Archive for the ‘Sri Vaishna Concepts’ Category

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter Eleven-The Discussion Between Jada Bharata and Maharaja Rahugana..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
atha sindhu-sauvira-pate rahuganasya vrajata iksumatyas tate tat-kulapatina
sibika-vaha-purusanvesana-samaye daivenopasaditah sa dvija-vara
upalabdha esa piva yuva samhananango go-kharavad dhuram vodhum alam iti
purva-visti-grhitaih saha grhitah prasabham atad-arha uvaha sibikam sa

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, after this, King Rahugana,
ruler of the states known as Sindhu and Sauvira, was going to
Kapilasrama. When the King’s chief palanquin carriers reached the banks
of the River Iksumati, they needed another carrier. Therefore they began
searching for someone, and by chance they came upon Jada Bharata. They
considered the fact that Jada Bharata was very young and strong and had
firm limbs. Like cows and asses, he was quite fit to carry loads.
Thinking in this way, although the great soul Jada Bharata was unfit for
such work, they nonetheless unhesitatingly forced him to carry the
yada hi dvija-varasyesu-matravalokanugater na samahita purusa-gatis tada
visama-gatam sva-sibikam rahugana upadharya purusan adhivahata aha he
vodharah sadhv atikramata kim iti visamam uhyate yanam iti.

The palanquin, however, was very erratically carried by Jada Bharata
due to his sense of nonviolence. As he stepped forward, he checked before
him every three feet to see whether he was about to step on ants.
Consequently he could not keep pace with the other carriers. Due to this,
the palanquin was shaking, and King Rahugana immediately asked the
carriers, “Why are you carrying this palanquin unevenly? Better carry it

atha ta isvara-vacah sopalambham upakarnyopaya-turiyac chankita-manasas
tam vijnapayam babhuvuh.

When the palanquin carriers heard the threatening words of Maharaja
Rahugana, they became very afraid of his punishment and began to speak to
him as follows.

na vayam nara-deva pramatta bhavan-niyamanupathah sadhv eva vahamah; ayam
adhunaiva niyukto ‘pi na drutam vrajati nanena saha vodhum u ha vayam
parayama iti.

O lord, please note that we are not at all negligent in discharging
our duties. We have been faithfully carrying this palanquin according to
your desire, but this man who has been recently engaged to work with us
cannot walk very swiftly. Therefore we are not able to carry the
palanquin with him.

samsargiko dosa eva nunam ekasyapi sarvesam samsargikanam bhavitum
arhatiti niscitya nisamya krpana-vaco raja rahugana upasita-vrddho ‘pi
nisargena balat krta isad-utthita-manyur avispasta-brahma-tejasam jatavedasam
iva rajasavrta-matir aha.

King Rahugana could understand the speeches given by the carriers, who
were afraid of being punished. He could also understand that simply due
to the fault of one person, the palanquin was not being carried properly.
Knowing this perfectly well and hearing their appeal, he became a little
angry, although he was very advanced in political science and was very
experienced. His anger arose due to his inborn nature as a king. Actually
King Rahugana’s mind was covered by the mode of passion, and he therefore
spoke as follows to Jada Bharata, whose Brahman effulgence was not
clearly visible, being covered like a fire covered by ashes.

aho kastam bhratar vyaktam uru-parisranto dirgham adhvanam eka eva uhivan
suciram nati-piva na samhananango jarasa copadruto bhavan sakhe no
evapara ete sanghattina iti bahu-vipralabdho ‘py avidyaya racita-dravyaguna-
karmasaya-sva-carama-kalevare ‘vastuni samsthana-visese ‘ham mamety
anadhyaropita-mithya-pratyayo brahma-bhutas tusnim sibikam purvavad

King Rahugana told Jada Bharata: How troublesome this is, my dear
brother. You certainly appear very fatigued because you have carried this
palanquin alone without assistance for a long time and for a long
distance. Besides that, due to your old age you have become greatly
troubled. My dear friend, I see that you are not very firm, nor very
strong and stout. Aren’t your fellow carriers cooperating with you?
In this way the King criticized Jada Bharata with sarcastic words, yet
despite being criticized in this way, Jada Bharata had no bodily
conception of the situation. He knew that he was not the body, for he had
attained his spiritual identity. He was neither fat, lean nor thin, nor
had he anything to do with a lump of matter, a combination of the five
gross and three subtle elements. He had nothing to do with the material
body and its two hands and legs. In other words, he had completely
realized his spiritual identity [aham brahmasmi]. He was therefore
unaffected by this sarcastic criticism from the King. Without saying
anything, he continued carrying the palanquin as before.

atha punah sva-sibikayam visama-gatayam prakupita uvaca rahuganah kim
idam are tvam jivan-mrto mam kadarthi-krtya bhartr-sasanam aticarasi
pramattasya ca te karomi cikitsam danda-panir iva janataya yatha prakrtim
svam bhajisyasa iti.

Thereafter, when the King saw that his palanquin was still being
shaken by the carriers, he became very angry and said: You rascal, what
are you doing? Are you dead despite the life within your body? Do you not
know that I am your master? You are disregarding me and are not carrying
out my order. For this disobedience I shall now punish you just as
Yamaraja, the superintendent of death, punishes sinful people. I shall
give you proper treatment so that you will come to your senses and do the
correct thing.
evam bahv abaddham api bhasamanam nara-devabhimanam rajasa
tamasanuviddhena madena tiraskrtasesa-bhagavat-priya-niketam panditamaninam
sa bhagavan brahmano brahma-bhuta-sarva-bhuta-suhrd-atma
yogesvara-caryayam nati-vyutpanna-matim smayamana iva vigata-smaya idam

Thinking himself a king, King Rahugana was in the bodily conception
and was influenced by material nature’s modes of passion and ignorance.
Due to madness, he chastised Jada Bharata with uncalled-for and
contradictory words. Jada Bharata was a topmost devotee and the dear
abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although considering himself
very learned, the King did not know about the position of an advanced
devotee situated in devotional service, nor did he know his
characteristics. Jada Bharata was the residence of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; he always carried the form of the Lord within his
heart. He was the dear friend of all living beings, and he did not
entertain any bodily conception. He therefore smiled and spoke the
following words.

brahmana uvaca
tvayoditam vyaktam avipralabdham
bhartuh sa me syad yadi vira bharah
gantur yadi syad adhigamyam adhva
piveti rasau na vidam pravadah

The great brahmana Jada Bharata said: My dear King and hero, whatever
you have spoken sarcastically is certainly true. Actually these are not
simply words of chastisement, for the body is the carrier. The load
carried by the body does not belong to me, for I am the spirit soul.
There is no contradiction in your statements because I am different from
the body. I am not the carrier of the palanquin; the body is the carrier.
Certainly, as you have hinted, I have not labored carrying the palanquin,
for I am detached from the body. You have said that I am not stout and
strong, and these words are befitting a person who does not know the
distinction between the body and the soul. The body may be fat or thin,
but no learned man would say such things of the spirit soul. As far as
the spirit soul is concerned, I am neither fat nor skinny; therefore you
are correct when you say that I am not very stout. Also, if the object of
this journey and the path leading there were mine, there would be many
troubles for me, but because they relate not to me but to my body, there
is no trouble at all.

sthaulyam karsyam vyadhaya adhayas ca
ksut trd bhayam kalir iccha jara ca
nidra ratir manyur aham madah suco
dehena jatasya hi me na santi

Fatness, thinness, bodily and mental distress, thirst, hunger, fear,
disagreement, desires for material happiness, old age, sleep, attachment
for material possessions, anger, lamentation, illusion and identification
of the body with the self are all transformations of the material
covering of the spirit soul. A person absorbed in the material bodily
conception is affected by these things, but I am free from all bodily
conceptions. Consequently I am neither fat nor skinny nor anything else
you have mentioned.

jivan-mrtatvam niyamena rajan
adyantavad yad vikrtasya drstam
sva-svamya-bhavo dhruva idya yatra
tarhy ucyate ‘sau vidhikrtya-yogah

My dear King, you have unnecessarily accused me of being dead though
alive. In this regard, I can only say that this is the case everywhere
because everything material has its beginning and end. As far as your
thinking that you are the king and master and are thus trying to order
me, this is also incorrect because these positions are temporary. Today
you are a king and I am your servant, but tomorrow the position may be
changed, and you may be my servant and I your master. These are temporary
circumstances created by providence.

visesa-buddher vivaram manak ca
pasyama yan na vyavaharato ‘nyat
ka isvaras tatra kim isitavyam
tathapi rajan karavama kim te

My dear King, if you still think that you are the King and that I am
your servant, you should order me, and I should follow your order. I can
then say that this differentiation is temporary, and it expands only from
usage or convention. I do not see any other cause. In that case, who is
the master, and who is the servant? Everyone is being forced by the laws
of material nature; therefore no one is master, and no one is servant.
Nonetheless, if you think that you are the master and that I am the
servant, I shall accept this. Please order me. What can I do for you?

unmatta-matta-jadavat sva-samstham
gatasya me vira cikitsitena
arthah kiyan bhavata siksitena
stabdha-pramattasya ca pistapesah

My dear King, you have said, “You rascal, you dull, crazy fellow! I am
going to chastise you, and then you will come to your senses.” In this
regard, let me say that although I live like a dull, deaf and dumb man, I
am actually a self-realized person. What will you gain by punishing me?
If your calculation is true and I am a madman, then your punishment will
be like beating a dead horse. There will be no effect. When a madman is
punished, he is not cured of his madness.

sri-suka uvaca
etavad anuvada-paribhasaya pratyudirya muni-vara upasama-sila
uparatanatmya-nimitta upabhogena karmarabdham vyapanayan raja-yanam api

Sukadeva Gosvami said: O Maharaja Pariksit, when King Rahugana
chastised the exalted devotee Jada Bharata with harsh words, that
peaceful, saintly person tolerated it all and replied properly. Nescience
is due to the bodily conception, and Jada Bharata was not affected by
this false conception. Out of his natural humility, he never considered
himself a great devotee, and he agreed to suffer the results of his past
karma. Like an ordinary man, he thought that by carrying the palanquin,
he was destroying the reactions of his past misdeeds. Thinking in this
way, he began to carry the palanquin as before.

sa capi pandaveya sindhu-sauvira-patis tattva-jijnasayam samyaksraddhayadhikrtadhikaras
tad dhrdaya-granthi-mocanam dvija-vaca asrutya
bahu-yoga-grantha-sammatam tvarayavaruhya sirasa pada-mulam upasrtah
ksamapayan vigata-nrpa-deva-smaya uvaca.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O best of the Pandu dynasty [Maharaja
Pariksit], the King of the Sindhu and Sauvira states [Maharaja Rahugana]
had great faith in discussions of the Absolute Truth. Being thus
qualified, he heard from Jada Bharata that philosophical presentation
which is approved by all scriptures on the mystic yoga process and which
slackens the knot in the heart. His material conception of himself as a
king was thus destroyed. He immediately descended from his palanquin and
fell flat on the ground with his head at the lotus feet of Jada Bharata
in such a way that he might be excused for his insulting words against
the great brahmana. He then prayed as follows.

kas tvam nigudhas carasi dvijanam
bibharsi sutram katamo ‘vadhutah
kasyasi kutratya ihapi kasmat
ksemaya nas ced asi nota suklah

King Rahugana said: O brahmana, you appear to be moving in this world
very much covered and unknown to others. Who are you? Are you a learned
brahmana and saintly person? I see that you are wearing a sacred thread.
Are you one of those exalted, liberated saints such as Dattatreya and
other highly advanced, learned scholars? May I ask whose disciple you
are? Where do you live? Why have you come to this place? Is your mission
in coming here to do good for us? Please let me know who you are.

naham visanke sura-raja-vajran
na tryaksa-sulan na yamasya dandat
chanke bhrsam brahma-kulavamanat

My dear sir, I am not at all afraid of the thunderbolt of King Indra,
nor am I afraid of the serpentine, piercing trident of Lord Siva. I do
not care about the punishment of Yamaraja, the superintendent of death,
nor am I afraid of fire, scorching sun, moon, wind, nor the weapons of
Kuvera. Yet I am afraid of offending a brahmana. I am very much afraid of

tad bruhy asango jadavan nigudhavijnana-
viryo vicarasy aparah
vacamsi yoga-grathitani sadho
na nah ksamante manasapi bhettum

My dear sir, it appears that the influence of your great spiritual
knowledge is hidden. Factually you are bereft of all material association
and fully absorbed in the thought of the Supreme. Consequently you are
unlimitedly advanced in spiritual knowledge. Please tell me why you are
wandering around like a dullard. O great, saintly person, you have spoken
words approved by the yogic process, but it is not possible for us to
understand what you have said. Therefore kindly explain it.

aham ca yogesvaram atma-tattvavidam
muninam paramam gurum vai
prastum pravrttah kim iharanam tat
saksad dharim jnana-kalavatirnam

I consider your good self the most exalted master of mystic power. You
know the spiritual science perfectly well. You are the most exalted of
all learned sages, and you have descended for the benefit of all human
society. You have come to give spiritual knowledge, and you are a direct
representative of Kapiladeva, the incarnation of God and the plenary
portion of knowledge. I am therefore asking you, O spiritual master, what
is the most secure shelter in this world?

sa vai bhaval loka-niriksanartham
avyakta-lingo vicaraty api svit
yogesvaranam gatim andha-buddhih
katham vicaksita grhanubandhah

Is it not a fact that your good self is the direct representative of
Kapiladeva, the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead? To
examine people and see who is actually a human being and who is not, you
have presented yourself to be a deaf and dumb person. Are you not moving
this way upon the surface of the world? I am very attached to family life
and worldly activities, and I am blind to spiritual knowledge.
Nonetheless, I am now present before you and am seeking enlightenment
from you. How can I advance in spiritual life?

drstah sramah karmata atmano vai
bhartur gantur bhavatas canumanye
samula isto vyavahara-margah

You have said, “I am not fatigued from labor.” Although the soul is
different from the body, there is fatigue because of bodily labor, and it
appears to be the fatigue of the soul. When you are carrying the
palanquin, there is certainly labor for the soul. This is my conjecture.
You have also said that the external behavior exhibited between the
master and the servant is not factual, but although in the phenomenal
world it is not factual, the products of the phenomenal world can
actually affect things. That is visible and experienced. As such, even
though material activities are impermanent, they cannot be said to be

sthaly-agni-tapat payaso ‘bhitapas
tat-tapatas tandula-garbha-randhih
tat-samsrtih purusasyanurodhat

