga after conversing with moon.

The conversation with moon is as follows.
The jiva says I am kaala causing month, bi month also called as Ruthu, Year and Yuga etc.
I am also the things or substances which get created during every ruthu. I am also chathur muka.
You are also myself, Here I means Lord Paramatma himself who is the atma or soul to the jiva who says as “I” in this context.

The moon gets convinced with this reply of jiva who is here the moksha adhikari allows him to go to
Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka through the archi radi marga. On entry in to Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka there is a lake called “Ava”.

In Chandogyo upanishad it is said there are three lakes which are called “Ava, Nya and Airammadeeyam”.
Not far away from the above lakes there are security guards holding lathis (Sticks) to drive away those
who are not vidwans or Brahma vith. Brahma vith is the person who has done Bhakthi yoga ir prapatti.
These security guards are called “Muhurtha”. Lathies are called as yashties.
Thern there is the river called “Viraja” or “Vijara”. It is called so because it is against old age (jara) and also desire (Raja).

This Viraja river demarcates the prakrithi mandala and Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.
Prakrithi mandala is Brahmanda in which we are living. For prakrithi mandala the opposite bank of Viraja river is Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.
Though the upanishad says Viraja river after the lakes referred to above it should mean that lakes are after viraja nadi.
This is confirmed in Sri Lakshmi Hayagriva Divya Sahasranama stotra and in Srimad Rahasyasara also.

After shedding sooshma sarira on this bank of viraja river it is said that the liberated soul (mukthatma)
crosses the viraja river and enters in to the Vaikunta Divya loka on his own will or volition.
But there is another view in this regard that is the liberated soul takes a dip in viraja river.
In paramapada sopana Sri Vedanta desika has mentioned both the above views.

Sri Pillai Lokachaaryar in his rahasya called “Archiradi” tells that the mukthatma sheds the sooshma sarira
after touching the water in viraja river.

After entering in to the territory of Sri Vaikunta para loka the mukthatma gets aprakritha sarira (body)
which is having cent percent satva guna (Sudda satva).

Then the liberated soul is taken to Somasavana which is a sacred fig tree which can be said as an
inanimate incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana. Then the liberated soul is decorated with brahma alankara
by five hundred nymphs of Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka out of which 100 nymphs hold garlands in their hands for garlanding the mukthatma,
the second hundred nymphs hold a black paste called anjana to be applied to the eyes of the mukthatma,
the third 100 nymphs holding powder in their hands to be applied on the body of Mukthatma,
the fourth 100 nymphs holding Dhoties in their hands for offering the same to Mukthatma and
the fifth 100 nymphs holding jewels to decorate him.
So all the 500 nymphs get engaged in doing Brahma alankara to the mukthatma.

Then he is greeted by everybody there and a big ceremonial reception to him is arranged there.
Then the mukthatma is brought near a tree known as “Tilya”. In the commentary on Kaushitaki upanishad
by Sri Ranga ramanuja swamy it is said that the Sacred fig tree (Ashwathatha tree) called Somavasana is itself
the Thilya vriksha or tree as per the statement in Chandogyopanishad.
But Sri Vedanta Desika in Paramapada Sopana says Tilya Vriksha (Vriksha means tree) is different from Somasavana Ashvaththa Vriksha.

Then mukthatma comes to Salajya samsthana. This Salajya samsthana comprises of walls also called prakaras.
This is just similar to prakaras in Srirangam which is called bhuloka vaikunta because it is a replica of Sri Vaikuntham.
The word salajya is split in to sala and jya. Sala is prakara and Jya is the fighting equipment.
Because the fighting equipment is kept in prakara it is called Salajya. This fighting equipment is required
to drive away enemies who may come near Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.

After crossing the above said salajya the mukthatma enters Sri Vaikuntha Divya nagara called Aparajitha.
It is called Aparajitha because it is in accessible to abrahma viths that is those
who have not done bhakthi yoga or prapatti. It also means it cannot be conquered by anybody.

He then enters in to Brahmagandha, Brahmarasa and Brahmathejas. This means that the sweet smell
(Smell of parijatha flower) in the divya mangala vigraha (body) of Lord Sriman Narayana there,
the nectar like taste and light in the same gets radiated through out the pya nagara (City of Vaikuntha).
It is said that the quantum of light (efflugence) in the divya mangala vigraha is equal to that of 10000 suns rising simultaneously.
So the entire divya nagara is charged with fragrance, nectar and light.
So the mukthatma who enters the divya nagara with an aprakritha body having bramalankara
will have the above fragrance, taste and light.

The Mukthatma then enters in to the main gate of divya nagara which is guarded by two security guards
whose names are Indra and prajapathi. Then he is taken in a big procession through the wide streets of
Sri Vaikunta Divya nagara and every body there greets him. Thereafter he comes near the golden vimana
which is a tower like structure. Then enter the glories of Lord Sriman Narayana. This glory is called Brahma yashas.
The actual meaning of this appears to be that the glory of the Lord is spread throughout the divya nagara
and everybody there praises the glory of the Lord and mukthatma also begins to sing the glory of the Lord.
Those who praise the Lord are called Vipanyava.According to Koushitaki upanishad yashas means grace of the Lord.

Then the Mukthatma reaches the Anandamaya Mantapam. This is called as “Vibhu Pramitam” in Kaushitaki Upanishad.
This mandapam is a very big one covering a very large area. This is similar to 1000 pillared mandapam in Srirangam.
The gatekeepers who are dwara palakas are eight in number and there are eight attendents.
These attendents are called as Parshadas. These dwara palakas and parshadas extend a very gracious look on mukthatma
on his entry to Anandamaya mantapa. The names of the dwara palakas and parshadas are given separately.

Sri Vishvaksena the Commander in Chief of Sri Vaikuntham directs the managers of Anandamaya mantapam
to announce the arrival of mukthatma who is the new entrant there and there after he salutes Sri Garuthman there.
Then he will be in the midst of Nityasuries. Nitya suries belong to a particular category of jivas
who are never afflicted by the bondage of samsara.

Then he will see divine persons, the paraphernalia like umbrellas etc, divine weapons, divine jewels etc
becoming personified and standing there. After he sees them he gets a strong and unshakeable desire
to do all kinds of eternal service to the pine couple there and then he comes near the divine paryanka (throne)
near which he sees all the poorvaacharyas who feel satisfied that the efforts made by Lord Sriman Narayana
through them to bring him from this world to Sri Vaikuntha became successful.

Kaushitaki Upanishad gives the name of this paryanka or Simhasana as “Ami thouja”.
There are four legs for this simhasana.
The above upanishad says the two legs in the front are called as Bhutha and Bhavibhyath (past and future).
The two legs in the rear are named as as Shri and Ira.
Pancharathra samhitha gives the names of these four legs as Dharma peeta, Gnana peeta, Vairagya peeta and Aishwarya peeta.

In this simhasana Lord Sriman Narayana with his consort Mahalakshmi are seated.
The legs and other parts of the Simhasana are Personified and mukthatma sees these personified divine entities.
On the divine Simhasana there is a pine lotus flower emitting light equivalent to that of thousand crores rising suns.
On the eight sides there are eight petals of the lotus flower. Eight divine damsels wave chowries (Chamaras)
standing by the side of petals. On the eastern side of the same Lotus called Karnikai
there is the damsel named Anugraha waving the chamara. The names of Eight damsels waving chamaras are given separately.

At the centre of the above lotus the set up is as follows.
Even hundred thousand golden hills will occupy an atom space in the very large and very high lotus called Karnika.
On this there is Divya yoga paryanka comprising the slough (called Nirmoka) of the thousand hooded serpent called Adisesha.
Hood is called Phana. The above Adisesha can be considered as the expansion (Stretching)
of the folding of several thousands of oceans of milk. (In every brahmanda there is one ocean of milk.
Because there are several thousands of brahmandas there are several thousands of oceans of milk).
The above again means that in each ocean of milk there is one Adisesha paryanka.
So the Divya yoga paryanka in the Sri Vaikunta pya nagara is several thousand Adisesha paryankas put to-gether.
This amounts to saying the base area of Divya yoga paryanka or that of Adisesha prayanaka is infinite or immeasurable.

This adisesha who is also one of the nityasuries assumes several forms to do several types of kainkaryas
to the divine couple there as per a pasuram in Mudal Thiruvandadi and as per a sloka in Stotra ratnam.
Again it is said the area of Adisesha paryanka is so large that even the Lord Sriman Narayana who is called
Thrividha parichcheda rahitha who is seated on the Divya yoga paryanka occupies a very short space.
This set up cannot be even imagined by us and we will be seeing the same after attaining moksha.

The word “Trividha parichcheda rahitha” means as follows.
Parichcheda means limit. Parichcheda rahita means, without limit or in other words unlimited.
Trividha means three kinds which are space, time and vastu.
So Lord Sriman Narayana and his consort mahalakshmi are unlimited with regard to Space, time and vastu.
Vastu means being or object. Both Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi are antaryamies (inner souls) in every being or
object both in Sri Vaikuntha Divya Loka and lila vibhuthi comprising of infinite number of Brahmanda.
Each brahmanda consists of fourteen worlds including bhuloka in which we are living.

Now Mukthatma comes to Adisesha parayanka who is called Anantha or Thiru Anandalwan.
Adisesha has thousand hoods and each hood has a gem or ratnam. By the light emitted by each gem.
Adisesha is illuminating the entire Vaikuntha Divya nagara which is Pundarika or Paramapada or even Ayodhya.
This Adisesha Paryanka is called Anantha bhogin.
This Mukthatma becomes the target of two thousand eyes of Adisesha (two eyes in each hood and there are 1000 hoods).

Now the Mukthatma comes near the pine couple who are seated on the divya yoga paryanka also called as Anantha bhoga paryanka.
Lord Sriman Narayana is the Head of all those in Sri Vaikuntha divya loka.
He is always of 25 years of age which can be said as Akumara yuva. He possesses infinite efflugence equal to
that of hundred thousand suns. Sriman Narayana is seated with Mahalakshmi possessing all the excellence
equal to that of Sriman Narayana and She is united with the Lord in all aspects.
She is the embodiment of infinite grace and seated on the right side of the Lord.
Similarly there are Bhudevi and Neela devi who are also giving pleasure to the Lord and doing service to them.

Now the Mukthatma is standing in front of the pine couple bhudevi and neela devi.

Lord Sriman Narayana is giving him infinite bliss and enjoyment. The knowledge of Mukthatma becomes
infinite which is called Dharma Bhutha Jnana Vikasa. He fully enjoys the beauty of the Divya Mangala Vigraha
of the Lord (pine and auspicious body of Lord) and every organ in the same.
He also enjoys the ornaments adorning the various parts of the Divya Mangala Vigraha.

The Mukthatma actually sees with his own eyes the infinite number of kalyana gunas (auspicious attributes)
of Lord Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi.

Then the Mukthatma comes near the stand on which Lord Sriman Narayana lays his Lotus feet.
Then the Lord lays his lotus feet on the head of mukthatma and makes him to become eligible for doing
eternal service (kainkaryam) to him which was deeply aspired by him.

Then he climbs and steps on the Divya yoga paryanka. Then the divine couple out of their deep affection on him
make him to Sit on their laps and make him to speak of the excellent prosperous fortune he enjoyed by coming to Sri Vaikuntham.
Lord asks him who are you. Then the mukthatma replies and acknowledges the greatest help done to him by the divine couple
by not allowing him to be a nitya samsari (remaining in the bondage of samsara forever) and
bringing him to Sri Vaikuntha and become one among the Nitya suris.

The Mukthatma further says he was drowned in the ocean of samsara from time immemorial.
Then he was made to get immersed in the nectar sea of the paramathma swarupa of Lord Sriman Narayana and
became inseparable from him. In other words he became the body and Lord became the soul there
by making the soul and body inseparable. By realising the intrinsic nature (Divya atma swarupa) of the Lord
he realised his own intrinsic nature. By will of the Lord he was able to get himself engaged in
activities (Pravritti and Nivritti). He enjoyed the affection showered on him by Lord.
He further says that in the sea of his moksha ananda which he is enjoying now the pleasure of Ishvarya
(materialistic attainments in this world and of his attainments in Svarga loka) and
the pleasure of enjoyment of his own self (Kaivalya) is just like a drop.

After saying the above the Mukthatma requests the divine couple that he should not be made
to go back to this world from where he came over there.
The Divine Couple get very much pleased with the above submission of mukthatma.
Just like mother and father become pleased with the utterances of their child.
Then Lord Sriman Narayana turns to Mahalakshmi and both of them grace the mukthatma with one and the same look.

Then the eight attributes of Apahatha papma (having no blemish), Vijara (without being afflicted by old age),
Vimruthyu (without being afflicted by death), Visoka (being without sorrow), Vijigitsa (being without hunger),
Apipasa (being without thirst), Satya kama (becoming capable of attaining what all he wants) and
satya sankalpa (becoming capable of doing what he wants to do subject to the will of the Lord there) blossom there.
This is called Gunashtaka Avirbhava. He also becomes sarvajna (omniscient) which is in other words the dharma bhutha gunavikasa.

He then develops intense love to-wards the Divine Couple called Parabhakthi by his continuous enjoyment of
divine couple and this parabhakthi leads to para gnana which is the deep knowledge he acquires
which leads to parama bhakthi which becomes unabated, un ending and eternal enjoyment of moksha Ananda
which is also called Brahmanda and this is the infinite bliss or pleasure he derives by doing
continuous service to the pine couple there. Thus he puts in to action his intrinsic and inherent nature
of Sheshatva (Subordination) and dasatva (Obedient and devoted servant) towards the divine couple
as depicted in the third syllable “Ma” of the pranava.

Then the Mukthatma assumes several bodies or forms by his own free will subject to the will of Lord or Paramatma
there to do all kinds of kainkaryam to the pine couple simultaneously.
So his eternal bliss there is doing kainkarya to the divine couple every where (Sarvadesa), at all times (Sarvakala),
and in all phases (Sarvasthauchitha) and all kinds of kainkarya (Sarvavidha kainkarya).