King Rahugana continued: My dear sir, you have said that designations
like bodily fatness and thinness are not characteristics of the soul.
That is incorrect because designations like pain and pleasure are
certainly felt by the soul. You may put a pot of milk and rice within
fire, and the milk and rice are automatically heated one after the other.
Similarly, due to bodily pains and pleasures, the senses, mind and soul
are affected. The soul cannot be completely detached from this

sastabhigopta nrpatih prajanam
yah kinkaro vai na pinasti pistam
sva-dharmam aradhanam acyutasya
yad ihamano vijahaty aghaugham

My dear sir, you have said that the relationship between the king and
the subject or between the master and the servant are not eternal, but
although such relationships are temporary, when a person takes the
position of a king, his duty is to rule the citizens and punish those who
are disobedient to the laws. By punishing them, he teaches the citizens
to obey the laws of the state. Again, you have said that punishing a
person who is deaf and dumb is like chewing the chewed or grinding the
pulp; that is to say, there is no benefit in it. However, if one is
engaged in his own occupational duty as ordered by the Supreme Lord, his
sinful activities are certainly diminished. Therefore if one is engaged
in his occupational duty by force, he benefits because he can vanquish
all his sinful activities in that way.

tan me bhavan nara-devabhimanamadena
krsista maitri-drsam arta-bandho
yatha tare sad-avadhyanam amhah

Whatever you have spoken appears to me to be contradictory. O best
friend of the distressed, I have committed a great offense by insulting
you. I was puffed up with false prestige due to possessing the body of a
king. For this I have certainly become an offender. Therefore I pray that
you kindly glance at me with your causeless mercy. If you do so, I can be
relieved from sinful activities brought about by insulting you.

na vikriya visva-suhrt-sakhasya
samyena vitabhimates tavapi
mahad-vimanat sva-krtad dhi madrn
nanksyaty adurad api sulapanih

O my dear lord, you are the friend of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who is the friend of all living entities. You are therefore
equal to everyone, and you are free from the bodily conception. Although
I have committed an offense by insulting you, I know that there is no
loss or gain for you due to my insult. You are fixed in your
determination, but I have committed an offense. Because of this, even
though I may be as strong as Lord Siva, I shall be vanquished without
delay due to my offense at the lotus feet of a Vaisnava.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter Nine-The Supreme Character of Jada Bharata..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
atha kasyacid dvija-varasyangirah-pravarasya sama-dama-tapahsvadhyayadhyayana-
yuktasyatma-sadrsa-sruta-silacara-rupaudarya-guna nava sodarya
angaja babhuvur mithunam ca yaviyasyam bharyayam; yas tu tatra pumams tam
parama-bhagavatam rajarsi-pravaram bharatam utsrsta-mrga-sariram caramasarirena
vipratvam gatam ahuh.

Srila Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, after giving up the
body of a deer, Bharata Maharaja took birth in a very pure brahmana
family. There was a brahmana who belonged to the dynasty of Angira. He
was fully qualified with brahminical qualifications. He could control his
mind and senses, and he had studied the Vedic literatures and other
subsidiary literatures. He was expert in giving charity, and he was
always satisfied, tolerant, very gentle, learned and nonenvious. He was
self-realized and engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. He
remained always in a trance. He had nine equally qualified sons by his
first wife, and by his second wife he begot twins–a brother and a
sister, of which the male child was said to be the topmost devotee and
foremost of saintly kings–Bharata Maharaja. This, then, is the story of
the birth he took after giving up the body of a deer.

tatrapi svajana-sangac ca bhrsam udvijamano bhagavatah karma-bandhavidhvamsana-
sravana-smarana-guna-vivarana-caranaravinda-yugalam manasa
vidadhad atmanah pratighatam asankamano bhagavad-anugrahenanusmrta-svapurva-
janmavalir atmanam unmatta-jadandha-badhira-svarupena darsayam asa

Due to his being especially gifted with the Lord’s mercy, Bharata
Maharaja could remember the incidents of his past life. Although he
received the body of a brahmana, he was still very much afraid of his
relatives and friends who were not devotees. He was always very cautious
of such association because he feared that he would again fall down.
Consequently he manifested himself before the public eye as a madman–
dull, blind and deaf–so that others would not try to talk to him. In
this way he saved himself from bad association. Within he was always
thinking of the lotus feet of the Lord and chanting the Lord’s glories,
which save one from the bondage of fruitive action. In this way he saved
himself from the onslaught of nondevotee associates.

tasyapi ha va atmajasya viprah putra-snehanubaddha-mana asamavartanat
samskaran yathopadesam vidadhana upanitasya ca punah saucacamanadin
karma-niyaman anabhipretan api samasiksayad anusistena hi bhavyam pituh

The brahmana father’s mind was always filled with affection for his
son, Jada Bharata [Bharata Maharaja]. Therefore he was always attached to
Jada Bharata. Because Jada Bharata was unfit to enter the grhasthaasrama,
he simply executed the purificatory process up to the end of the
brahmacarya-asrama. Although Jada Bharata was unwilling to accept his
father’s instructions, the brahmana nonetheless instructed him in how to
keep clean and how to wash, thinking that the son should be taught by the

sa capi tad u ha pitr-sannidhav evasadhricinam iva sma karoti chandamsy
adhyapayisyan saha vyahrtibhih sapranava-siras tripadim savitrim graismavasantikan
masan adhiyanam apy asamaveta-rupam grahayam asa.

Jada Bharata behaved before his father like a fool, despite his
father’s adequately instructing him in Vedic knowledge. He behaved in
that way so that his father would know that he was unfit for instruction
and would abandon the attempt to instruct him further. He would behave in
a completely opposite way. Although instructed to wash his hands after
evacuating, he would wash them before. Nonetheless, his father wanted to
give him Vedic instructions during the spring and summer. He tried to
teach him the Gayatri mantra along with omkara and vyahrti, but after
four months, his father still was not successful in instructing him.
evam sva-tanuja atmany anuragavesita-cittah saucadhyayana-vrata-niyamagurv-
anala-susrusanady-aupakurvanaka-karmany anabhiyuktany api
samanusistena bhavyam ity asad-agrahah putram anusasya svayam tavad
anadhigata-manorathah kalenapramattena svayam grha eva pramatta

The brahmana father of Jada Bharata considered his son his heart and
soul, and therefore he was very much attached to him. He thought it wise
to educate his son properly, and being absorbed in this unsuccessful
endeavor, he tried to teach his son the rules and regulations of
brahmacarya–including the execution of the Vedic vows, cleanliness,
study of the Vedas, the regulative methods, service to the spiritual
master and the method of offering a fire sacrifice. He tried his best to
teach his son in this way, but all his endeavors failed. In his heart he
hoped that his son would be a learned scholar, but all his attempts were
unsuccessful. Like everyone, this brahmana was attached to his home, and
he had forgotten that someday he would die. Death, however, was not
forgetful. At the proper time, death appeared and took him away.

atha yaviyasi dvija-sati sva-garbha-jatam mithunam sapatnya upanyasya
svayam anusamsthaya patilokam agat.

Thereafter, the brahmana’s younger wife, after entrusting her twin
children–the boy and girl–to the elder wife, departed for Patiloka,
voluntarily dying with her husband.
pitary uparate bhratara enam atat-prabhava-vidas trayyam vidyayam eva
paryavasita-matayo na para-vidyayam jada-matir iti bhratur anusasananirbandhan

After the father died, the nine stepbrothers of Jada Bharata, who
considered Jada Bharata dull and brainless, abandoned the father’s
attempt to give Jada Bharata a complete education. The stepbrothers of
Jada Bharata were learned in the three Vedas–the Rg Veda, Sama Veda and
Yajur Veda–which very much encourage fruitive activity. The nine
brothers were not at all spiritually enlightened in devotional service to
the Lord. Consequently they could not understand the highly exalted
position of Jada Bharata.
TEXTS 9-10
sa ca prakrtair dvipada-pasubhir unmatta-jada-badhira-mukety
abhibhasyamano yada tad-anurupani prabhasate karmani ca karyamanah
parecchaya karoti vistito vetanato va yacnaya yadrcchaya vopasaditam
alpam bahu mrstam kadannam vabhyavaharati param nendriya-priti-nimittam;
sukha-duhkhayor dvandva-nimittayor asambhavitadehabhimanah;
sitosna-vata-varsesu vrsa ivanavrtangah pinah samhananangah
sthandila-samvesananunmardanamajjana-rajasa mahamanir ivanabhivyaktabrahma-
varcasah kupatavrta-katir upavitenoru-masina dvijatir iti brahmabandhur
iti samjnayataj-jnajanavamato vicacara.

Degraded men are actually no better than animals. The only difference
is that animals have four legs and such men have only two. These twolegged,
animalistic men used to call Jada Bharata mad, dull, deaf and
dumb. They mistreated him, and Jada Bharata behaved for them like a
madman who was deaf, blind or dull. He did not protest or try to convince
them that he was not so. If others wanted him to do something, he acted
according to their desires. Whatever food he could acquire by begging or
by wages, and whatever came of its own accord–be it a small quantity,
palatable, stale or tasteless–he would accept and eat. He never ate
anything for sense gratification because he was already liberated from
the bodily conception, which induces one to accept palatable or
unpalatable food. He was full in the transcendental consciousness of
devotional service, and therefore he was unaffected by the dualities
arising from the bodily conception. Actually his body was as strong as a
bull’s, and his limbs were very muscular. He didn’t care for winter or
summer, wind or rain, and he never covered his body at any time. He lay
on the ground, and never smeared oil on his body or took a bath. Because
his body was dirty, his spiritual effulgence and knowledge were covered,
just as the splendor of a valuable gem is covered by dirt. He only wore a
dirty loincloth and his sacred thread, which was blackish. Understanding
that he was born in a brahmana family, people would call him a brahmabandhu
and other names. Being thus insulted and neglected by
materialistic people, he wandered here and there.

yada tu parata aharam karma-vetanata ihamanah sva-bhratrbhir api kedarakarmani
nirupitas tad api karoti kintu na samam visamam nyunam adhikam
iti veda kana-pinyaka-phali-karana-kulmasa-sthalipurisadiny apy amrtavad

Jada Bharata used to work only for food. His stepbrothers took
advantage of this and engaged him in agricultural field work in exchange
for some food, but actually he did not know how to work very well in the
field. He did not know where to spread dirt or where to make the ground
level or uneven. His brothers used to give him broken rice, oil cakes,
the chaff of rice, worm-eaten grains and burned grains that had stuck to
the pot, but he gladly accepted all this as if it were nectar. He did not
hold any grudges and ate all this very gladly.

atha kadacit kascid vrsala-patir bhadra-kalyai purusa-pasum

At this time, being desirous of obtaining a son, a leader of dacoits
who came from a sudra family wanted to worship the goddess Bhadra Kali by
offering her in sacrifice a dull man, who is considered no better than an

tasya ha daiva-muktasya pasoh padavim tad-anucarah paridhavanto nisi
nisitha-samaye tamasavrtayam anadhigata-pasava akasmikena vidhina kedaran
virasanena mrga-varahadibhyah samraksamanam angirah-pravara-sutam

The leader of the dacoits captured a man-animal for sacrifice, but he
escaped, and the leader ordered his followers to find him. They ran in
different directions but could not find him. Wandering here and there in
the middle of the night, covered by dense darkness, they came to a paddy
field where they saw the exalted son of the Angira family [Jada Bharata],
who was sitting in an elevated place guarding the field against the
attacks of deer and wild pigs.
atha ta enam anavadya-laksanam avamrsya bhartr-karma-nispattim manyamana
baddhva rasanaya candika-grham upaninyur muda vikasita-vadanah.

The followers and servants of the dacoit chief considered Jada Bharata
to possess qualities quite suitable for a man-animal, and they decided
that he was a perfect choice for sacrifice. Their faces bright with
happiness, they bound him with ropes and brought him to the temple of the
goddess Kali.

atha panayas tam sva-vidhinabhisicyahatena vasasacchadya bhusanalepasrak-
tilakadibhir upaskrtam bhuktavantam dhupa-dipa-malya-lajakisalayankura-
phalopaharopetaya vaisasa-samsthaya mahata gita-stutimrdanga-
panava-ghosena ca purusa-pasum bhadra-kalyah purata upavesayam

After this, all the thieves, according to their imaginative ritual for
killing animalistic men, bathed Jada Bharata, dressed him in new clothes,
decorated him with ornaments befitting an animal, smeared his body with
scented oils and decorated him with tilaka, sandalwood pulp and garlands.
They fed him sumptuously and then brought him before the goddess Kali,
offering her incense, lamps, garlands, parched grain, newly grown twigs,
sprouts, fruits and flowers. In this way they worshiped the deity before
killing the man-animal, and they vibrated songs and prayers and played
drums and bugles. Jada Bharata was then made to sit down before the

atha vrsala-raja-panih purusa-pasor asrg-asavena devim bhadra-kalim
yaksyamanas tad-abhimantritam asim ati-karala-nisitam upadade.

At this time, one of the thieves, acting as the chief priest, was
ready to offer the blood of Jada Bharata, whom they imagined to be an
animal-man, to the goddess Kali to drink as a liquor. He therefore took
up a very fearsome sword, which was very sharp and, consecrating it by
the mantra of Bhadra Kali, raised it to kill Jada Bharata.
iti tesam vrsalanam rajas-tamah-prakrtinam dhana-mada-raja-utsiktamanasam
bhagavat-kala-vira-kulam kadarthi-krtyotpathena svairam viharatam
himsa-viharanam karmati-darunam yad brahma-bhutasya saksad brahmarsisutasya
nirvairasya sarva-bhuta-suhrdah sunayam apy ananumatam alambhanam
tad upalabhya brahma-tejasati-durvisahena dandahyamanena vapusa
sahasoccacata saiva devi bhadra-kali.

All the rogues and thieves who had made arrangements for the worship
of goddess Kali were low minded and bound to the modes of passion and
ignorance. They were overpowered by the desire to become very rich;
therefore they had the audacity to disobey the injunctions of the Vedas,
so much so that they were prepared to kill Jada Bharata, a self-realized
soul born in a brahmana family. Due to their envy, these dacoits brought
him before the goddess Kali for sacrifice. Such people are always
addicted to envious activities, and therefore they dared to try to kill
Jada Bharata. Jada Bharata was the best friend of all living entities. He
was no one’s enemy, and he was always absorbed in meditation on the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. He was born of a good brahmana father,
and killing him was forbidden, even though he might have been an enemy or
aggressive person. In any case, there was no reason to kill Jada Bharata,
and the goddess Kali could not bear this. She could immediately
understand that these sinful dacoits were about to kill a great devotee
of the Lord. Suddenly the deity’s body burst asunder, and the goddess
Kali personally emerged from it in a body burning with an intense and
intolerable effulgence.

bhrsam amarsa-rosavesa-rabhasa-vilasita-bhru-kuti-vitapa-kutiladamstraruneksanatopati-
bhayanaka-vadana hantu-kamevedam mahatta-hasam
ati-samrambhena vimuncanti tata utpatya papiyasam dustanam tenaivasina
vivrkna-sirsnam galat sravantam asrg-asavam atyusnam saha ganena
nipiyati-pana-mada-vihvaloccaistaram sva-parsadaih saha jagau nanarta ca
vijahara ca sirah-kanduka-lilaya.

Intolerant of the offenses committed, the infuriated goddess Kali
flashed her eyes and displayed her fierce, curved teeth. Her reddish eyes
glowed, and she displayed her fearsome features. She assumed a
frightening body, as if she were prepared to destroy the entire creation.
Leaping violently from the altar, she immediately decapitated all the
rogues and thieves with the very sword with which they had intended to
kill Jada Bharata. She then began to drink the hot blood that flowed from
the necks of the beheaded rogues and thieves, as if this blood were
liquor. Indeed, she drank this intoxicant with her associates, who were
witches and female demons. Becoming intoxicated with this blood, they all
began to sing very loudly and dance as though prepared to annihilate the
entire universe. At the same time, they began to play with the heads of
the rogues and thieves, tossing them about as if they were balls.

evam eva khalu mahad-abhicarati-kramah kartsnyenatmane phalati.

When an envious person commits an offense before a great personality,
he is always punished in the way mentioned above.
na va etad visnudatta mahad-adbhutam yad asambhramah sva-siras-chedana
apatite ‘pi vimukta-dehady-atma-bhava-sudrdha-hrdaya-granthinam sarvasattva-
suhrd-atmanam nirvairanam saksad bhagavatanimisarivarayudhenapramattena
tais tair bhavaih pariraksyamananam tat-pada-mulam
akutascid-bhayam upasrtanam bhagavata-paramahamsanam.

Sukadeva Gosvami then said to Maharaja Pariksit: O Visnudatta, those
who already know that the soul is separate from the body, who are
liberated from the invincible knot in the heart, who are always engaged
in welfare activities for all living entities and who never contemplate
harming anyone are always protected by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who carries His disc [the Sudarsana cakra] and acts as supreme
time to kill the demons and protect His devotees. The devotees always
take shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord. Therefore at all times, even
if threatened by decapitation, they remain unagitated. For them, this is
not at all wonderful.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter Eight-A Description of the Character of Bharata Maharaja..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
ekada tu maha-nadyam krtabhiseka-naiyamikavasyako brahmaksaram abhigrnano
muhurta-trayam udakanta upavivesa.

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, one day, after finishing
his morning duties–evacuating, urinating and bathing–Maharaja Bharata
sat down on the bank of the River Gandaki for a few minutes and began
chanting his mantra, beginning with omkara.
tatra tada rajan harini pipasaya jalasayabhyasam ekaivopajagama.

O King, while Bharata Maharaja was sitting on the bank of that river,
a doe, being very thirsty, came there to drink.
taya pepiyamana udake tavad evavidurena nadato mrga-pater unnado lokabhayankara

While the doe was drinking with great satisfaction, a lion, which was
very close, roared very loudly. This was frightful to every living
entity, and it was heard by the doe.
tam upasrutya sa mrga-vadhuh prakrti-viklava cakita-niriksana sutaram api
hari-bhayabhinivesa-vyagra-hrdaya pariplava-drstir agata-trsa bhayat

By nature the doe was always afraid of being killed by others, and it
was always looking about suspiciously. When it heard the lion’s
tumultuous roar, it became very agitated. Looking here and there with
disturbed eyes, the doe, although it had not fully satisfied itself by
drinking water, suddenly leaped across the river.
tasya utpatantya antarvatnya uru-bhayavagalito yoni-nirgato garbhah
srotasi nipapata.

The doe was pregnant, and when it jumped out of fear, the baby deer
fell from its womb into the flowing waters of the river.

tat-prasavotsarpana-bhaya-khedatura sva-ganena viyujyamana kasyancid
daryam krsna-sarasati nipapatatha ca mamara.

Being separated from its flock and distressed by its miscarriage, the
black doe, having crossed the river, was very much distressed. Indeed, it
fell down in a cave and died immediately.
tam tv ena-kunakam krpanam srotasanuhyamanam abhiviksyapaviddham bandhur
ivanukampaya rajarsir bharata adaya mrta-mataram ity asrama-padam anayat.

The great King Bharata, while sitting on the bank of the river, saw
the small deer, bereft of its mother, floating down the river. Seeing
this, he felt great compassion. Like a sincere friend, he lifted the
infant deer from the waves, and, knowing it to be motherless, brought it
to his asrama.

tasya ha va ena-kunaka uccair etasmin krta-nijabhimanasyahar-ahas tatposana-
palana-lalana-prinananudhyanenatma-niyamah saha-yamah purusaparicaryadaya
ekaikasah katipayenahar-ganena viyujyamanah kila sarva

Gradually Maharaja Bharata became very affectionate toward the deer.
He began to raise it and maintain it by giving it grass. He was always
careful to protect it from the attacks of tigers and other animals. When
it itched, he petted it, and in this way he always tried to keep it in a
comfortable condition. He sometimes kissed it out of love. Being attached
to raising the deer, Maharaja Bharata forgot the rules and regulations
for the advancement of spiritual life, and he gradually forgot to worship
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. After a few days, he forgot
everything about his spiritual advancement.

aho batayam harina-kunakah krpana isvara-ratha-carana-paribhramana-rayena
sva-gana-suhrd-bandhubhyah parivarjitah saranam ca mopasadito mam eva
mata-pitarau bhratr-jnatin yauthikams caivopeyaya nanyam kancana veda
mayy ati-visrabdhas cata eva maya mat-parayanasya posana-palana-prinanalalanam
anasuyunanustheyam saranyopeksa-dosa-vidusa.

The great King Maharaja Bharata began to think: Alas, this helpless
young deer, by the force of time, an agent of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, has now lost its relatives and friends and has taken shelter of
me. It does not know anyone but me, as I have become its father, mother,
brother and relatives. This deer is thinking in this way, and it has full
faith in me. It does not know anyone but me; therefore I should not be
envious and think that for the deer my own welfare will be destroyed. I
should certainly raise, protect, gratify and fondle it. When it has taken
shelter with me, how can I neglect it? Even though the deer is disturbing
my spiritual life, I realize that a helpless person who has taken shelter
cannot be neglected. That would be a great fault.

nunam hy aryah sadhava upasama-silah krpana-suhrda evam-vidharthe
svarthan api gurutaran upeksante.

Even though one is in the renounced order, one who is advanced
certainly feels compassion for suffering living entities. One should
certainly neglect his own personal interests, although they may be very
important, to protect one who has surrendered.

iti krtanusanga asana-sayanatana-snanasanadisu saha mrga-jahuna
snehanubaddha-hrdaya asit.

Due to attachment for the deer, Maharaja Bharata lay down with it,
walked about with it, bathed with it and even ate with it. Thus his heart
became bound to the deer in affection.
kusa-kusuma-samit-palasa-phala-mulodakany aharisyamano vrkasalavrkadibhyo
bhayam asamsamano yada saha harina-kunakena vanam samavisati.

When Maharaja Bharata wanted to enter the forest to collect kusa
grass, flowers, wood, leaves, fruits, roots and water, he would fear that
dogs, jackals, tigers and other ferocious animals might kill the deer. He
would therefore always take the deer with him when entering the forest.

pathisu ca mugdha-bhavena tatra tatra visakta-mati-pranaya-bhara-hrdayah
karpanyat skandhenodvahati evam utsanga urasi cadhayopalalayan mudam
paramam avapa.

When entering the forest, the animal would appear very attractive to
Maharaja Bharata due to its childish behavior. Maharaja Bharata would
even take the deer on his shoulders and carry it due to affection. His
heart was so filled with great love for the deer that he would sometimes
keep it on his lap or, when sleeping, on his chest. In this way he felt
great pleasure in fondling the animal.

kriyayam nirvartyamanayam antarale ‘py utthayotthaya yadainam abhicaksita
tarhi vava sa varsa-patih prakrti-sthena manasa tasma asisa asaste svasti
stad vatsa te sarvata iti.

When Maharaja Bharata was actually worshiping the Lord or was engaged
in some ritualistic ceremony, although his activities were unfinished, he
would still, at intervals, get up and see where the deer was. In this way
he would look for it, and when he could see that the deer was comfortably
situated, his mind and heart would be very satisfied, and he would bestow
his blessings upon the deer, saying, “My dear calf, may you be happy in
all respects.”

anyada bhrsam udvigna-mana nasta-dravina iva krpanah sakarunam atitarsena
harina-kunaka-viraha-vihvala-hrdaya-santapas tam evanusocan kila
kasmalam mahad abhirambhita iti hovaca.

If Bharata Maharaja sometimes could not see the deer, his mind would
be very agitated. He would become like a miser, who, having obtained some
riches, had lost them and had then become very unhappy. When the deer was
gone, he would be filled with anxiety and would lament due to separation.
Thus he would become illusioned and speak as follows.

api bata sa vai krpana ena-balako mrta-harini-suto ‘ho mamanaryasya
satha-kirata-mater akrta-sukrtasya krta-visrambha atma-pratyayena tad
aviganayan sujana ivagamisyati.

Bharata Maharaja would think: Alas, the deer is now helpless. I am now
very unfortunate, and my mind is like a cunning hunter, for it is always
filled with cheating propensities and cruelty. The deer has put its faith
in me, just as a good man who has a natural interest in good behavior
forgets the misbehavior of a cunning friend and puts his faith in him.
Although I have proved faithless, will this deer return and place its
faith in me?

api ksemenasminn asramopavane saspani carantam deva-guptam drak-syami.

Alas, is it possible that I shall again see this animal protected by
the Lord and fearless of tigers and other animals? Shall I again see him
wandering in the garden eating soft grass?

api ca na vrkah sala-vrko ‘nyatamo va naika-cara eka-caro va bhak-sayati.

I do not know, but the deer might have been eaten by a wolf or a dog
or by the boars that flock together or the tiger who travels alone.

nimlocati ha bhagavan sakala-jagat-ksemodayas trayy-atmadyapi mama na
mrga-vadhu-nyasa agacchati.

Alas, when the sun rises, all auspicious things begin. Unfortunately,
they have not begun for me. The sun-god is the Vedas personified, but I
am bereft of all Vedic principles. That sun-god is now setting, yet the
poor animal who trusted in me since its mother died has not returned.

api svid akrta-sukrtam agatya mam sukhayisyati harina-raja-kumaro
vividha-rucira-darsaniya-nija-mrga-daraka-vinodair asantosam svanam

That deer is exactly like a prince. When will it return? When will it
again display its personal activities, which are so pleasing? When will
it again pacify a wounded heart like mine? I certainly must have no pious
assets, otherwise the deer would have returned by now.

ksvelikayam mam mrsa-samadhinamilita-drsam prema-samrambhena cakitacakita
agatya prsad-aparusa-visanagrena luthati.

Alas, the small deer, while playing with me and seeing me feigning
meditation with closed eyes, would circumambulate me due to anger arising
from love, and it would fearfully touch me with the points of its soft
horns, which felt like drops of water.

asadita-havisi barhisi dusite mayopalabdho bhita-bhitah sapady uparatarasa
rsi-kumaravad avahita-karana-kalapa aste.

When I placed all the sacrificial ingredients on the kusa grass, the
deer, when playing, would touch the grass with its teeth and thus pollute
it. When I chastised the deer by pushing it away, it would immediately
become fearful and sit down motionless, exactly like the son of a saintly
person. Thus it would stop its play.

kim va are acaritam tapas tapasvinyanaya yad iyam avanih savinaya-krsnasara-
tanaya-tanutara-subhaga-sivatamakhara-khura-pada-panktibhir dravinavidhuraturasya
krpanasya mama dravina-padavim sucayanty atmanam ca
sarvatah krta-kautukam dvijanam svargapavarga-kamanam deva-yajanam

After speaking like a madman in this way, Maharaja Bharata got up and
went outside. Seeing the footprints of the deer on the ground, he praised
the footprints out of love, saying: O unfortunate Bharata, your
austerities and penances are very insignificant compared to the penance
and austerity undergone by this earth planet. Due to the earth’s severe
penances, the footprints of this deer, which are small, beautiful, most
auspicious and soft, are imprinted on the surface of this fortunate
planet. This series of footprints show a person like me, who am bereaved
due to loss of the deer, how the animal has passed through the forest and
how I can regain my lost wealth. By these footprints, this land has
become a proper place for brahmanas who desire heavenly planets or
liberation to execute sacrifices to the demigods.

api svid asau bhagavan udu-patir enam mrga-pati-bhayan mrta-mataram mrgabalakam
svasrama-paribhrastam anukampaya krpana-jana-vatsalah paripati.

Maharaja Bharata continued to speak like a madman. Seeing above his
head the dark marks on the rising moon, which resembled a deer, he said:
Can it be that the moon, who is so kind to an unhappy man, might also be
kind upon my deer, knowing that it has strayed from home and has become
motherless? This moon has given the deer shelter near itself just to
protect it from the fearful attacks of a lion.
kim vatmaja-vislesa-jvara-dava-dahana-sikhabhir upatapyamana-hrdayasthala-
nalinikam mam upasrta-mrgi-tanayam sisira-santanuraga-gunita-nijavadana-
salilamrtamaya-gabhastibhih svadhayatiti ca.

After perceiving the moonshine, Maharaja Bharata continued speaking
like a crazy person. He said: The deer’s son was so submissive and dear
to me that due to its separation I am feeling separation from my own son.
Due to the burning fever of this separation, I am suffering as if
inflamed by a forest fire. My heart, which is like the lily of the land,
is now burning. Seeing me so distressed, the moon is certainly splashing
its shining nectar upon me–just as a friend throws water on another
friend who has a high fever. In this way, the moon is bringing me

evam aghatamana-manorathakula-hrdayo mrga-darakabhasena svarabdha-karmana
yogarambhanato vibhramsitah sa yoga-tapaso bhagavad-aradhana-laksanac ca
katham itaratha jaty-antara ena-kunaka asangah saksan nihsreyasapratipaksataya
prak-parityakta-dustyaja-hrdayabhijatasya tasyaivam
antaraya-vihata-yogarambhanasya rajarser bharatasya tavan mrgarbhakaposana-
palana-prinana-lalananusangenaviganayata atmanam ahir ivakhu-bilam
duratikramah kalah karala-rabhasa apadyata.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, in this way Bharata Maharaja
was overwhelmed by an uncontrollable desire which was manifest in the
form of the deer. Due to the fruitive results of his past deeds, he fell
down from mystic yoga, austerity and worship of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. If it were not due to his past fruitive activity, how could
he have been attracted to the deer after giving up the association of his
own son and family, considering them stumbling blocks on the path of
spiritual life? Mow could he show such uncontrollable affection for a
deer? This was definitely due to his past karma. The King was so
engrossed in petting and maintaining the deer that he fell down from his
spiritual activities. In due course of time, insurmountable death, which
is compared to a venomous snake that enters the hole created by a mouse,
situated itself before him.

tadanim api parsva-vartinam atmajam ivanusocantam abhiviksamano mrga
evabhinivesita-mana visrjya lokam imam saha mrgena kalevaram mrtam anu na
mrta-janmanusmrtir itaravan mrga-sariram avapa.