Adhara Sakthi krama:
The entire setup of Sri Vaikunta pya loka in a nutshell is given below as contained in
Adhara sakthi krama mentioned by Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in the nitya grantha.
1) Adhara sakthi (Supporting power)
2) Moola prakriti (Primordia matter)
3) Akila jagad adhara koorma rupi
Narayana (It is said that Sriman Narayana in the form of tortoise supports the entire universe.
This support appears to be common to both lila vibhuthi that is the universe comprising of
infinite number of brahmandas and also Nitya vibhuthies comprising vaikunta pya loka .
4) Anantha Nagaraja – It is said that Adisesha supports the entire universe.
5) Bhoomi (Bhuloka) The above are to be imagined as one above the other.
6) Sri Vaikuntha Divya Loka equivalent to a continent
7) Sri Vaikuntha Divya Jana pada – Equivalent to a country.
8) Sri Vaikuntha Divya nagara – Equivalent to a city.
9) Sri Vaikuntha Divya vimana
10) Ananda maya mantaparatna
11) Anantha Nagaraja (Adisesha) within the mantapa
12) Dharma peeta pada name of the leg of Divya simhasana in south east (Agneya)
13) Gnana peeta pada name of the leg in the south west (niru ruthi)
14) Vairagya peeta pada – Name of the leg in the north west (Vayavya).
15) Eiswarya peeta pada – name of the leg in north east (Esanya).
16) Adharma – This appears to be the name of the thickness of Divya simhasana on the eastern side.
17) Ajnana – Name on southern side
18) Avairagya – Name on the western side
19) Anaishwarya – Name on the northern side
20) Anantha who is keen on doing all types of service to the Lord.
21) Lotus flower on the top of the above.
(Note: – There appears to be a slight variation in Parama pada sopana it was said that Adisesha is over padma.
In this order it appears to be over Adisesha).
22) Vimalachamara hasta – Name of the chamara waver on the eastern petal of lotus.
23) Utkarshinai chamara hasta – name of the chamara waver on south east petal.
24) Jnana chamarahastha – On the southern side petal.
25) Kriya chamara hastha – on the southern west petal
26) Yoga chamara hastha – On the western petal
27) Prahva chamara hastha – on the north west petal
28) Satya chamara hastha – On the northern petal.
29) Esana chamara hastha – On the north east petal.
30) Anugraha chamara hastha – On the eastern side of karnika the bottom of lotus.
31) Jagat prakrithi yoga peeta – This appears to be the cause of the all brahmandas including oceans of milk.
32) Divya yoga peeta paryanka – A sofa
33) Sahasra pana manditha Anantha nagaraja – From this it appears that the 1000 hooded Adisesha is in the above yoga peeta.
34) Pada peeta Anantha nagaraj – A pedestal on which the Lord places his feet. This is one of the forms of Adisesha.
35) Anantha, Garuda, Vishvaksena – Nitya suries seated on padmasanas.
36) Asmath Gurava: – All our purvacharyas who have attained Moksha. They are seated on the north west side of Yoga peeta.
37) Lord Sriman Narayana Seated on the Yoga peeta paryanka
38) Mahalakshmi seated on the right side of the Lord.
39) Bhumi – Bhudevi on the left side of the Lord.
40) Neela – Neela devi on the left side of the Lord.
41) Kirita makutadhi pathi – The crown which the lord wears on his head.
42) Kirita mala apeedakatma – Lord wears crown and garlands always. They may cause some pain or trouble to the lord.
There is one divine person called appedakatma who does not cause that pain.
43) Dakshina kundala makara – Right ear ring of the lord in a form of crocodile.
44) Vama kundala makara – Left ear ring of the Lord.
45) Vyjayanthi vanamala – The garland or vana mala which the lord wears is called Vyjayanthi.
46) Thulasi – The Lord also wears Thulasi garland.
47) Sri Vatsa Srinivasa – A bunch of white hairs on the chest of the Lord where mahalakshmi is seated.
48) Sri Kaustuba sarva Ratnadhi pathi – Kaustuba is a gem or Ratna on the chest of the Lord. It is the most important and precious gem.
49) Kanchi Gunojvala pithambara – Yellow coloured pure silk cloth worn by the Lord below waist with waist belt which is of gold.
50) Sudarsana Hethiraja – The weapon disc which the lord holds in his right.
51) Nandaka kshadgadhipathi – The weapon sword which is called Nandaka held by the Lord.
52) Padma – This lotus is also considered as one of the weapons.
53) Pancha janya sankadhi pathi – Panchajanya is the conch which the Lord holds in his left hand.
54) Koumodaki gadadhipathi – The weapon mace called koumodaki which the lord holds.
55) Sarngaya chapadhi pathi – The weapon bow called sarnga.
56) Bhagavath Padara vinda samvahini – The lady attendants who massage or shampoo the feet of the Lord.
57) Anantha Nagaraja – Again Adisesha is in another form on the back side of the Lord.
58) Bhagavath Parijanas – The other attendants rendering service to the Lord.
59) Bhagavath paduka – The holy sandals of the Lord.
60) Bhagavath Parichchadas – The other paraphernadia like umbrella etc.
61) Vainateya – Garutman seated in the front.
62) Bhagavat Vishvaksena – The Commander in chief seated on the north east side of the Lord and facing south.
63) Gajanana – Assistant of Vishvaksena.
64) Jayatsena – Assistant of Vishvaksena.
65) Harivakthra – Assistant of Vishvaksena.
66) Kala prakrithi samgna – Assistant of Vishvaksena.
67) Chanda and Prachand – Gate keepers on the Eastern side.
68) Bhadra and Subhadra – Gate keepers on the southern side.
69) Jaya vijaya – Gate keepers on the western side.
70) Dhatra and Vidhatra – Gate keepers on the northern side.
All the above keepers are called dwara palakas having four hands holding sanka, chakra and gada.
71) Kumuda Ganadhi pathi Savahana parivara praharana – Parishada on the eastern side.
72) Kumudaksha Ganadhipathi – Savahana parivara praharana – on the south east side.
73) Pundarikaksha ganadhipathi – Savahana parivara praharana – on the southern side.
74) Vamana ganadhi pathi – Savahana parivara praharana – on the south west side.
75) Sankukarna ganadhipathi – Savahana parivara praharana – on the west side.
76) Sarpanethra ganadhipathi – Savahana parihara praharana – on the north west side.
77) Sumukha ganadhipathi – Savahana parihara praharanam – on the north side.
78) Suprathishtaya gandhipathi – Savahana parivara praharana – on the north east side.
The above eight are called Parishadas and appear to be Lord’s campanions or members of the assembly.
They are with vahanas (Vehicular set up) and with parivara (having their own people). Praharana means weapons.
That is all the above parishads are armed with weapoons and this arrangement appears to be a security arrangement.

Sri Ramanuja says in the Nithya Grantha that all the above 78 divine persons and objects in the
sri vaikunta divine loka, and divya nagara are to be prostrated and worshipped during the course of daily worship
(Tiruvaaradhana) of Lord Sriman narayana performed in the houses.
Sri Ramanuja’s Sri Vaikuntha Gadhya is more or less an elaboration of the above.

At the commencement of the description of Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka Sri Ramanuja says the location of
parama vyoma which is another name for Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka is as follows.

There is Brahmanda comprising of 14 lokas or worlds. Over brahmanda there is a cover which is ten times
as large (great) as brahmanda itself. There are seven such covers each cover 10 times as large as the
previous one and one above the other. Over the above is Viraja River and the other bank of the viraja river is
Sri Vaikuntha Divya Loka the description of which was already given before.

This setup of Sri Vaikuntha which is not accessible by the four headed brahma and others even by mind or by words.
The nature of nitya suries and mukthas who are already there cannot be even imagined by Brahma, Rudra, Sanaka, Sanandana etc.
Even Sri Alavandar gives a beautiful and brief description of Sri Vaikuntha divine loka in statra ratna.

In the light of the above description of Sri Vaikuntha para loka,
we shall proceed to deal with six adhikaranas in the last pada.

The first adhikarana is named as Sampathyavirbhavadhi karanam.
The upanishadic passage that comes up for discussion is in the 8th chapter of Chandogyopanishad.
This passage says that the jiva who has done upasana or prapatti after leaving the mortal body attains
Lord Sriman Narayana in Vaikuntha pya loka and his intrinsic nature which was dormant before gets blossomed.
His intrinsic nature is the eight attributes which are apahata papma, vijara:, Vimrutyu’ Visoka, Avijighatsa:,
Apipasa, Satya kama:, Satya sankalpa. (Note: the meaning of the above Eight attributes has already been mentioned before).

In addition to the above there will be dharma bhutha gnana vikasa which is in other words means
sarva gnatva (omniscient). It amounts to saying that his bliss becomes infinite and eternal.
The opponent (Poorva pakshi) contends if for a mukthatma something new is not attained and only those aspects
which were already there and dormant on account of punya papa karma blossom, then the moksha sastra
(Scriptures dealing with the means of attaining moksha) becomes meaningless or purposeless and
the nature of jiva (AtmaSvarupa) becomes goal less. Goal is purushartha which is a person wants to attain

He further says that in the state of sound sleep when the activities of body and senses become dormant
the atma (jiva) attaining goal (purushartha) is not seen. It cannot be said that mere ending of sorrow becomes purushartha.
He further argues that mere blossoming of the intrinsic nature of jiva cannot be called moksha.
In moksha it is said that mukthatma attains Brahma Ananda which is eternal and infinite.
So Poorva pakshi concludes by saying that something new is attained in moksha.

The Sutrakara refutes the above argument of the poorva pakshi in the first sutra of this Adhikarana
which is reads as “Sampadya Avirbhava: Svena sabdath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. The pratyagatma (jiva) who goes to moksha through archiradi gathi
and attains Lord Sriman Narayana will have the blossoming of his own intrinsic nature (Sva svarupa Avirbhava)
and not any new form (aspect), because of the upanishadic statement
“Esha Samprasada: Asmath Sarirath Samuththaya Paramjyothi: Upasampadya Svena rupena Abhinishpadyathe.”

The words underlined above tell that no new form or aspect is generated and only the existing nature
which was dormant all these times get blossomed. If the argument that a new aspect is generated
there the word “Svena” in the upanishadic passage becomes meaningless.
Even if no new aspect is there he gets only his inherent or intrinsic nature which was dormant.

For the argument of poorva pakshi that the intrinsic nature was always there and this word “Upasampadya” meaning
attaining becomes meaningless the Sutrakara replies in the second sutra which reads “Muktha: Pratignanath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that mukthatma gets liberated from the body which he possessed on account of punya papa karma.
Even though the intrinsic nature was there for ever it was dormant on account karma rupa Avidya that is punya papa karma.
When this karma has ended the dormance has gone leading to the automatic shining of the inherent or intrinsic svarupa (nature).

The word “Prathi gnanath” in the sutra particularly refers to conversation between Indra and Prajapathi
(Four-headed Brahman in the 8th chapter of Chandogyopanishad.
Indra goes to Prajapathi for acquiring spiritual knowledge. The Prajapathi repeatedly emphasises the fact
to Indra by saying bhuya: (repeatedly) Vyakyasyami ( I elaborate).
The elaboration is “This Prathyagatma (jiva) is liberated from three phases which are phase of awakening,
phase of finding dreams and phase of sound sleep (phase of Coma stage) is also included though not explicitly said).
And also liberation from this body afficted by punya and papa karma causing love and hatred towards
objects and personalities in this world. After this liberation it was said that pratya gatma attains
Paramatma in Moksha leading to Svarupa Avirbha (blossoming of his intrinsic nature).

In the third sutra of this adhikarana the Sutrakara says as “Atmaprakaranath”
which means specifically that this atma (Pratya gatma or jiva) is the possessor of the eight attributes (Gunas)
as already mentioned. These eight gunas are called Gunashtaka. This is also clear in the teaching of Prajapathi to Indra.
These eight gunas were dormant while the jiva was in the bondage of samsara and they shine as soon as
jiva attains Paramatma in moksha. So these eight gunas are not new additions and they were always there.
This point is reinforced by Bhagavan Saunaka who states as follows.
(a) The lustre in a gem or Ratna is always there and is its inherent nature. That lustre or shining will not be there
when it is covered by a layer of dirt or dust. When it is cleaned and dirt removed its shining becomes automatic.
Similarly in the case of Atma the dirt is Punya papa karma which affects the shining of Eight gunas.
When this karma goes to Moksha these gunas shine automatically.
(b)When a well is dug the layers of earth that prevent the water from seeing the sunlight are removed.
But water below the ground is not created new and it is always there.
So also in the case of jiva, The layers of earth are similar to Karma.
(c) Similar to the above two illustrations, after the ending of heya gunas of Atma (Punya papa karma)
the eight gunas shine automatically and they are not newly created.

The Second Adhikaranam in this pada is called “Avibhagena drushtatavadhi karanam”.
The question that arises is whether mukthatma enjoys the paramatma (also called param jyothi who is Lord Sriman Narayana)
as a separate entity or as an inseparable entity.

The poorva pakshi says that he enjoys paramatma as a different or separate entity quoting certain
upanishadic texts which appear to be in favour of his contention. The upanishadic texts in support of his stand are

a) Taittiriya Upanishad says that Mukthatma after attaining Brahman (Sriman Narayana) enjoys him along with auspicious attributes.
(b) Mundaka upanishad also says when the mukthatma attains moksha and sees wonderful shining form of Lord there
who is the cause of the universe becomes equal to him.
(c) In Bhagavad geetha Lord himself says that for mukthatma after attaining him in Sri Vaikuntha
the eight gunas blossom which are also in the Lord.

In all the above statements there is no specific mention that mukthatma enjoys the Lord as an inseparable entity.
So the poorva pakshi says that mukthatma enjoys the Lord as a separate entity.

This is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra “Avibhagena drishtatvath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that mukthatma enjoys the paramatma as an inseparable entity.
In separable in the sense that Paramatma is soul and jivatma is his body. Body and soul are inseparable.
Mukthatma actually sees the Paramatma as his soul and he as his body.
Mukthatma before coming to moksha that is when he is still in samsara knows that he is the body of paramatma
according to upanishadic statements. But after reaching moksha he actually sees this.
That is the body and soul relationship between himself and paramatma. The upanishadic statements which proclaim the above are
(a)Tatvamasi meaning that “Thvam” who is Svethakethu to whom his father tells the above has “Thath” who is paramatma as his soul.
(b)Ayam atma brahma which means that this brahman who is paramatma is the atma that is soul to every thing.
(c)Aithadatmyam Edam Sarvam – For every sentient being (jiva) and for every non sentient being in lila vibhuthi
as well as Nitya vibhuthi paramatma is the soul.
(d)Sarvam khalu Edam brahma – Every sentient being and non sentient being is brahma which means
brahmatmakam that is having brahman as soul or atma.

In the above statements there is no specific mention of soul and body relationship between paramatma and jivatma.
But they are called Samanidhikaranya statements. They are also called as Abedha sruthies.
The meaning of Samanadhikarana is as follows.
When two words are mentioned together and they are in the case (Called Vibhakthi in Sanskrit)
then one word is adjective and the other word is noun that is adjective qualifies the noun.
In the soul and body theory soul is the noun and body is the adjective.
Then those two words are called Samanadhikaranya words.
So the in above upanishadic statements the soul and body relationship is implied.

There are some other upanishadic texts which explicitly mentions soul and body theory. They are
(a) Ya: Atmanithishtan Atmana: Anthara:
Yam Atma naveda yasya atma sareeram
Ya: Atmanam anthara: Yamayathi Sathe Atma
Antharyami Amrutha:

The meaning is that who (referring to Paramatma) resides with Atma (jivatma) and who is different from
Atma whom the jivatma does not know and to whom jivatma is the body is the antaryami (inner soul) to you.