At the time of death, the King saw that the deer was sitting by his
side, exactly like his own son, and was lamenting his death. Actually the
mind of the King was absorbed in the body of the deer, and consequently–
like those bereft of Krsna consciousness–he left the world, the deer,
and his material body and acquired the body of a deer. However, there was
one advantage. Although he lost his human body and received the body of a
deer, he did not forget the incidents of his past life.

tatrapi ha va atmano mrgatva-karanam bhagavad-aradhanasamihanubhavenanusmrtya
bhrsam anutapyamana aha.

Although in the body of a deer, Bharata Maharaja, due to his rigid
devotional service in his past life, could understand the cause of his
birth in that body. Considering his past and present life, he constantly
repented his activities, speaking in the following way.

aho kastam bhrasto ‘ham atmavatam anupathad yad-vimukta-samasta-sangasya
vivikta-punyaranya-saranasyatmavata atmani sarvesam atmanam bhagavati
vasudeve tad-anusravana-manana-sankirtanaradhananusmaranabhiyogenasunyasakala-
yamena kalena samavesitam samahitam kartsnyena manas tat tu punar
mamabudhasyaran mrga-sutam anu parisusrava.

In the body of a deer, Bharata Maharaja began to lament: What
misfortune! I have fallen from the path of the self-realized. I gave up
my real sons, wife and home to advance in spiritual life, and I took
shelter in a solitary holy place in the forest. I became self-controlled
and self-realized, and I engaged constantly in devotional service,
hearing, thinking, chanting, worshiping and remembering the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva. I was successful in my attempt, so much
so that my mind was always absorbed in devotional service. However, due
to my personal foolishness, my mind again became attached–this time to a
deer. Now I have obtained the body of a deer and have fallen far from my
devotional practices.

ity evam nigudha-nirvedo visrjya mrgim mataram punar bhagavat-ksetram
upasama-sila-muni-gana-dayitam salagramam pulastya-pulahasramam
kalanjarat pratyajagama.

Although Bharata Maharaja received the body of a deer, by constant
repentance he became completely detached from all material things. He did
not disclose these things to anyone, but he left his mother deer in a
place known as Kalanjara Mountain, where he was born. He again went to
the forest of Salagrama and to the asrama of Pulastya and Pulaha.

tasminn api kalam pratiksamanah sangac ca bhrsam udvigna atma-sahacarah
suska-parna-trna-virudha vartamano mrgatva-nimittavasanam eva ganayan
mrga-sariram tirthodaka-klinnam ut-sasarja.

Remaining in that asrama, the great King Bharata Maharaja was now very
careful not to fall victim to bad association. Without disclosing his
past to anyone, he remained in that asrama and ate dry leaves only. He
was not exactly alone, for he had the association of the Supersoul. In
this way he waited for death in the body of a deer. Bathing in that holy
place, he finally gave up that body.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter Seven-The Activities of King Bharata..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
sri-suka uvaca
bharatas tu maha-bhagavato yada bhagavatavani-tala-paripalanaya
sancintitas tad-anusasana-parah pancajanim visvarupa-duhitaram upayeme.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued speaking to Maharaja Pariksit: My dear
King, Bharata Maharaja was a topmost devotee. Following the orders of his
father, who had already decided to install him on the throne, he began to
rule the earth accordingly. When Bharata Maharaja ruled the entire globe,
he followed the orders of his father and married Pancajani, the daughter
of Visvarupa.
tasyam u ha va atmajan kartsnyenanurupan atmanah panca janayam asa
bhutadir iva bhuta-suksmani sumatim rastrabhrtam sudarsanam avaranam
dhumraketum iti.

Just as the false ego creates the subtle sense objects, Maharaja
Bharata created five sons in the womb of Pancajani, his wife. These sons
were named Sumati, Rastrabhrta, Sudarsana, Avarana and Dhumraketu.
ajanabham namaitad varsam bharatam iti yata arabhya vyapadisanti.

Formerly this planet was known as Ajanabha-varsa, but since Maharaja
Bharata’s reign, it has become known as Bharata-varsa.

sa bahuvin mahi-patih pitr-pitamahavad uru-vatsalataya sve sve karmani
vartamanah prajah sva-dharmam anuvartamanah paryapalayat

Maharaja Bharata was a very learned and experienced king on this
earth. He perfectly ruled the citizens, being himself engaged in his own
respective duties. Maharaja Bharata was as affectionate to the citizens
as his father and grandfather had been. Keeping them engaged in their
occupational duties, he ruled the earth.

ije ca bhagavantam yajna-kratu-rupam kratubhir uccavacaih
sraddhayahrtagnihotra-darsa-purnamasa-caturmasya-pasu-somanam prakrtivikrtibhir
anusavanam caturhotra-vidhina.

With great faith King Bharata performed various kinds of sacrifice. He
performed the sacrifices known as agni-hotra, darsa, purnamasa,
caturmasya, pasu-yajna [wherein a horse is sacrificed] and soma-yajna
[wherein a kind of beverage is offered]. Sometimes these sacrifices were
performed completely and sometimes partially. In any case, in all the
sacrifices the regulations of caturhotra were strictly followed. In this
way Bharata Maharaja worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

sampracaratsu nana-yagesu viracitanga-kriyesv apurvam yat tat kriyaphalam
dharmakhyam pare brahmani yajna-puruse sarva-devata-linganam
mantranam artha-niyama-kataya saksat-kartari para-devatayam bhagavati
vasudeva eva bhavayamana atma-naipunya-mrdita-kasayo havihsv adhvaryubhir
grhyamanesu sa yajamano yajna-bhajo devams tan purusavayavesv

After performing the preliminaries of various sacrifices, Maharaja
Bharata offered the results in the name of religion to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva. In other words, he performed all the
yajnas for the satisfaction of Lord Vasudeva, Krsna. Maharaja Bharata
thought that since the demigods were different parts of Vasudeva’s body,
He controls those who are explained in the Vedic mantras. By thinking in
this way, Maharaja Bharata was freed from all material contamination,
such as attachment, lust and greed. When the priests were about to offer
the sacrificial ingredients into the fire, Maharaja Bharata expertly
understood how the offering made to different demigods was simply an
offering to the different limbs of the Lord. For instance, Indra is the
arm of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Surya [the sun] is His
eye. Thus Maharaja Bharata considered that the oblations offered to
different demigods were actually offered unto the different limbs of Lord

evam karma-visuddhya visuddha-sattvasyantar-hrdayakasa-sarire brahmani
bhagavati vasudeve maha-purusa-rupopalaksane srivatsa-kaustubha-vanamalari-
dara-gadadibhir upalaksite nija-purusa-hrl-likhitenatmani purusarupena
virocamana uccaistaram bhaktir anudinam edhamana-rayajayata

In this way, being purified by ritualistic sacrifices, the heart of
Maharaja Bharata was completely uncontaminated. His devotional service
unto Vasudeva, Lord Krsna, increased day after day. Lord Krsna, the son
of Vasudeva, is the original Personality of Godhead manifest as the
Supersoul [Paramatma] as well as the impersonal Brahman. Yogis meditate
upon the localized Paramatma situated in the heart, jnanis worship the
impersonal Brahman as the Supreme Absolute Truth, and devotees worship
Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose transcendental body
is described in the sastras. His body is decorated with the Srivatsa, the
Kaustubha jewel and a flower garland, and His hands hold a conchshell,
disc, club and lotus flower. Devotees like Narada always think of Him
within their hearts.

evam varsayuta-sahasra-paryantavasita-karma-nirvanavasaro ‘dhibhujyamanam
sva-tanayebhyo riktham pitr-paitamaham yatha-dayam vibhajya svayam
sakala-sampan-niketat sva-niketat pulahasramam pravavraja.

Destiny fixed the time for Maharaja Bharata’s enjoyment of material
opulence at one thousand times ten thousand years. When that period was
finished, he retired from family life and divided the wealth he had
received from his forefathers among his sons. He left his paternal home,
the reservoir of all opulence, and started for Pulahasrama, which is
situated in Hardwar. The salagrama-silas are obtainable there.

yatra ha vava bhagavan harir adyapi tatratyanam nija-jananam vatsalyena
sannidhapyata iccha-rupena.

At Pulaha-asrama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, out of His
transcendental affection for His devotee, becomes visible to His devotee,
satisfying His devotee’s desires.

yatrasrama-padany ubhayato nabhibhir drsac-cakrais cakra-nadi nama saritpravara
sarvatah pavitri-karoti.

In Pulaha-asrama is the Gandaki River, which is the best of all
rivers. The salagrama-sila, the marble pebbles, purify all those places.
On each and every marble pebble, up and down, circles like navels are

tasmin vava kila sa ekalah pulahasramopavane vividha-kusuma-kisalayatulasikambubhih
kanda-mula-phalopaharais ca samihamano bhagavata
aradhanam vivikta uparata-visayabhilasa upabhrtopasamah param nirvrtim

In the gardens of Pulaha-asrama, Maharaja Bharata lived alone and
collected a variety of flowers, twigs and tulasi leaves. He also
collected the water of the Gandaki River, as well as various roots,
fruits and bulbs. With these he offered food to the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, Vasudeva, and, worshiping Him, he remained satisfied. In this
way his heart was completely uncontaminated, and he did not have the
least desire for material enjoyment. All material desires vanished. In
this steady position, he felt full satisfaction and was situated in
devotional service.

tayettham avirata-purusa-paricaryaya bhagavati pravardhamana-nuragabhara-
druta-hrdaya-saithilyah praharsa-vegenatmany udbhidyamana-romapulaka-
kulaka autkanthya-pravrtta-pranaya-baspa-niruddhavaloka-nayana
evam nija-ramanaruna-caranaravindanudhyana-paricita-bhakti-yogena
paripluta-paramahlada-gambhira-hrdaya-hradavagadha-dhisanas tam api
kriyamanam bhagavat-saparyam na sasmara.

That most exalted devotee, Maharaja Bharata, in this way engaged
constantly in the devotional service of the Lord. Naturally his love for
Vasudeva, Krsna, increased more and more and melted his heart.
Consequently he gradually lost all attachment for regulative duties. The
hairs of his body stood on end, and all the ecstatic bodily symptoms were
manifest. Tears flowed from his eyes, so much so that he could not see
anything. Thus he constantly meditated on the reddish lotus feet of the
Lord. At that time, his heart, which was like a lake, was filled with the
water of ecstatic love. When his mind was immersed in that lake, he even
forgot the regulative service to the Lord.

ittham dhrta-bhagavad-vrata aineyajina-vasasanusavanabhisekardra-kapisakutila-
jata-kalapena ca virocamanah suryarca bhagavantam hiranmayam
purusam ujjihane surya-mandale ‘bhyupatisthann etad u hovaca.

Maharaja Bharata appeared very beautiful. He had a wealth of curly
hair on his head, which was wet from bathing three times daily. He
dressed in a deerskin. He worshiped Lord Narayana, whose body was
composed of golden effulgence and who resided within the sun. Maharaja
Bharata worshiped Lord Narayana by chanting the hymns given in the Rg
Veda, and he recited the following verse as the sun rose.

paro-rajah savitur jata-vedo
devasya bhargo manasedam jajana
suretasadah punar avisya caste
hamsam grdhranam nrsad-ringiram imah

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in pure goodness. He
illuminates the entire universe and bestows all benedictions upon His
devotees. The Lord has created this universe from His own spiritual
potency. According to His desire, the Lord entered this universe as the
Supersoul, and by virtue of His different potencies, He is maintaining
all living entities desiring material enjoyment. Let me offer my
respectful obeisances unto the Lord, who is the giver of intelligence.”

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter four-The Characteristics of Rsabhadeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
atha ha tam utpattyaivabhivyajyamana-bhagaval-laksanam samyopasamavairagyaisvarya-
maha-vibhutibhir anudinam edhamananubhavam prakrtayah
praja brahmana devatas cavani-tala-samavanayatitaram jagrdhuh.

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: As soon as the Lord was born as the son of
Maharaja Nabhi, He manifested symptoms of the Supreme Lord, such as marks
on the bottoms of His feet [the flag, thunderbolt, etc.]. This son was
equal to everyone and very peaceful. He could control His senses and His
mind, and, possessing all opulence, He did not hanker for material
enjoyment. Endowed with all these attributes, the son of Maharaja Nabhi
became more powerful day after day. Due to this, the citizens, learned
brahmanas, demigods and ministers wanted Rsabhadeva to be appointed ruler
of the earth.

tasya ha va ittham varsmana variyasa brhac-chlokena caujasa balena sriya
yasasa virya-sauryabhyam ca pita rsabha itidam nama cakara.

When the son of Maharaja Nabhi became visible, He evinced all good
qualities described by the great poets–namely, a well-built body with
all the symptoms of the Godhead, prowess, strength, beauty, name, fame,
influence and enthusiasm. When the father, Maharaja Nabhi, saw all these
qualities, he thought his son to be the best of human beings or the
supreme being. Therefore he gave Him the name Rsabha.

yasya hindrah spardhamano bhagavan varse na vavarsa tad avadharya
bhagavan rsabhadevo yogesvarah prahasyatma-yogamayaya sva-varsam
ajanabham namabhyavarsat.

Indra, the King of heaven, who is very materially opulent, became
envious of King Rsabhadeva. Consequently he stopped pouring water on the
planet known as Bharata-varsa. At that time the Supreme Lord, Rsabhadeva,
the master of all mystic power, understood King Indra’s purpose and
smiled a little. Then, by His own prowess, through yogamaya [His internal
potency], He profusely poured water upon His own place, which was known
as Ajanabha.

nabhis tu yathabhilasitam suprajastvam avarudhyati-pramoda-bhara-vihvalo
gadgadaksaraya gira svairam grhita-naraloka-sadharmam bhagavantam puranapurusam
maya-vilasita-matir vatsa tateti sanuragam upalalayan param
nirvrtim upagatah.

Due to getting a perfect son according to his desire, King Nabhi was
always overwhelmed with transcendental bliss and was very affectionate to
his son. It was with ecstasy and a faltering voice that he addressed Him,
“My dear son, my darling.” This mentality was brought about by yogamaya,
whereby he accepted the Supreme Lord, the supreme father, as his own son.
Out of His supreme good will, the Lord became his son and dealt with
everyone as if He were an ordinary human being. Thus King Nabhi began to
raise his transcendental son with great affection, and he was overwhelmed
with transcendental bliss, joy and devotion.

viditanuragam apaura-prakrti jana-pado raja nabhir atmajam samaya-seturaksayam
abhisicya brahmanesupanidhaya saha merudevya visalayam prasannanipunena
tapasa samadhi-yogena nara-narayanakhyam bhagavantam vasudevam
upasinah kalena tan-mahimanam avapa.

King Nabhi understood that his son, Rsabhadeva, was very popular among
the citizens and among government officers and ministers. Understanding
the popularity of his son, Maharaja Nabhi enthroned Him as the emperor of
the world to give protection to the general populace in terms of the
Vedic religious system. To do this, he entrusted Him into the hands of
learned brahmanas, who would guide Him in administrating the government.
Then Maharaja Nabhi and his wife, Merudevi, went to Badarikasrama in the
Himalaya Mountains, where the King engaged Himself very expertly in
austerities and penances with great jubilation. In full samadhi he
worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nara-Narayana, who is Krsna
in His plenary expansion. By doing so, in course of time Maharaja Nabhi
was elevated to the spiritual world known as Vaikuntha.

yasya ha pandaveya slokav udaharanti—-
ko nu tat karma rajarser
nabher anv acaret puman
apatyatam agad yasya
harih suddhena karmana

O Maharaja Pariksit, to glorify Maharaja Nabhi, the old sages composed
two verses. One of them is this: “Who can attain the perfection of
Maharaja Nabhi? Who can attain his activities? Because of his devotional
service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead agreed to become his son.”

brahmanyo ‘nyah kuto nabher
vipra mangala-pujitah
yasya barhisi yajnesam
darsayam asur ojasa

[The second prayer is this.] “Who is a better worshiper of brahmanas
than Maharaja Nabhi? Because he worshiped the qualified brahmanas to
their full satisfaction, the brahmanas, by their brahminical prowess,
showed Maharaja Nabhi the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, in

atha ha bhagavan rsabhadevah sva-varsam karma-ksetram anumanyamanah
pradarsita-gurukula-vaso labdha-varair gurubhir anujnato grhamedhinam
dharman anusiksamano jayantyam indra-dattayam ubhaya-laksanam karma
samamnayamnatam abhiyunjann atmajanam atma-samananam satam janayam asa.

After Nabhi Maharaja departed for Badarikasrama, the Supreme Lord,
Rsabhadeva, understood that His kingdom was His field of activities. He
therefore showed Himself as an example and taught the duties of a
householder by first accepting brahmacarya under the direction of
spiritual masters. He also went to live at the spiritual masters’ place,
gurukula. After His education was finished, He gave gifts (guru-daksina)
to His spiritual masters and then accepted the life of a householder. He
took a wife named Jayanti and begot one hundred sons who were as powerful
and qualified as He Himself. His wife Jayanti had been offered to Him by
Indra, the King of heaven. Rsabhadeva and Jayanti performed householder
life in an exemplary way, carrying out ritualistic activities ordained by
the sruti and smrti sastra.

yesam khalu maha-yogi bharato jyesthah srestha-guna asid yenedam varsam
bharatam iti vyapadisanti.

Of Rsabhadeva’s one hundred sons, the eldest, named Bharata, was a
great, exalted devotee qualified with the best attributes. In his honor,
this planet has become known as Bharata-varsa.

tam anu kusavarta ilavarto brahmavarto malayah ketur bhadrasena indrasprg
vidarbhah kikata iti nava navati pradhanah.

Following Bharata, there were ninety-nine other sons. Among these were
nine elderly sons, named Kusavarta, Ilavarta, Brahmavarta, Malaya, Ketu,
Bhadrasena, Indrasprk, Vidarbha and Kikata.
TEXTS 11-12
kavir havir antariksah
prabuddhah pippalayanah
avirhotro ‘tha drumilas
camasah karabhajanahupasamayanam uparistad varnayisyamah.

In addition to these sons were Kavi, Havi, Antariksa, Prabuddha,
Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhajana. These were all
very exalted, advanced devotees and authorized preachers of Srimad-
Bhagavatam. These devotees were glorified due to their strong devotion to
Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore they were very
exalted. To satisfy the mind perfectly, I [Sukadeva Gosvami] shall
hereafter describe the characteristics of these nine devotees when I
discuss the conversation between Narada and Vasudeva.
yaviyamsa ekasitir jayanteyah pitur adesakara maha-salina maha-srotriya
yajna-silah karma-visuddha brahmana babhuvuh.

In addition to these nineteen sons mentioned above, there were eightyone
younger ones, all born of Rsabhadeva and Jayanti. According to the
order of their father, they became well cultured, well behaved, very pure
in their activities and expert in Vedic knowledge and the performance of
Vedic rituals. Thus they all became perfectly qualified brahmanas.

bhagavan rsabha-samjna atma-tantrah svayam nitya-nivrttanartha-paramparah
kevalanandanubhava isvara eva viparitavat karmany arabhamanah
kalenanugatam dharmam acaranenopasiksayann atad-vidam sama upasanto
maitrah karuniko dharmartha-yasah-prajanandamrtavarodhena grhesu lokam

Being an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord
Rsabhadeva was fully independent because His form was spiritual, eternal
and full of transcendental bliss. He eternally had nothing to do with the
four principles of material misery [birth, death, old age and disease].
Nor was He materially attached. He was always equipoised, and He saw
everyone on the same level. He was unhappy to see others unhappy, and He
was the well-wisher of all living entities. Although He was a perfect
personality, the Supreme Lord and controller of all, He nonetheless acted
as if He were an ordinary conditioned soul. Therefore He strictly
followed the principles of varnasrama-dharma and acted accordingly. In
due course of time, the principles of varnasrama-dharma had become
neglected; therefore through His personal characteristics and behavior,
He taught the ignorant public how to perform duties within the
varnasrama-dharma. In this way He regulated the general populace in
householder life, enabling them to develop religion and economic wellbeing
and to attain reputations, sons and daughters, material pleasure
and finally eternal life. By His instructions, He showed how people could
remain householders and at the same time become perfect by following the
principles of varnasrama-dharma.

yad yac chirsanyacaritam tat tad anuvartate lokah.

Whatever action is performed by a great man, common men follow.

yadyapi sva-viditam sakala-dharmam brahmam guhyam brahmanair darsitamargena
samadibhir upayair janatam anusasasa.

Although Lord Rsabhadeva knew everything about confidential Vedic
knowledge, which includes information about all types of occupational
duties, He still maintained Himself as a ksatriya and followed the
instructions of the brahmanas as they related to mind control, sense
control, tolerance and so forth. Thus He ruled the people according to
the system of varnasrama-dharma, which enjoins that the brahmanas
instruct the ksatriyas and the ksatriyas administer to the state through
the vaisyas and sudras.

dravya-desa-kala-vayah-sraddhartvig-vividhoddesopacitaih sarvair api
kratubhir yathopadesam sata-krtva iyaja.

Lord Rsabhadeva performed all kinds of sacrifices one hundred times
according to the instructions of the Vedic literatures. Thus He satisfied
Lord Visnu in every respect. All the rituals were enriched by first-class
ingredients. They were executed in holy places according to the proper
time by priests who were all young and faithful. In this way Lord Visnu
was worshiped, and the prasada was offered to all the demigods. Thus the
functions and festivals were all successful.

bhagavatarsabhena pariraksyamana etasmin varse na kascana puruso vanchaty
avidyamanam ivatmano ‘nyasmat kathancana kimapi karhicid aveksate
bhartary anusavanam vijrmbhita-snehatisayam antarena.

No one likes to possess anything that is like a will-o’-the-wisp or a
flower in the sky, for everyone knows very well that such things do not
exist. When Lord Rsabhadeva ruled this planet of Bharatavarsa, even
common men did not want to ask for anything, at any time or by any means.
No one ever asks for a will-o’-the-wisp. In other words, everyone was
completely satisfied, and therefore there was no chance of anyone’s
asking for anything. The people were absorbed in great affection for the
King. Since this affection was always expanding, they were not inclined
to ask for anything.

sa kadacid atamano bhagavan rsabho brahmavarta-gato brahmarsi-pravarasabhayam
prajanam nisamayantinam atmajan avahitatmanah prasraya-pranayabhara-
suyantritan apy upasiksayann iti hovaca.

Once while touring the world, Lord Rsabhadeva, the Supreme Lord,
reached a place known as Brahmavarta. There was a great conference of
learned brahmanas at that place, and all the King’s sons attentively
heard the instructions of the brahmanas there. At that assembly, within
the hearing of the citizens, Rsabhadeva instructed His sons, although
they were already very well behaved, devoted and qualified. He instructed
them so that in the future they could rule the world very perfectly. Thus
he spoke as follows.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 5-Chapter two-The Activities of Maharaja Agnidhra..

December 22, 2009

sri-suka uvaca
evam pitari sampravrtte tad-anusasane vartamana agnidhro jambudvipaukasah
praja aurasavad dharmaveksamanah paryagopayat.

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: After his father, Maharaja Priyavrata,
departed to follow the path of spiritual life by undergoing austerities,
King Agnidhra completely obeyed his order. Strictly observing the
principles of religion, he gave full protection to the inhabitants of
Jambudvipa as if they were his own begotten sons.

sa ca kadacit pitrloka-kamah sura-vara-vanitakridacala-dronyam
bhagavantam visva-srjam patim abhrta-paricaryopakarana atmaikagryena
tapasvy aradhayam babhuva.

Desiring to get a perfect son and become an inhabitant of Pitrloka,
Maharaja Agnidhra once worshiped Lord Brahma, the master of those in
charge of material creation. He went to a valley of Mandara Hill, where
the damsels of the heavenly planets come down to stroll. There he
collected garden flowers and other necessary paraphernalia and then
engaged in severe austerities and worship.

tad upalabhya bhagavan adi-purusah sadasi gayantim purvacittim
namapsarasam abhiyapayam asa.

Understanding King Agnidhra’s desire, the first and most powerful
created being of this universe, Lord Brahma, selected the best of the
dancing girls in his assembly, whose name was Purvacitti, and sent her to
the King.

sa ca tad-asramopavanam ati-ramaniyam vividha-nibida-vitapi-vitapanikara-
samslista-purata-latarudha-sthala-vihangama-mithunaih procyamanasrutibhih
vicitram upakujitamala-jalasaya-kamalakaram upababhrama.

The Apsara sent by Lord Brahma began strolling in a beautiful park
near the place where the King was meditating and worshiping. The park was
beautiful because of its dense green foliage and golden creepers. There
were pairs of varied birds such as peacocks, and in a lake there were
ducks and swans, all vibrating very sweet sounds. Thus the park was
magnificently beautiful because of the foliage, the clear water, the
lotus flowers and the sweet singing of various kinds of birds.

tasyah sulalita-gamana-pada-vinyasa-gati-vilasayas canupadam khanakhanayamana-
rucira-caranabharana-svanam upakarnya naradeva-kumarah
samadhi-yogenamilita-nayana-nalina-mukula-yugalam isad vikacayya

As Purvacitti passed by on the road in a very beautiful style and mood
of her own, the pleasing ornaments on her ankles tinkled with her every
step. Although Prince Agnidhra was controlling his senses, practicing
yoga with half-open eyes, he could see her with his lotuslike eyes, and
when he heard the sweet tinkling of her bangles, he opened his eyes
slightly more and could see that she was just nearby.

tam evavidure madhukarim iva sumanasa upajighrantim divija-manuja-manonayanahlada-
dughair gati-vihara-vrida-vinayavaloka-susvaraksaravayavair
manasi nrnam kusumayudhasya vidadhatim vivaram nija-mukhavigalitamrtasava-
druta-pada-vinyasena valgu-spandana-stana-kalasa-kabara-bhara-rasanam
devim tad-avalokanena vivrtavasarasya bhagavato makara-dhvajasya vasam
upanito jadavad iti hovaca.

Like a honeybee, the Apsara smelled the beautiful and attractive
flowers. She could attract the minds and vision of both humans and
demigods by her playful movements, her shyness and humility, her glances,
the very pleasing sounds that poured from her mouth as she spoke, and the
motion of her limbs. By all these qualities, she opened for Cupid, who
bears an arrow of flowers, a path of aural reception into the minds of
men. When she spoke, nectar seemed to flow from her mouth. As she
breathed, the bees, mad for the taste of her breath, tried to hover about
her beautiful lotuslike eyes. Disturbed by the bees, she tried to move
hastily, but as she raised her feet to walk quickly, her hair, the belt
on her hips, and her breasts, which were like water jugs, also moved in a
way that made her extremely beautiful and attractive. Indeed, she seemed
to be making a path for the entrance of Cupid, who is most powerful.
Therefore the prince, completely subdued by seeing her, spoke to her as

ka tvam cikirsasi ca kim muni-varya saile
mayasi kapi bhagavat-para-devatayah
vijye bibharsi dhanusi suhrd-atmano ‘rthe
kim va mrgan mrgayase vipine pramattan

The Prince mistakenly addressed the Apsara: O best of saintly persons,
who are you? Why are you on this hill, and what do you want to do? Are
you one of the illusory potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
You seem to be carrying two bows without strings, What is the reason you
carry these bows? Is it for some purpose of your own or for the sake of a
friend? Perhaps you carry them to kill the mad animals in this forest.

banav imau bhagavatah sata-patra-patrau
santav apunkha-rucirav ati-tigma-dantau
kasmai yuyunksasi vane vicaran na vidmah
ksemaya no jada-dhiyam tava vikramo ‘stu

Then Agnidhra observed the glancing eyes of Purvacitti and said: My
dear friend, you have two very powerful arrows, namely your glancing
eyes. Those arrows have feathers like the petals of a lotus flower.
Although they have no shafts, they are very beautiful, and they have very
sharp, piercing points. They appear very peaceful, and thus it seems that
they will not be shot at anyone. You must be loitering in this forest to
shoot those arrows at someone, but I cannot understand whom. My
intelligence is dull, and I cannot combat you. Indeed, no one can equal
you in prowess, and therefore I pray that your prowess will be for my
good fortune.

sisya ime bhagavatah paritah pathanti
gayanti sama sarahasyam ajasram isam
yusmac-chikha-vilulitah sumano ‘bhivrstih
sarve bhajanty rsi-gana iva veda-sakhah