(b)Antha: Pravishta: Shasta Jananam Sarvatma –
Sriman Narayana who is the paramatma has entered in to every thing as antaryami
and he controls activities of jivatma. He is the atma or soul to all.

In addition to the above there is the brahma sutra which is reads as
“Avasthithe: Ethi Kasha kritsna” of the Vakyana vayadhikaranam which means
paramatma is the antaryami of jivatma. So from all the above it is confirmed that mukthatma enjoys paramatma inseparably.

The third Adhikaranam in this pada is called “Brahma adhikaranam”.
The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam has direct link with the first adhikaranam in this pada.
In the first adhikaranam it was said that there is the blossoming of eight gunas to the mukthatma
on attaining the paramatma which is called Gunashtaka Avirbhava.

The question is whether this Gunashtaka Avirbhava is the only salient feature of moksha or
whether the dharma bhutha gnana becomes infinite or whether both if they are not mutually contradicting.

When the Sutrakara sage Badarayana was discussing this point two of his disciples were near him
who are Jaimini and Oudulomi. The Sutrakara elicited the viewpoints of both the above
before giving his own view which is the final judgement.

When he asked Jaimini to tell his viewpoint he told his view which the Sutrakara put it in the form of sutra.
The Sutra is “Brahmena jaimini upanyasadibya:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that for mukthatma the gunashtaka avirbhava is the only salient feature
because it is said in dahara vidya when prajapathi imparts spiritual knowledge to Indra that
when Jivatma attains paramatma there is Gunashtaka Avirbhava and in continuation of the satya sankalpa
he does the kainkarya to the pine couple there.

The viewpoint expressed by the oudulomi was also called coined as a sutra which reads as
“Chiti tanmathrena thadaktmatvat Ethi oudulomi:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that for mukthatma his dharma bhutha gnana gets expanded and becomes infinite.
In support of his contention he cites a passage of brihadaranyaka upanishad in which it has been said as follows.
“Sa yatha saindhava ghana ananthara: Abaahya:
Kritsnahrasa gnana Eva: Evamvea Are
Ayam Atma Anantara: Abahya: Kritsna:
Prajnanaghana Eva, Vijnana Ghana Eva.”
The meaning of the above is that just like in the heap of a salt there is same taste inside, outside and
on all sides so also in the case of jivatma he is gnana gunaka that is he is having dharma bhutha gnana
inside, outside and on all sides. So this passage indicates the infinite nature of dharma bhutha gnana.
Because it is said “Vijnana ghana Eva” oudulomi says that no feature is there in Mukthatma
other than the infinite nature of Dharma bhutha jnana.

In this context it is to be noted that jivatma has two gnanas (knowledge).
The first is called Dhami Gnana which is “I”. This means that jivatma realises his ownself without any other aid.
The Dharmijnana of paramatma is same as Dharmijnana of jivatma. In this aspect alone both paramatma and jivatma are equal.

The dharma bhuthga gnana is the knowledge through which jivatma is able to perceive objects while in
samsara he perceives objects through his senses only and this is called sensual perception (Karana janya gnana)
through his gnanendriyas which are eyes, ears, noses, tongue and skin.
This quantum of Dharma bhutha gnana of jivatma in samsara varies from individual to individual depending on
his punya papa karma. For yogies this dharma bhutha gnana is much wider called
yogajanya gnana or Trai kalika gnana (Traikala means past, present and future).

For paramatma and nitya suris this dharma bhutha gnana is always infinite.
For jivatma it becomes infinite only in moksha as stated by oudulomi.

After hearing the views of jaimini and oudulomi, the sutrakarar gives his judgement
in the third sutra of this adhikaranam which reads as
“Evamapi upanyasath purvabhavath Avirodham Badarayana:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that there is no contradiction between the views expressed by jaimini and oudulomi
and therefore a mukthatma can have both eight gunas called brahma gunas which are blossomed
after the climbing ofdivya paryanka by mukthatma where the divine couple are seated and at the same time
his dharma bhutha gnana (knowledge of perception) becomes infinite. So dharma bhutha gnana in moksha for a mukthatma
need not necessarily be karana janya gnana (sensual perception) and he will able to know things even without senses.
The emphasis “Vignana gnanaeva” (Dharmabhutha gnana alone becomes infinite and not eight gunas) means
only that jivatma is not jada. Jada means without consciousness.

In Sri Bhasya Sri Bhashyakarar tells that in moksha the dharmi gnana of mukthatma also gets widened.
This interpretation does not however contradict the fact of dharma bhutha gnana becoming infinite.

The fourth adhikaranam in this pada is called
“Sankalpadhikaranam”.

Regarding mukthatma the chandogyopanishad says as follows.
1)“Sa: Uttama Purusha:- Sathatra paryethi Jakshath kreedan Ramamana Sthreebhirva Yanairva nopanjanam smaran Edam Sareeram”.
The meaning of the above is as follows. The mukthatma becomes a superior person (Uttama purusha).
He enjoys the paramatma from all sides, He goes round divine couple that is he does pradakshinam.
Jakshath means eating or laughing. Jaksha (Bhaksha hasanayo:) is the root.
Here the meaning eating is not apt that is not appropriate. Instead of laughing we can say as smiling.
Because the brahmananda he enjoys as a manifestation of this we can say he smiles.
Kreedan means playing or dancing. These are also the manifestations of the above ananda.
The word Ramamana: means taking delight or rejoicing. The other words in the above cannot have literal meaning.
The sum and substance of the above passage is that mukthatma does all kinds of service to the divine couple
always and at all times for ever. Except this passage in upanishads there is no other passage
which tells about the kainkaryam being done by mukthatma.

2)“Sa: Yadi Pitri loka kamo bhavathi
Sankalpaa deva pithara: Sumuththshtanthi
Thena pitru lokena sampanno bhavathi
Sa: Yadi Mathru loka kamo bhavathi
Sankalpa deva mathara: Samuththishtenthi” etc.
If the Mukthatma desires and wills to see his fathers, mothers and other relatives of his previous births
then they will appear before him. Another meaning is just as Lord Sriman Narayana chose
Dasaratha, Vasudeva and others to be his fathers during Rama avathara, Krishna avathara so also mukthatmas
may also take incarnations or avatharas in this world with the approval of Lord Sriman Narayana there.
Then they will choose mothers and fathers out of their Sankalpa or will.

In this adhikaranam the topic for discussion is whether the appearance of fathers and mothers etc. of the
previous births of a mukthatma is out of his own will or whether it requires special physical efforts.

The poorva pakshi says just as we see in this world a king willing to do a particular thing
puts in physical efforts so also a mukthatma.

The Sutrakarar refutes the above contention of poorva pakshi in the sutra “Sankalpa deva Thath Sruthe:”
The meaning of this sutra is that mukthatma does everything by his own will that is sankalpa
because the upanishad itself says so in the passage “Sankalpa deva pithara: Samuth thishtanthi” and
there is no upanishadic text saying that physical efforts are also required in addition to sankalpa to get a thing done.

There is another sutra in this Adhikaranam which reads as “Atha: Eva cha Ananyadhipathi:.”
The meaning of this sutra is when mukthatma does everything by his own will he is no longer subject to vidhinishedha.
Vidhi means ordering a person to do a particular thing. Nishedha means ordering a person not to do a particular thing.
If mukthatma is subject to vidhi nishedha then his will not be able to act and the will goes in vain.
Will is satya sankalpa. If his satya sankalpa fails to act then he will not be a mukthatma.
So ananyadhi pathi means satya sankalpa. The satya sankalpa of a mukthatma is subject to the will of
paramatma as he does not have absolute freedom. In this context the chandogyopanishath says that
a muktatma becomes Svarat. Svarat means the muktatma becomes free from punya, papa karma.

The Fifth Adhikaranam in this pada is called “Abhava adhikaranam”.
The topic for discussion whether a mukthatma possesses a body or not or he can be with a body or without a body.
For doing various kainkaryams simultaneously several bodies are required.

Sutrakarar before deciding this issue he elicits the views of two of his disciples.

The first is Badari who says the body is not there for a mukthatma because the body is meant for
enjoyment of pleasure and sorrow that is for experiencing the fruits of punya papa karma. In moksha there is no punya papa karma.
Hence Badari says there is no body for mukthatma.
The sutra containing Badari’s view is “Abhavam Badari: Ahahi Evam”.
Abhavam means no body.

The second view is that of jaimini who says that mukthatma assumes any number of bodies
to do kainkaryam to the pine couple in several forms simultaneously.
This is according to upanishadic text of chandogya which says
“Sa: Ekadha bhavathi, Thridha Bhavathi, Panchadha bhavathi, Sapthada bhavathi etc.
which means muktatma may assume one body, three bodies, five bodies etc to do service of several kinds
to the Lord Sriman Narayana and mahalakshmi there.
The meaning of the above sruthi (upanishadic text) should be like this only as the jiva cannot be cut in to pieces.

The sutra containing jaimini’s view point is “Bhavam jaimini: Vikalpa Amanath”.
Bhavam means body is there or bodies are there for mukthatma because the above sruthi says like that.

After hearing the views of the above the Sutrakara says in his judgement as
“Dvadashaha vath ubhaya vidham Badarayana: Atha:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Badarayana says that mukthatma could be with body and also
without a body citing a maxim of satrayaga. There is a yaga known as satra yaga which is performed for
twelve days and hence it is also called Dvadashaha. This yaga may be performed by several people or one individual.
If it is performed by several people for the welfare of humanity it is called Satram.
If it is performed by a single individual for getting progeny it is called Aheenam.
Just as the same yagam gets two names owing to difference in sankalpa for the welfare of humanity or sankalpa
of getting progeny) similarly a mukthatma wills (does sankalpa) to possess (assume) body or
bodies for doing kainkaryam or wills to remain without body for enjoying auspicious attributes (kalyana gunas) of the pine couple.
It should be noted that for enjoying the kalyana gunas of the Lord and his consort the body is not required.
If the mukthatma decides to do kainkaryam he will assume the body or bodies depending upon doing
one particular kainkaryam or doing several kainkaryams simultaneously repsectively.

The next sutra is “Thanvabhave Sandhyavath upapaththe:”.
This means if on a particular day the mukthatma decides to enjoy kalyana gunas without a body and if
paramatma requires his services then paramatma by his will recalls him by creating body or bodies to him.
This is similar to paramatma creating objects to be enjoyed by a jiva in his dreams.
Then mukthatma enjoys all the pleasures there created by the Lord Sriman Narayana.

The next sutra is “Bhave jagradvath”. When the mukthatma creates his body or bodies for doing kainkaryam
he enjoys moksha ananda or brahmananda just like a person in this world enjoys every thing in his awakened state.
As already said before just like paramatma creates Dasaratha, Vasudeva to become his fathers during avataras,
so also mukthatma creates fathers and mothers for taking avataras which is within the sankalpa of paramatma.

The next sutra is “Pradeepavath Avesha: thathehi darshayathi”.
This sutra is to clear the doubt how can a jiva which is of atomic size assume several bodies in moksha and do kainkaryam.
This doubt is cleared by the Sutrakara who states that just as a light burning at one corner of a place
illuminates the entire area similarly jiva (Mukthatma) by virtue of his infinite dharma bhutha gnana
can assume several bodies and do kainkaryam. This is similar to jiva who is in the heart controls
the functioning of the entire body through his dharma bhutha gnana.
So also he controls the functions of several bodies assumed by him through his dharma bhutha gnana.

Next another question arises. An upanishadic passage states that jiva after attaining paramatma
does not have any consciousness at all. If it is so how can muktatma become sarvajna
(Omniscient that is Dharma bhutha gnana become infinite) in moksha after attaining paramatma.

The sutrakarar in the sutra “Svapyaya Sampathyo: Anyatharapeksham avishkritham hi”
states that the above mentioned upanishadic passage does not refer to mukthatma
but it refers to state of jiva in sound sleep or state of his leaving this mortal body at the time of his death.
It has to be noted in this context that during the time of sound sleep jiva will be with paramatma
only and at the time of death paramatma conducts jiva through brahma nadi and in these two occasions
jiva will be without any knowledge or conscious lessness.

The last adhikaranam in this pada and also the last adhikaranam in Sri Bhasya is called
“Jagad Vyapara varjadhikarnam”.
In this Adhikaranam the Sutrakara completely rules out the possibility of nitya suries and Mukthatmas
having any role in the creation of the universe. It is the exclusive characteristic of Lord Sriman Narayana
(His consort also has a role in the creation) who is called Paramatma or Parabrahman or merely Brahma.
Taittariya upanishad clearly defines Brahman as the creator, protector and destroyer of universe.
This definition or the exclusive characteristic is not applicable to anybody else.
The act of creation, protection and destruction is called Jagad vyapara.

Sri Vedanta Desika in the paripurna brahmanu bhavadhi kara of Srimad Rahasyatrayasara identifies
fourteen characteristics which are exclusive to Lord Sriman Narayana.
Sriman Narayana also includes Mahalakshmi. The fourteen characteristics are listed below
which are not applicable to Nitya suries, mukthatmas and jivas in bondage of samsara.
1) Jagath karanathva – Cause of the universe
2) Moksha pradatva – Conferer of Moksha
3) Sarva dharathva – Supporter of both lila vibhuthi and nitya vibhuthi.
4) Sarva niyantratva – Controller of every thing.
5) Sarva sheshitva –Master of everybody
6) Sarva Sareeritva – Having all sentient and non sentient beings as his bodies and he is the soul to all of them.
7) Sarva Sabdavachyatva – All words (Sabdas) are his names only.
8) Sarva Veda Vedyatva – He is known through all Vedas or all Vedas refer to him only.
9) Sarva loka saranyatva – He is the protector of all lokas or he is the refuge for all lokas.
10)Sarva mumukshu upasyatva – He is meditated upon by all those who want to attain moksha.
11)Sarva Pala pradathritvam – Granter of all fruits including Dharma, Artha, Kama and moksha.
12)Sarva Vyapthatva – Pervading or encompassing every thing.
13)Gnana, Ananda Svarupatva – His intrinsic nature is infinite knowledge and infinite bliss.
14)Lakshmi Sahayatva – Consort of Mahalakshmi.

There are some additional characteristics which are bhoomi Neela Nayakatva, Adisesha paryankatva,
Garuda dvajatva, Pundarika kshatva,

The poorva pakshi of this adhikaranam says that mukthatma becomes equal with paramatma
in all respects according to Mundaka Upanishad which says “Niranjana: Paramam Samya mupaith”
(Muktatma having no connection with this world attains equality with paramatma in all respects)
and who has also become satya sankalpa will have a role in jagat vyaparam.