Seeing the bumblebees following Purvacitti, Maharaja Agnidhra said: My
dear Lord, the bumblebees surrounding your body are like disciples
surrounding your worshipable self. They are incessantly chanting the
mantras of the Sama Veda and the Upanisads, thus offering prayers to you.
Just as great sages resort to the branches of Vedic literatures, the
bumblebees are enjoying the showers of flowers falling from your hair.
vacam param carana-panjara-tittirinam
brahmann arupa-mukharam srnavama tubhyam
labdha kadamba-rucir anka-vitanka-bimbe
yasyam alata-paridhih kva ca valkalam te

O brahmana, I can simply hear the tinkling of your ankle bells. Within
those bells, tittiri birds seem to be chirping among themselves. Although
I do not see their forms, I can hear how they are chirping. When I look
at your beautiful circular hips, I see they are the lovely color of
kadamba flowers, and your waist is encircled by a belt of burning
cinders. Indeed, you seem to have forgotten to dress yourself.

kim sambhrtam rucirayor dvija srngayos te
madhye krso vahasi yatra drsih srita me
panko ‘runah surabhir atma-visana idrg
yenasramam subhaga me surabhi-karosi

Agnidhra then praised Purvacitti’s raised breasts. He said: My dear
brahmana your waist is very thin, yet with great difficulty you are
carefully carrying two horns, to which my eyes have become attracted.
What is filling those two beautiful horns? You seem to have spread
fragrant red powder upon them, powder that is like the rising morning
sun. O most fortunate one, I beg to inquire where you have gotten this
fragrant powder that is perfuming my asrama, my place of residence.

lokam pradarsaya suhrttama tavakam me
yatratya ittham urasavayavav apurvau
asmad-vidhasya mana-unnayanau bibharti
bahv adbhutam sarasa-rasa-sudhadi vaktre

O best friend, will you kindly show me the place where you reside? I
cannot imagine how the residents of that place have gotten such wonderful
bodily features as your raised breasts, which agitate the mind and eyes
of a person like me who sees them. Judging by the sweet speech and kind
smiles of those residents, I think that their mouths must contain nectar.

ka vatma-vrttir adanad dhavir anga vati
visnoh kalasy animisonmakarau ca karnau
udvigna-mina-yugalam dvija-pankti-socir
asanna-bhrnga-nikaram sara in mukham te

My dear friend, what do you eat to maintain your body? Because you are
chewing betel, a pleasing scent is emanating from your mouth. This proves
that you always eat the remnants of food offered to Visnu. Indeed, you
must also be an expansion of Lord Visnu’s body. Your face is as beautiful
as a pleasing lake. Your jeweled earrings resemble two brilliant sharks
with unblinking eyes like those of Visnu, and your own eyes resemble two
restless fish. Simultaneously, therefore, two sharks and two restless
fish are swimming in the lake of your face. Besides them, the white rows
of your teeth seem like rows of very beautiful swans in the water, and
your scattered hair resembles swarms of bumblebees following the beauty
of your face.

yo ‘sau tvaya kara-saroja-hatah patango
diksu bhraman bhramata ejayate ‘ksini me
muktam na te smarasi vakra-jata-varutham
kasto ‘nilo harati lampata esa nivim

My mind is already restless, and by playing with a ball, moving it all
about with your lotuslike palm, you are also agitating my eyes. Your
curling black hair is now scattered, but you are not attentive to
arranging it. Are you not going to arrange it? Like a man attached to
women, the most cunning wind is trying to take off your lower garment.
Are you not mindful of it?

rupam tapodhana tapas caratam tapoghnam
hy etat tu kena tapasa bhavatopalabdham
cartum tapo ‘rhasi maya saha mitra mahyam
kim va prasidati sa vai bhava-bhavano me

O best among those performing austerities, where did you get this
wonderful beauty that dismantles the austerities performed by others?
Where have you learned this art? What austerity have you undergone to
achieve this beauty, my dear friend? I desire that you join me to perform
austerity and penance, for it may be that the creator of the universe,
Lord Brahma, being pleased with me, has sent you to become my wife.

na tvam tyajami dayitam dvija-deva-dattam
yasmin mano drg api no na viyati lagnam
mam caru-srngy arhasi netum anuvratam te
cittam yatah pratisarantu sivah sacivyah

Lord Brahma, who is worshiped by the brahmanas, has very mercifully
given you to me, and that is why I have met you. I do not want to give up
your company, for my mind and eyes are fixed upon you and cannot be drawn
away. O woman with beautiful raised breasts, I am your follower. You may
take me wherever you like, and your friends may also follow me.

sri-suka uvaca
iti lalananunayati-visarado gramya-vaidagdhyaya paribhasaya tam vibudhavadhum
vibudha-matir adhisabhajayam asa.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Maharaja Agnidhra, whose intelligence was
like that of a demigod, knew the art of flattering women to win them to
his side. He therefore pleased that celestial girl with his lusty words
and gained her favor.

sa ca tatas tasya vira-yutha-pater buddhi-sila-rupa-vayah-sriyaudaryena
paraksipta-manas tena sahayutayuta-parivatsaropalaksanam kalam
jambudvipa-patina bhauma-svarga-bhogan bubhuje.

Attracted by the intelligence, learning, youth, beauty, behavior,
opulence and magnanimity of Agnidhra, the King of Jambudvipa and master
of all heroes, Purvacitti lived with him for many thousands of years and
luxuriously enjoyed both worldly and heavenly happiness.

tasyam u ha va atmajan sa raja-vara agnidhro nabhi-kimpurusaharivarselavrta-
ramyaka-hiranmaya-kuru-bhadrasva-ketumala-samjnan nava
putran ajanayat.

In the womb of Purvacitti, Maharaja Agnidhra, the best of kings, begot
nine sons, named Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Harivarsa, Ilavrta, Ramyaka,
Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrasva and Ketumala.
sa sutvatha sutan navanuvatsaram grha evapahaya purvacittir bhuya evajam
devam upatasthe.

Purvacitti gave birth to these nine sons, one each year, but after
they grew up, she left them at home and again approached Lord Brahma to
worship him.

agnidhra-sutas te matur anugrahad autpattikenaiva samhanana-balopetah
pitra vibhakta atma-tulya-namani yatha-bhagam jambudvipa-varsani

Because of drinking the breast milk of their mother, the nine sons of
Agnidhra naturally had strong, well-built bodies. Their father gave them
each a kingdom in a different part of Jambudvipa. The kingdoms were named
according to the names of the sons. Thus the sons of Agnidhra ruled the
kingdoms they received from their father.

agnidhro rajatrptah kamanam apsarasam evanudinam adhi-manyamanas tasyah
salokatam srutibhir avarundha yatra pitaro madayante.

After Purvacitti’s departure, King Agnidhra, his lusty desires not at
all satisfied, always thought of her. Therefore, in accordance with the
Vedic injunctions, the King, after his death, was promoted to the same
planet as his celestial wife. That planet, which is called Pitrloka, is
where the pitas, the forefathers, live in great delight.

samparete pitari nava bhrataro meru-duhitrr merudevim pratirupam
ugradamstrim latam ramyam syamam narim bhadram devavitim iti samjna

After the departure of their father, the nine brothers married the
nine daughters of Meru named Merudevi, Pratirupa, Ugradamstri, Lata,
Ramya, Syama, Nari, Bhadra and Devaviti.

Keesu keesu yentru yengum-Anubhavam..

December 22, 2009

n this stanza, from the two addresses in vocative case PEY PENNE! and NAYAKA PPENPILLAY, which are diametrically opposite in meaning, we are to understand that they are said out of love and affection for the sleeping girl.  Whatever may be the apparent contradiction, the inner feeling is most important while moving with Sri Vaishnavas.

In the 6000-Padi commentary we find very interesting and enlightening comments and to illustrate them an episode narrated with exquisite charm. Having woken up a handful of girls Andal could have proceeded on to Krishna. Why go to EVERY house? If one is a Sri Vaishnava he should think of the welfare of ALL- not just a few. Not even a single girl should lose the golden opportunity of getting the grace of Sri Krishna. A man’s relationship with Sriman Narayana is true only if he rejoices at the good luck of another man as if it were his own son’s. If he fails to feel that way he is no Sri Vaishnava.
ALKONDAVILLY JEEYAR, a sincere pupil of SRI RAMANUJA once met in Sri Rangam NANJEEYAR, the disciple of PARASARA BHATTAR. The former exclaimed,” O Jeeyar!  Really I have not developed a taste for Bhagavad Vishaya (i.e., God).” Nanjeeyar was amazed and asked “How is this possible? you are the faithful student of Sri Ramanuja, serving him assiduously – still  you say this ?” The former said,” If a man has real taste for Bhagavan he must enjoy the sweet company of His devotees. If not he is no Sri Vaishnava. Have we developed that pleasurable attitude towards Sri Vaishnavas? Hence I say so.”

Unless the meeting, mingling and deriving supreme satisfaction and happiness in the company of Bhagavatas are secured here in this world (which is the intensive training ground for our life in Sri Vaikuntha), the Moksha will not be delectable. NAMMAZHWAR says at the end of Tiruvaymozhi,” ADIYAARODU IRUNDAMAI”. He aspired not for the mere union of the Lord but for the same in the company of His devotees, which alone would make it delectable.

kIcu kIcu enRu eNGkum aanaiccaaththan * kalan^thu
pEcina pEccaravam kEttilaiyO pEyp peNNE *
kaacum piRappum kalakalappak kai pErththu *
vaaca naRuNGkuzhal aaycciyar * maththinaal
Ocai patuththa thayiraravam kEttilaiyO *
naayakap peNpiLLaay naaraayaNan mUrththi *
kEcavanaip paatavum nI kEttE kitaththiyO *
thEcamutaiyaay thiRa ElOr empaavaay. 7.

In the previous ThiruppAvai Paasuram , ANDAL and Her fellow gopis made Pancha
Moorthy vandhanam during the occasion of waking up a novice devotee:

(1)” Vitthinai”–> Para VaasudEvan at Sri Vaikuntam
(2)”VeLLattharaviRRuyil amarntha–>VyUham at Milky Ocean
(3) Sakatam Kalakkazhiya KaalOcchi–> Vibhavam (KrishNan)
(4) PuLlarayan Koilil–> Archai ( Sri VilliputthUr)
(5) ULLatthu KoNDU–> Haarthan or antharyAmi Brahmam

In this seventh Paasuram , ANDAL pays tribute to Sriman NaarAyaNan as the Para
Devathai (Supreme One).

The girl who is being awakened here is not a novice but one devoted to KrishNa ,
but she is now engaged in wild sleep (Murattu thookkam )in a state of
indifference to Him. She is sleeping away at a time (Brahma muhUrtham), when
people of saathvic tendency would be up and
offering their prayers to the Lord.Therefore , the gopis outside the house
address her first as “pEy peNNE ” or the girl with TamO guNam. Later , they
address the sleeping girl as “Naayaka peNNpiLLAi and tEsamudayAi” in recognition
of her rank in AaypAdi and her lustre as a parama Bhaagavathai .

Meaning of the Seventh Paasuram:
Oh pEy peNNE (deluded girl)! don’t you hear the noise raised by the Aanai
Saatthan birds ( BharadhvAja Birds in Sanskrit and Valiyans in Tamizh)? Doesn’t
your sleep get affected by the Keesu-Keesu sabdham (avyaktha madhura sallAbham )
of these busy birds outside your sleeping chambers? The dawn is advancing .There
are signs of the world awakening
all around you. Don’t you hear the sound made by the busy churning of the curd
by the other gopis with symmetric movement of their churning rods ? The body
movement(exertions) of these beautiful gopis sends out fragrances from their
flower-adorned locks of well combed hair . Their engagement in the churning act
makes their bangles and other
aabharaNams around their neck (acchu thAli, Aamai thAli et al) collide against
each other and result in a rhythmic musical sound (mangaLa naadham ). Don’t you
hear that auspicious jingling sound ? Aren’t
you awakened yet by the sloshing of the curd as a result of the strong movement
of the churning rod in your neighbor’s houses during this still hour of the
morning? Oh crown gem among gopis ! How can
you be so indifferent and sleep away even after hearing us singing the nAmams of
our Lord Kesavan, who destroyed the demon Kesi appearing in disguise as a horse
? Please awaken and get up ! Oh Luminous one! Come and open the door so that we
could sing together about the mahimai of our Lord with you.

Inner Meanings of “Keesu Keesu ” Paasuram
aanai saatthAn Our Lord , who defeated our
indhriyams (having the strength of
the elephants ), and stimulated us
to perform Prapatthi at His lotus feet

Kalanthu That Lord joining His Dharma Pathnee
in conversation

Keesu Keesu yenRu Have n’t you heard their sweet dialog ,
yengum pEsina where PirAtti says ” asthutE
pEccharavam dayayaiva sarvam sampathsyatE “(Oh PrapannA!
kEttilayO? You will realize all your wishes as a
result of your performing prapatthi )
and the Lord responding with the blessing
” May you perform all Kaimkaryams
for us in all places (sarava desam)
and all times (sarva kaalam)?

pEy peNNE ! Oh Maiden , who is deeply lost in
Bhagavathanubhavam and as a result
look like a deluded one !

Vaasa NaRum VyAsar and other AchAryAs who have
Kuzhal Aacchiyar researched on the fragrant tressses
like Upanishads , which contain inside
them the Sarvaghandhan, Sriman NaarAyaNan

kaasum piRappum of the wealth of Brahmins , Vedhams
and the smruthis born out of them

kalakalappa and describing the VedArthams with
kalanthu the help of smruthis and UpabrahMaNams

kai pErtthu VyAsar and AchAryAs raise their hands

matthinAl osai- after churning with their intellect
paduttha thayir the curd (annam) like BhOgya NaarAyaNan
aravam kEttilayO? and declare (assert) without doubt
that Sriman NaarAyaNan is Para DEvathai
(There is no god , who is equal to or
greater than Him ).Oh pEy peNNE !
Have n’t you heard that loud declaration?

Naayaka peNN Oh smart one , who understands fully
piLLAi the Para dEvathA aspect of our Lord
and thereby have become the leader of
our ghOshti

NaarAyaNan Moorthy when they declare(sing) that NaarAyaNan
Kesavanaip paadavum is the One , who created BrahmA and

nee kEtto kidatthiyO ? even after hearing that powerful
message , how can you stay without
performing SaraNAgathi at Sriman
NaarAyaNan’s sacred feet ?

tEsam udayAi Oh Maiden with such a wealth of
Jn~Anam about Tatthva-Hitha-
PurushArtham !

ThiRa Please seek the upAyam of Prapatthi
to reach Him .

This paasuram describes the status of those BhAgyasAlis involved with Ubhaya
VedAntha vimarsanam and invites those , who are adept in other SaasthrAs to
follow the way of the former group . The end result of Ubhaya- VedAntha
nishkarsham (evaluation ) is the unassailable
conclusion that Sriman NaarAyaNan is the Para Devathai.