This contention of poorva pakshi is refuted by the Sutrakarar in the sutra
“Jagath vyapara varjam prakaranath Asannihitat vachcha”.
The meaning of this Sutra is as follows.
For a Muktatma there is no jagath vyaparam. Jagath vyapara means controlling the intrinsic nature
(Svarupa) continued existence (Stithi) and activities (Pravritti) of all sentient and non sentient beings.
This in other words are creation of universe, protection and destruction.
Thathvarjam means mukthatma who has become free from all punya and papa karmas
which covered him and caused samsara, enjoys paramatma in Sri Vaikuntha which is
mukta ishwaryam to him without a role in Jagath vyaparam.

The reason for his not having a role in jagath vyapara is prakaranath which means
context of upanishadic passages dealing with para brahman as the cause of the universe.
The passages are

(a)Yathova Emani bhuthani Jayanthe, Yena
Jathani Jeevanthi, Yat prayanthi abhi
Samvi shanthi, Thath vijignasagva thath Brahma.
The entity which creates universe, protects destroys and gives moksha is Brahman and it is to be known.
This is the exclusive definition of Brahman which never applies to mukthatma.

(b)Satheva Soumya Edam agre aseeth
Ekameva, advithiyam, Thadaikshata bahusyam.
Praja Yeyethi Thath Thejo asrujath
Before creation there was only Sriman Narayana with consort mahalakshmi who was called sath.
Both Sriman Narayana and mahalakshmi who were together was a single entity alone and there was no second entity.
This entity willed and created bhuthas.

(c)Brahmava Edam Agre aseeth – Before creation there was brahman who is Sriman Narayana.

(d)Atmava Edam agree aseeth – Atma is Sriman Narayana who was there before creation.

(e) Eko havai Narayana aseeth – Before creation there was Narayana alone (Narayana includes mahalakshmi).

The above passages speak of Sriman Narayana as the sole cause of the universe.
His controlling the universe is said in the upanishadic passage commencing as
“Ya: Atmani Thishtan” etc,. (Note: The meaning of this has been explained before).
Asannihithatvachcha – In all the above upanishadic passages there is no mention of mukthatma.

The Second sutra in this adhikaranam reads as
“Pratyaksha upadeshath Na Ethi Cheth Na Adhikarika mandalastha Ukthe:”.

The poorva pakshi still says that there are two upanishadic passages which mean to say that
muktatma has a role in Jagath vyapara. This is countered in the above Sutra.

His contention is the upanishadic passage
(a) Sa: Svarat bhavathi Thasya Sarveshu lokeshu Kamachare bhavathi.
(Mukthatma gains absolute freedom and he can travel anywhere on his own volition).
(b)Eman lokanni kamarupyanu sancharan
Mukthatma freely travels across all lokas refer to the role of mukthatma in jagath Vyapara
because of his complete control over lokas mentioned above.

In the Sutra above the words Pratyaksha upadeshathna Ethicheth mean the direct reference to mukthatma
in Jagath Vyapara in above passages and it cannot be said that mukthatma has no role.
This is refuted in the word “Na Adhikarika mandalastha ukthe:”.

The above means that the contention of poorva pakshi is not correct because in the
adhikarika mandala (lokas of Hiranya garbha the four headed brahman who are holdings posts
directed by Paramatma and hence called Adhikarika) the muktatma enjoys all the pleasures
in those lokas which he sees them as within the control or jurisdiction of Lord Sriman Narayana.
This control is called vibhuthi of paramatma. (Note: according to us svarat means not bound by punya papa karma).

The third sutra in this adhikarana is “Vikaravarthicha thathahi sthithim Aha”.
The reason for the above sutra is that the poorva pakshi says if mukthatma enjoys pleasures in
Hiranya garbha lokas etc that pleasure must be only limited like jivas in samsara.
This contention of poorva pakshi is refuted in the above sutra.

Vikara avarthi means without birth and death.
So paramatma himself is vikaravarthi. He is devoid of all vikaras (transformations) and blemishless.
He is repository of all kalyana gunas. He is sa vibhuthi that is all the lokas in the universe
which are subject to vikara of creation and destruction are under his full control.
The Mukthatma has no control over the above lokas but only enjoys the pleasures there because
he sees them as within vibhuthi of paramatma.

This is clear from the upanishadic passages which are
(a) Yada hi Eva Esha Ethasmin
Adrushye, Ananthmye, Anirukthe
Anilayane Abhayam prathishtam Vindathe.
Adrishye – The parama svaroopa of paramatma cannot be perceived by our naked eyes. By this he is not a non sentient object.
Anathmye – Paramatma in his parama svarupa is without a body or form.
Anirukthe – The parama svaroopa has no caste, creed or colour and hence he cannot be called as
Deva, manushya, Thiryak (animal) or sthavara (non sentient object). By this he is not a mukthatma.
Anilayane – He is without support that is he supports every thing and supports himself also. By this he is not a nitya suri.
Prathishtam – Paramatma with the above characteristics is fit to be meditated upon constantly.

When a meditator meditates on paramatma explained above, he will attain him and
he will be without the fear of samsara again.

(c)Rasamhi Eva Ayam labdhva Anandi bhavathi.
Rasam means paramatma himself. Mukthatma attains paramatma and becomes with eternal bliss called anandi.
(d)Thasmin lokaa: sritha: Sarve – In paramatma all lokas are there.
The above passages clearly rule out the possibility of mukthatma having a role in jagath vyapara.

The fourth sutra in this adhikaranam is “Darshayathasha Evam Pratyaksha Anumane”.
In this sutra the Sutrakarar after ruling out the possibility of mukthatma having a role in jagath vyapara
clearly and exclusively establishes (proves beyond doubt) that paramatma alone has complete and decisive role
to play in jagath vyapara by quoting several upanishadic passages and slokas in Bhagavad geetha.

The word Darshayatha in the sutra means establishes or shows.
Pratyaksha means upanishadic passages or texts of sruthi.
Anumane means slokas from smrithi which in this case is Sri Bhagavad geetha.
The sruthi texts are
(a) Bhishaasmat vata: Pavathe, Bhisho dethi surya: Bisha smath Agni sha Indrasha- Mrithyu: dhavathi panchama:” –
on account of the fear towards paramatma, god of wind blows, sun god shines, even moon,
agni and yama do their respective duties allotted to them.

(b)Ethasyava Aksharasya Prashasane gargi Surya chandramasa vidhru thou thishtatha:-
The sun and moon are in their respective positions because they are within in the command of Akshara who is Lord Sriman Narayana

(c) Esha sarveshwara: Esha bhutadhi pathi: Esha bhutha pala: Eshasethu: Vidharana: Esham lokanam Asam bhedaya.
(He is supreme being that is controller of everything the Lord, protector of all beings,
he is the bridge between samsara and moksha, he is the supporter of all lokas so that one does not get mixed up with the other).

Smrithis (Slokas of Bhagavad Geetha).
a)Mayadhakshena prakrithi: Suyathe Sacharacharam.
(Geetha charya says “because of my will and because I being the antaryami of prakrith and
depending on the punya paka karma of jivas this world is created.

b)Vishtabhyaham Idam kritsnam
Ekamshena Stitho jagath.
Geethacharya says an atom part of my greatness is supporting and encompasses the entire universe.

Even though the Gunashtaka of Mukthatma is his intrinsic nature (Svabhavika guna) that is also subject to Paramatma’s will.
Jiva being eternal without being subject to birth and death is also subject to Paramatma’s permanent will.

The fifth sutra in this adhikarana is “Bhoga matra samya lilngachcha”.
In this sutra the Sutrakara says that in respect of paramatma and mukthatma the equality is only
in the aspect of enjoyment and not in jagat vyapara which is the exclusive function of paramatma.

The Mukthatma enjoys the true and intrinsic nature of Paramatma.
This point is clear from upanishadic text”Sa: Ashnuthe sarvan kaman Saha brahmana Vipaschitha”.
This means that upasaka or prapanna who attains paramatma in Sri Vaikuntham enjoys the Lord and also his auspicious attributes.

So the sruthi text which says parama samyam (equality) between Mukthatma and Paramatma should be
interpreted in such a manner that Mukthatma will have nothing to do with jagath vyapara.

The last sutra in this adhikaranam which is the 545th brahma sutra and which is also the last brahma sutra reads as
“Anavritti: Sabdath Anavritti Sabdath”.
The sutra has been repeated twice to indicate the conclusion of the sariraka mimamsa sastra or brahma mimamsa sastra.
There is a convention in mimamsa sastra that if a word in a sutra is repeated twice then it signals the end of a chapter.
If the sutra itself is repeated then it is the end of the sastra.

The Sutrakara coined this sutra to clear a doubt.
The doubt is as follows:-
If the muktha aishwaryam that is attainment of infinite and eternal bliss in Sri Vaikunta by a mukthatma is
subject to the will of parama purusha (Lord Sriman Narayana) there is a likelihood or possibility of
parama purusha asking mukthatma to go back to the place from where he came over there.
This means in other words taking a birth again in samsara and suffer. This coming back to samsara is known as Avritti or punaravritti.

This doubt is cleared in this sutra. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Anavritti – Not coming back because
Sabdath – The penultimate passage in the 8th chapter of chandogyopanishad says so that is
the mukthatma will never come back to samsara.

Sri Bagavad Ramanuja’s commentary to this sutra is as follows:-
Just like the fact the Lord Sriman Narayana is blemishless (Nikhila heya pratyanika) repository of auspicious attributes
(Kalyanaikathana), cause of the universe (Jagath Janmadi karanam) he is different from all sentient and non sentient beings
(Samstha vasthu vilakshana) having unlimited compassion towards those who have taken refuge under him
(Ashritha vatsalya Ekajaladhi) embodiment of mercy (Parama karunika), having none either equal to him nor superior to him
(nirastha sama bhyadhika sambhavana) known as para brahman and parama purusha is established in upanishads
(para brahma bhidhana: parama purusha, Astheethi sabdath Avagamyathe).

Similarly the fact that Lord Sriman Narayana after getting pleased with the persons who have worshipped the lord
with meditation after doing daily the virtuous duties called Varnaashrama dharma.

(Evam aha: aha: anushtiyamana varnashrama dharmanu grihitha thadu pasanarupa thath samaradhana preetha)
and freeing them from the unlimited clutches of punya and papa karma accumulated from time immemorial or
without beginning and make them to attain infinite and eternal bliss of enjoyment of his (Lord’s)
intrinsic nature in Sri Vaikuntham will not allow them to come back to samsara is also established in upanishadic passages.

(Upasanena anadikala pravritta Anantha dushkrutha karma sanchaya rupa Avidyam vinivartya sva yathatmya
anubhava rupa anavadhika athishaya anandam prapayya punarna vartha yathi Ithi sabdath avagamyathe).
The meaning of upanishadic passage is that a meditator or prapanna remaining in this world till his death
will attain the brahma loka (Vaikuntha) and will not come back and will not come back

(Sabdasha sakhalu Evam Varthayan Yavada yusham brahma lokam abhi sampadyathe nacha punarvartha nacha punara vartha the Ethyadika).
(Note: The repetition of word will not come back twice indicates the conclusion of Brahma vidya or Upanishad itself.)

The lord Geetharcharya says on the same lines, The mahatmas who have done upasana or prapatti will not come back
to this samsara which is of immense suffering after attaining me which is the supreme attainment.
The jivas in lokas right from the Chathur mukha Brahma loka are subject to repeated births and deaths.
Oh! Arjuna they will no longer take birth here again after they attain me in Sri Vaikunta.

(Bhagavatha Svayameva uktham – Mamupethya punarjanma dukhalayam Ashashvatam, napnuvanthi mahatmana: samsiddhim paramam gatha:
Aabrahmabhuvanath lokaah punaravarthina: Arjuna – mamupethya thu kountheya Punarjanama navidyathe Ethi).

Further the mukthatma who got liberated from punya papa karma and who became to possess infinite knowledge
which is dharma bhutha gnana and whose nature became ever devoted and dedicated in the enjoyment of
para brahman Lord Sriman Narayana and which is his only abiding desire, will never have any desire other than
infinite enjoyment of paramatma and when his putting any effort for fulfilment of any other desire will not happen
the doubt of his taking a rebirth in this samsara never arises.

(Nacha vuchchinna karma bandhasya a samkuchitha gnanasya parabrahmane bhava svabavaikasya thadeka
priyasya Anavadhikathi sayanandam brahmanu bhavatha: Anya apeksha tha dartha a sambhavath punar avritti sanka).

At the same time Sriman Narayana who is parama purusha who has the unshakeable will after getting the mukthatma
who is a very dear gnani to him will never think of sending him back to samsara.
(Note: Here very dear Jnani means the person who thinks always paramatma as his supporter, nourisher and an object of deep enjoyment).

(Nacha parama purusha satya sankalpa: Athyartha priyam jnaninam labdhva kadachith avartha yishyathi).

Lord Geethacharya tells a Jnani I am very dear and the jnani also is very dear to me.
Those who do bhakthi towards me are very generous. But I consider Gnani as my supporter.
Because Jnani cannot exist without me he considers me as the supreme object of attainment.
Jnani attains me after several virtuous births and thinks every thing as vasudeva.

(Priyohi Jnaninah Athyartham, aham mama sacha priya:
Udaraa: Sarva Evaith Ganithu atmaiva mematham
Asthitha: Sahi yuktama mameva anuththamam gathim
Bahunam janmanam anthe Gnanavan mam prapadyathe
Vasudeva: Sarvam Ethi samahatma Sudarlabha: Ethi).

The repitition of sutra indicates the conclusion of this sariraka mimamsa sastra and
everything in this sastra is appropriate or proper.
So the most sacred text Sri Bhasya concludes with the above.

As already said, Sri Bhasya comprises of four chapters which are called
Samanvaya Adhyaya, Avirodha Adhyaya, Sadhana Adhyaya and Phala adhyaya.
These four chapters indicate four kalyana gunas of Sriman Narayana which are as below.
Karanatvam – Cause of the universe.
Abadhyatvam – Nothing inappropriate or objectionable in his being cause of the universe.
Upayatvam – means of attainment
Upeyathva – object of attainment.

The Kalyana gunas indicated in sixteen padas were also mentioned before.

There are 156 adhikaranas and Kalyana gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana contained in these adhikaranas
are mentioned in Adhikarana Saravali of Sri Vedanta Desika.

Sarvesham Samastha San mangalani bhavanthu.

இது சர்வம் சமஞ்சஸ்த்வம் -ஆறு இடங்களில் வரும் -2-3-3-ஆத்ம அதிகாரணத்திலும் வரும்
ஜிம்பகமான அவதாரமாக இருந்தாலும் அஜிம்பகமான வாக்கு அன்றோ ஸ்ரீ பாஷ்யகார வாக்குக்கள்
ஜிம்பாகம் -அரவுபாம்பு -அஜிம்பாகம் -அம்பு -நேராக உண்மைப் பொருளை உள்ளபடி காட்டி அருளும் ஸ்ரீ ஸூக்திகள்
இரண்டு நாக்குகள் இவருக்கும் -வேத அங்கங்களையும் அருளிச் செயல்களையும் ஐக கண்டமாக கொண்டவர்

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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