(1)pEy peNNE : Swamy quotes two dhivya prabhandham passages to intrepret the
deep devotion of the maiden (utthama adhikAri)of of this paasuram:

“atthA ariyE yenRu unnai azhaikka ,
pitthAvenRu pEsuhinrar piRar yennai”
—Thirumangai: periya Thirumozhi:7.1.8

“Arangan adiyArkaLukkAhi AvanukkE pittharAmAvar
pittharalkarhaL maRRayAr muRRum pittharE”
—KulasEkarar: PerumAL Thirumozhi–> 2.9

(2)”Kaasum piRappum kala kalappa ” : Innner meaning is that the two abhAranams
(Aathma guNams) are Samam and dhamam . They compliment each other to enhance the
stature of the adhikAri.

(1) pEy peNNE!: hE BhrAntha BaalikE!

(2) Naayaka peNN hE KanyA MaNi!

(3) tEsamudayAi hE TejasvinI !

“paraspara BhOdhanam” is BhAgavatha kruthyam and that the KanyA
MaNi is awakened to come out and join in the mutual lessons befitting her role
as an illustrious (tEjasvini) devotee .

D.PerukkAraNai Swamy’s observations

(1) aanai-chaathAn: This name refers to EmperumAn , who killed one Yaanai
(elephant KuvAlayapeetam) and protected another (GajEndhran). Saatthuthal means
killing. Saathuthal (SaaRRuthal) also means honoring .

(2) NaarayaNa Moorthy Kesavanaip paadavum: Kesavan is the abhimAna dEvathai for
the month of Marghazhi. He is one of the Upa-vyUha Moorthy of Sriman NaarAyaNan
. Hence in this month Kesavan has to be worshipped.

(3) In Sri BhAshyam , AchArya RaamAnujA did not use the Naamams of NaarAyanan,
VaasudEvan , KrishNan , Raaman et al. He used the saamAnya sabdhams like
ParamAthmA , Para Brahmam instead . Vyasar , the Brahama-
SoothrakArar used NaarAyana sabdham only in Linga bhUyasthvAthi adhikaraNam.
ANDAL invoked the name of NaarAyaNA thrice in ThiruppAvai just as the Moola
Manthram and dhvaya manthram uses thrice NaarAyana sabdham between themselves .
One such use of NarAyana sabdham is in this ThiruppAvai Paasuram .

Shri Battar’s Thirumanjana Kattiyam-Shri Sadagoban Swami..

December 22, 2009

Taniyan for Him is:

SrI ParAsara BhattArya: Sri RangEsa PurOhitha:
SrIvathsAnga sutha: SrimANn srEyasE mEasthu bhUyasE

(Meaning): May Sri ParAsara Bhattar, the son of KurEsar with parama Sri VaishNava Sri and serving as the PurOhithar for Lord RanganAtha bless me with all auspiciousness!

The First SlOkam of Thirumanjana Kattiyam

Amrutha-prabhavam prabhAprabhAva
prahatadhvAntalasadh vilAsajAtham
sakalam sakalAnumOdhahEthum
Sasinam ThvAm kalaymi RangarAja

The moving Sevai of the Lord enjoying Thirumanjanam was such a delight to ParAsara Bhattar that he compared Lord Ranganathan to the Moon. The concept of Chandra Saamyam was explored by Bhattar here. Dr. Padmanabhan comments: “The Moon is a source of amruta (nectar). The Moon dispels the darkness of the world by its rays and pleases the people, who are in love. Moon (Chandran) has (sixteen) parts (Sakala) and is the source of happiness for all. The Lord, in turn, is also the source of immortality (amruta). He, by His glory dispels the inner darkness (ignorance) and gladdens the ever-liberated beings. He is the abode of all the sixty-four fine arts (Sakala) and is a source of happiness for one and all”.

Excerpts from Bhattar’s ManipravALa commentary:
Chandran (Moon) is SudhA nidhi (treasure of nectar). Chandran is the source (birth place) for amrutam, which is deva bhOgyam. Bhagavaan is amruta sabdhavAchyan as well. He is the sEthu (aNai) for that nectar, Himself: “amrutasyaisha sEthu:”. He is the means (UpAyam) and the goal (UpEyam / PrApyam). He is therefore amruta prabhavan as Chandran. RanganAthan (amruta Prabhavan) is also the nirvAhakar (supreme director) of that amruta sabdha vaachya Moksham and is hence recognized as amruta sabdha vaachyan. Therefore, it is said that anyone seeking Moksham should approach only JanArdhanan (VishNu): “Moksham icchEth JanArdhanAth”. He alone is the grantor of Moksham (Veedu): “VeedAmteLi taru nilamaiya thozhivilan”. His occupation is to grant Moksham. Thus both (Moon and the Lord) are “amruta prabhava” roopa sampannAL although Lord RanganAthan far excels the Moon in areas of BhOgyathvam and Moksham granting power. The Moon’s sakalam (Kalais) will wax and wane. Lord’s kalais never undergoes any change (vikAram) 

anisam kumudham vikAsayantham
satatam poorNamaharnisam cha dhrusyam
anupaplavamadhya RangarAjam
manuthE chandramasam jAnOnumAnyam —-(2)

In this slOkam, Swamy ParAsara Bhattar visualizes Lord Ranganathan as the Moon. This RanganAtha Chandran is however different in number of ways from the ordinary Moon. First, the ordinary Moon makes the lilies (Kumudham) bloom (vikAsayantham) only at night. Second, the Moon is not full always (satatam PoorNam); it waxes and wanes. Third, the ordinary Moon is invisible during the day time. Fourth, the ordinary Moon is full of defects (dhOshams) and difficulties (upaplavam). In contrast, the RanganAtha-Chandran is quite different in many ways. Lord makes the Kumudha (the Earth) bloom always (anisam). He is always full (ParipoorNan in the spirit of IsAvAsyOpanishad). He can be visualized day and night (aharnisam cha dhrusyam). He is free from all defects and dhOshams (upaplava rahithan, anavadhyan, nirdhOshan, anupaplavan). 

NaayantE ! You are the Jn~Ana JyOthi (flame of Jn~Anam)!

As the AzhwAr saluted, thou art: ” Yejjn~AnRum engum ozhivaRa niRaintu ninRa mey Jn~Ana sOthi” Saasvatha , ParipoorNa , all pervasive true JyOthi). JyOthi svaropam of Brahma tatthvam is saluted here.

You are akhila hEya Prayaneekan (free from any and all dhOshams)!

You are KalyANa guNaikathan (abode of all auspicious guNams)

SvEthara samastha vasthu vilakshaNar (Tani Tatthvam differing from all others.

KumkumAruNam-udhanchitha Sriyam
kOmalAruNa SarOja-samsTitham
Rangamandhira ! tamO-nivAraNam
sankathE tapana dheedhithim jana:

(Comments acording to Dr.S.Padmanabhan): “The Lord in the Sanctum Sanctorium is also compared to the Sun; Our Lord dispels the internal darkness in comparison with the Sun, who dispels the outside darkness. Our Lord is red in complexion due to the heavy applications of Saffron and is beautiful in the company of Lakshmi. He has the soft red lotus as the seat. The Sun rises in all glory (Udhanchita SrI:) and is heralded by His red-hued charioteer AruNan staying on the gentle red lotus”.

Additional Comments based on Swamy ParAsara Bhattar’s VyAkhyAnam

“kumkumAruNam”: NaayantE ! If we look at Adhityan (The Sun), He is seen with His charioteer AruNan having the hue of Kumkumam. If we look at You with adoration, You are seen with the application of the red-hued saffron on Your ThirumEni and possessing the red hue similar to AruNan.

Bhavantham Sreemantham hasitha-kalikAlnkruthamiha
asOkam kurvantham bhramara-hitham athyuthsavakaram
sukha-sparssilshyath Pavanaja-mahAnandha bharitham
Vasantham RangEsa prakaDa-sumanaskam manumahE

(Meaning according to Dr.S.Padmanabhan): Here, the Lord is identified with the beautiful (Sreemaan) spring season (Vasantam), which puts forth many a flower in its advent and which adorns the AsOka tree, with beautiful buds ( Kalikaalankrutha ) , making it attractive to bees (Bramara-hita). It is full of bliss caused by the gentle and plesant touch of breeze. (Pavanaja-mahAnandha) The Lord is also glorious with SrI (SrImAn), rendering even this KaliyugA a Kruthayuga (KalikAlankruta). He is free from misery (asOka) and dispelling all-illusion (Bhrama-rahitha). Lord RanganAtha is full of bliss of embracing HanumAn (Pavanaja mahAnanda).

Additional Commentary by Swamy ParAsara Bhattar on this slOkam: NaayantE: Oh Lord of Srirangam ! Upanishads salute Your indwellership in all created beings as “Sarvam khalvidham Brahma”, “nEhAnAsthi kinchana” , eithathAthmiyam idham Sarvam” , “YasyAthmA Sareeram , Yasya Pruthvee Sareeram” , ” taani SarvANi Tadh Vapu:”. AzhwArs have saluted the same universal antharyAmthvam of the Lord as “Udan misai uyirenak-karaenthengum paranthuLan” , “YaavarAy niRkinRathellAm NedumAl”. As Sarva Sareeri and SarvAntharyAmi, Lord RanganAtha feels the heat from the strong rays of the Sun during this season as experienced by His created beings. 

SathpakshapAtAth bhuvanAsraythvAth
sanmAnasAvAsa niBanatanatvAth
PadmAsrayatvAccha BhavAnidhAneem
HamsO yaTA raajathy RangarAja:

(Meaning according to DR.S.Padmanabhan): Through another lovely metaphor, Lord RanganAtha is identified with a male Swan, who has a beautiful flapping up of the wings (paksha-pAta:); He resorts to waters (bhuvana) and abides in the mAnasa lake (during the rainy season); He also stays in lotuses. The Lord for His part, is partial to the virtuous (sath-pakshapAta:); He is the supporter of the universe (Bhuvana) and is the abode of Padma (MahA Lkashmi). He always resides in the hearts of the virtuous (Sanmanasa Vaasan).


Excerpts from the VyAkhyAnam of Swamy ParAsara Bhattar:
NayantE ! AzhwArs have saluted You as the Swan (HamsAvathAran), who revealed the meanings of the four Vedams to Your son Brahma (“annamAy anRangu arumaRai payanthAn , ArangamAnahar amarnthAn). adiyEn uses the metaphor of Swan for You because of Your matchless ocean of beauty that is the cause for the delight of the eyes of the entire world of pious ones/saathvikAs (“Sakala Saathvika lOka lOchanAnandha pArAvAra hEthuvAna Vadivazhagu”). Swamy ParAsara Bhattar’s choice of words (in paranthesis) flow like nectar in our ears.

antha: sTithas-sumanasAm amarEsa-rathna
cchAyA vikalpitharuchi: nayanAbhirAmam
aapAthitasmaraguNa: praTithaprachAra:
saakhAsu Ranganrupathir-madhupO vibhAthi

(Meaning according to Dr.S.Padmanabhan): In this verse, Bhattar identifies Lord Ranganatha with a bee. Both of them stay in Sumanas (in the hearts of good people and flowers); they are both dark in colour like the indhraneela gem (amarEsa rathnacchAyaa) and are pleasing to the eye (nayanAbhirAmam); they both are popular and all pervasive (praTitha prachAra:) among the Sakhaa’s (The Vedic rescensions and the branches of the trees). Again Rangaraja possesses the quality of love for His consort (smaraguNa) whereas the bee is set on ManmathA’s bow as its string (smaraguNa).

Excerpts from the VyAkhyAnam of Swamy ParAsara Bhattar: NaayantE ! Your sEvai during the Tirumanjanam with Sandal paste and saffron reminds adiyEn of Your current state of being similar to that of a madhukaram( Honey Bee).

antha! sTitas-sumanasAm: NaayantE ! The Bee (Madhukaram) will enter in to flower bunches in groves and will stay inside them (antasTitham). Oh Lord , You in turn enter in to the minds of pious ones and stay there (” anthaNar tamm chinthayAn “). You stay inside their anthakaraNams (SumanasAm antha: sTitham).

amarEsa ratnacchAyaa vikalpitha ruchi: NaayantE ! The Bee will have the hue of Indhraneelam (Bluish-Black). Oh Lord RanganAtha ! You also have the ShyAmaLa niRam (hue) as the AzhwAr celelbrated: ” Saamatthin niRam koNDa ThADALan “.

nayanAbhirAmam: The Madhukaram will be a delight to enjoy with our eyes (spruhAspadham). Oh Lord RanganAtha! Your beauty is such that great desire wells in our minds and the eyes long to experience Your dhivya soundharyam (nayanAbhirAmam). One AzhwAr gave evidence to this longing
to enjoy You with his eyes: ” Unnaik-kaaNa virumbhum yenn kaNNkaL “.

AapAthitha-smaraguNa: NaayintE! The bees served as the connecting chord for the bow of Manmathan (” MadhukaramAnanthu Kaaman Kaarmukatthukku guNa bhUthamAi irunthathu “). Kaarmukam is the bow and GuNam is the connecting chord (naaNN) in that bow. Oh Lord RanganAthA saluted as “Kaamani payantha KaaLai” (One who created Manmathan as Your son)! You made the bodiless Manmathan (anangan) regain body and become angi (Having a body with the limbs) through Your anugraham of guNa dhAnam (granting the attributes/GuNams). The word GuNam and its double meaning is used adroitly by Bhattar in making a comparison between the black bee and the Lord of Srirangam.

PraTitha prachAra: saakhAsu: The Madhukaram (the bee) because of its fondeness for the honey (madhu) will be roaming from flower to flower in the blossomed tree branches (SaakhAsu praTitha prachAra:). Oh Lord RanganAtha! You enjoy a vinOdha, vividha (pala vahayAna) sanchArams amidst the branches of the Veda SaakhAs.

Ranga Nrupathi: madhupO vibhAthi: With all these similarities, Oh Lord of Srirangam, Your beautiful appearance during Your Thirumanjanam reminds us of Swamy NammAzhwAr’s aruL vaakku: “thUviyam puLLudai Dhaiva VaNDu

saardham dhvijas-srAvaNakarma Rangin
kalpOchitha-snAna vidhim karOshi
Sruthi-smruthibhyAm vyapadhisyamAnam
svayam mamaaj~nAm anuvarthayAmi

Dr.S.Padmanabhan’s Comments: During the constellation of SraavaNa, which is very auspicious for VishNu, Lord RanganAtha is given a sacred bath in the early morning (KalpOchitha snAnam), being accompanied by many twice-born (saardham dhvijai:) reciting Vedam and dhivya Prabhandham. This according to the poet, indicates that the Lord is putting into practise what He Himself has commanded others to do through the Sruthi and Smruthi Texts (Sruthi Smruthi MamaivAj~nA). He Himself practises SraavaNa karmaa to demonstrate that He follows His command to the others in performing nithya karmaas.

Arulli seyal anubavam.. anubavam..Shri Padmanaban Swami..

December 22, 2009
SvAmi Nam AzvAr spells out the same thing-event that Sri Chakravarthith Tiurmagan could hear about Himself from the divine kids-luv and kush.
-in front of TiruvARan viLai divya dampathi
and gets the blessings
inbam payakka ezhil malar mAdharum thANum…thiruvARan viLai”\Tiru-chevich chAtRudhal
aruLic ceyal gOshti is in itself  para-bakthi /parama bakthi

.at the VaikunTa viNNagaram sannithi where the way the pAsuram-s were recited.
..95th pAsuram of Raamanuja noottranthaathi  was being chanted one peson was chanting ‘maRai nAlum ‘ and another was chanting ‘vui maRai nAlum’…
From the Yudha kANDam slokam-s , we understand that the enemies were able to see one Lord , then thousand Lords and did not see Him at all.
Sri PeriyavAchAn piLlai mentions thus
‘Intially the there was only one form of Lord visible then as the speed increased there was two and then three and there was nothing at all but the arrows originated from Him and vanquished the enemies’
Such was the power of the Lord and His speed.
What a wonderful anlaysis.
This is for TiruvAimozhi pAsurma
‘oruvar-iruvar-Or mUvar ena ninRu vuruvu karandhu…’ TiruvAimozhi 8-6-3
Sri maNavALa mAmunikaL in his explanation has givien the words
‘sarvOjjEvanamAna sAsthrangaL’
meaning thereby that Sri Ramanuja nurtured the SAsthrAs, by interpreting the Vedic verses in proper perspective paving way for the souls to get upliftment.
The word vui -vui is to referring to this…Further, as per Tamil yAppilaKKaNam-for kaTTaLai-k kalithuRai the pAsuram commencing with nEar -should have sixteen syllables…so if the word ‘vui’ is present these two requirements are fulfilled.
Usually, the pasuram-s in other divay desams are chanted with a small pause in-/between the lines. Here, there is no break in between the lines.
salam koNDA iraNiyanadhu agal mArbam kENdu thadam kadalai kadainthu amudham koNdugantha kALai..Periya Tirumozhi 3-9-1.
The wonderful Periya Tirumzohi sEvakAlam was going on. The paramswara viNNagara pAsuram commenced and the words
solluvan soRporul … rang in our ears.
solluvansoRporuL thAn avaiyAi, suvai vURoli nARRamum ThORRamumAi..–Periya Tirumzohi 2-9-1.
sollu-ordinary word
vansollu-specail words.
specail words are vansol which are not just transient  but permanent
These are vEdic verses which are permanent
vaNsoRpoRuL-The inner meanings of VEdic verses.
These are Vedic verses -permanent in nature…
Sedi ArAkkaiAdiyArai SeArthal thErkkum TriumAlai..
The unsurpassed Kamba Ramayanam (sundara-kANDam) has this verse composed as seetA-pirATTi’s nostalgia ~~
“Azha-neer-k-kanGai ambi kaDAviya
Ezhai-vEDanukku, embi ninn tambi, nee
tOzhan, manGai kozhundi, ena-c-chonna
vAzhi naNbinai unni mayanGuvAL.”
This verse is a word-for-word transfer from tirumanGai mannan’s periya-tirumozhi (5-8-1) on Srirangam, “Ezhai Edalan, keezh-magan ennAdu iranGi…”
Tirumangai-Azhvar’s tiru-k-kuRun-tANDakam verse (No.13) reproduces the later two lines of toNDar-aDi-p-poDigaL’s tiru-mAlai verse (No.17) ~
“Surumbu amar SOlai Soozhnda
aranGa-mA-kOyil koNDa
karumbinai-k-kaNDu-koNDu enn
kaN-iNai kaLikkumARE.”

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Canta 4-Chapter twenty three-Maharaja Prthu’ s Going Back Home..

December 20, 2009

maitreya uvaca
drstvatmanam pravayasam
ekada vainya atmavan
atmana vardhitasesasvanusargah
jagatas tasthusas capi
vrttido dharma-bhrt satam
yad-artham iha jajnivan
atmajesv atmajam nyasya
virahad rudatim iva
prajasu vimanahsv ekah
sa-daro ‘gat tapo-vanamAt the last stage of his life, when Maharaja Prthu saw himself getting
old, that great soul, who was king of the world, divided whatever
opulence he had accumulated amongst all kinds of living entities, moving
and nonmoving. He arranged pensions for everyone according to religious
principles, and after executing the orders of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, in complete coordination with Him, he dedicated his sons unto
the earth, which was considered to be his daughter. Then Maharaja Prthu
left the presence of his citizens, who were almost lamenting and crying
from feeling separation from the King, and went to the forest alone with
his wife to perform austerities.TEXT 4
tatrapy adabhya-niyamo
arabdha ugra-tapasi
yatha sva-vijaye puraAfter retiring from family life, Maharaja Prthu strictly followed the
regulations of retired life and underwent severe austerities in the
forest. He engaged in these activities as seriously as he had formerly
engaged in leading the government and conquering everyone.TEXT 5
suska-parnasanah kvacit
ab-bhaksah katicit paksan
vayu-bhaksas tatah paramIn the tapo-vana, Maharaja Prthu sometimes ate the trunks and roots of
trees, and sometimes he ate fruit and dried leaves, and for some weeks he
drank only water. Finally he lived simply by breathing air.TEXT 6
grisme panca-tapa viro
varsasv asarasan munih
akantha-magnah sisire
udake sthandile-sayahFollowing the principles of forest living and the footsteps of the
great sages and munis, Prthu Maharaja accepted five kinds of heating
processes during the summer season, exposed himself to torrents of rain
in the rainy season and, in the winter, stood in water up to his neck. He
also used to simply lie down on the floor to sleep.TEXT 7
titiksur yata-vag danta
urdhva-reta jitanilah
ariradhayisuh krsnam
acarat tapa uttamamMaharaja Prthu underwent all these severe austerities in order to
control his words and his senses, to refrain from discharging his semen
and to control the life air within his body. All this he did for the
satisfaction of Krsna. He had no other purpose.TEXT 8
tena kramanusiddhena
pranayamaih sanniruddhasad-
vargas chinna-bandhanahBy thus practicing severe austerities, Maharaja Prthu gradually became
steadfast in spiritual life and completely free of all desires for
fruitive activities. He also practiced breathing exercises to control his
mind and senses, and by such control he became completely free from all
desires for fruitive activity.TEXT 9
sanat-kumaro bhagavan
yad ahadhyatmikam param
yogam tenaiva purusam
abhajat purusarsabhahThus the best amongst human beings, Maharaja Prthu, followed that path
of spiritual advancement which was advised by Sanat-kumara. That is to
say, he worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna.TEXT 10
bhagavad-dharminah sadhoh
sraddhaya yatatah sada
bhaktir bhagavati brahmany
ananya-visayabhavatMaharaja Prthu thus engaged completely in devotional service,
executing the rules and regulations strictly according to principles,
twenty-four hours daily. Thus his love and devotion unto the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Krsna, developed and became unflinching and
fixed.TEXT 11
tasyanaya bhagavatah parikarma-suddhasattvatmanas
jnanam viraktimad abhun nisitena yena
ciccheda samsaya-padam nija-jiva-kosamBy regularly discharging devotional service, Prthu Maharaja became
transcendental in mind and could therefore constantly think of the lotus
feet of the Lord. Because of this, he became completely detached and
attained perfect knowledge by which he could transcend all doubt. Thus he
was freed from the clutches of false ego and the material conception of
life.TEXT 12
chinnanya-dhir adhigatatma-gatir nirihas
tat tatyaje ‘cchinad idam vayunena yena
tavan na yoga-gatibhir yatir apramatto
yavad gadagraja-kathasu ratim na kuryatWhen he became completely free from the conception of bodily life,
Maharaja Prthu realized Lord Krsna sitting in everyone’s heart as the
Paramatma. Being thus able to get all instructions from Him, he gave up
all other practices of yoga and jnana. He was not even interested in the
perfection of the yoga and jnana systems, for he thoroughly realized that
devotional service to Krsna is the ultimate goal of life and that unless
the yogis and jnanis become attracted to krsna-katha [narrations about
Krsna], their illusions concerning existence can never be dispelled.TEXT 13
evam sa vira-pravarah
samyojyatmanam atmani
brahma-bhuto drdham kale
tatyaja svam kalevaramIn due course of time, when Prthu Maharaja was to give up his body, he
fixed his mind firmly upon the lotus feet of Krsna, and thus, completely
situated on the brahma-bhuta platform, he gave up the material body.TEXT 14
sampidya payum parsnibhyam
vayum utsarayan chanaih
nabhyam kosthesv avasthapya
hrd-urah-kantha-sirsaniWhen Maharaja Prthu practiced a particular yogic sitting posture, he
blocked the doors of his anus with his ankles, pressed his right and left
calves and gradually raised his life air upward, passing it on to the
circle of his navel, up to his heart and throat, and finally pushed it
upward to the central position between his two eyebrows.TEXT 15
utsarpayams tu tam murdhni
kramenavesya nihsprhah
vayum vayau ksitau kayam
tejas tejasy ayuyujatIn this way, Prthu Maharaja gradually raised his air of life up to the
hole in his skull, whereupon he lost all desire for material existence.
Gradually he merged his air of life with the totality of air, his body
with the totality of earth, and the fire within his body with the
totality of fire.TEXT 16
khany akase dravam toye
yatha-sthanam vibhagasah
ksitim ambhasi tat tejasy
ado vayau nabhasy amumIn this way, according to the different positions of the various parts
of the body, Prthu Maharaja merged the holes of his senses with the sky;
his bodily liquids, such as blood and various secretions, with the
totality of water; and he merged earth with water, then water with fire,
fire with air, air with sky, and so on.TEXT 17
indriyesu manas tani
tan-matresu yathodbhavam
bhutadinamuny utkrsya
mahaty atmani sandadheHe amalgamated the mind with the senses and the senses with the sense
objects, according to their respective positions, and he also amalgamated
the material ego with the total material energy, mahat-tattva.TEXT 18
tam sarva-guna-vinyasam
jive mayamaye nyadhat
tam canusayam atma-stham
asav anusayi puman
svarupa-stho ‘jahat prabhuhPrthu Maharaja then offered the total designation of the living entity
unto the supreme controller of illusory energy. Being released from all
the designations by which the living entity became entrapped, he became
free by knowledge and renunciation and by the spiritual force of his
devotional service. In this way, being situated in his original
constitutional position of Krsna consciousness, he gave up this body as a
prabhu, or controller of the senses.TEXT 19
arcir nama maha-rajni
tat-patny anugata vanam
sukumary atad-arha ca
yat-padbhyam sparsanam bhuvahThe Queen, the wife of Prthu Maharaja, whose name was Arci, followed
her husband into the forest. Since she was a queen, her body was very
delicate. Although she did not deserve to live in the forest, she
voluntarily touched her lotus feet to the ground.TEXT 20
ativa bhartur vrata-dharma-nisthaya
susrusaya carsa-deha-yatraya
navindatartim parikarsitapi sa
preyaskara-sparsana-mana-nirvrtihAlthough she was not accustomed to such difficulties, Queen Arci
followed her husband in the regulative principles of living in the forest
like great sages. She lay down on the ground and ate only fruits, flowers
and leaves, and because she was not fit for these activities, she became
frail and thin. Yet because of the pleasure she derived in serving her
husband, she did not feel any difficulties.TEXT 21
deham vipannakhila-cetanadikam
patyuh prthivya dayitasya catmanah
alaksya kincic ca vilapya sa sati
citam atharopayad adri-sanuniWhen Queen Arci saw that her husband, who had been so merciful to her
and the earth, no longer showed symptoms of life, she lamented for a
little while and then built a fiery pyre on top of a hill and placed the
body of her husband on it.TEXT 22
vidhaya krtyam hradini-jalapluta
dattvodakam bhartur udara-karmanah
natva divi-sthams tridasams trih paritya
vivesa vahnim dhyayati bhartr-padauAfter this, the Queen executed the necessary funerary functions and
offered oblations of water. After bathing in the river, she offered
obeisances to various demigods situated in the sky in the different
planetary systems. She then circumambulated the fire and, while thinking
of the lotus feet of her husband, entered its flames.TEXT 23
vilokyanugatam sadhvim
prthum vira-varam patim
tustuvur varada devair
deva-patnyah sahasrasahAfter observing this brave act performed by the chaste wife Arci, the
wife of the great King Prthu, many thousands of the wives of the
demigods, along with their husbands, offered prayers to the Queen, for
they were very much satisfied.
kurvatyah kusumasaram
tasmin mandara-sanuni
nadatsv amara-turyesu
grnanti sma parasparamAt that time the demigods were situated on the top of Mandara Hill,
and all their wives began to shower flowers on the funeral pyre and began
to talk amongst themselves as follows.
devya ucuh
aho iyam vadhur dhanya
ya caivam bhu-bhujam patim
sarvatmana patim bheje
yajnesam srir vadhur ivaThe wives of the demigods said: All glories to Queen Arci! We can see
that this queen of the great King Prthu, the emperor of all the kings of
the world, has served her husband with mind, speech and body exactly as
the goddess of fortune serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Yajnesa, or Visnu.TEXT 26
saisa nunam vrajaty urdhvam
anu vainyam patim sati
pasyatasman atityarcir
durvibhavyena karmanaThe wives of the demigods continued: Just see how this chaste lady,
Arci, by dint of her inconceivable pious activities, is still following
her husband upward, as far as we can see.TEXT 27
tesam durapam kim tv anyan
martyanam bhagavat-padam
bhuvi lolayuso ye vai
naiskarmyam sadhayanty utaIn this material world, every human being has a short span of life,
but those who are engaged in devotional service go back home, back to
Godhead, for they are actually on the path of liberation. For such
persons, there is nothing which is not available.TEXT 28
sa vancito batatma-dhruk
krcchrena mahata bhuvi
labdhvapavargyam manusyam
visayesu visajjateAny person who engages himself within this material world in
performing activities that necessitate great struggle, and who, after
obtaining a human form of life–which is a chance to attain liberation
from miseries–undertakes the difficult tasks of fruitive activities,
must be considered to be cheated and envious of his own self.TEXT 29
maitreya uvaca
stuvatisv amara-strisu
pati-lokam gata vadhuh
yam va atma-vidam dhuryo
vainyah prapacyutasrayahThe great sage Maitreya continued speaking: My dear Vidura, when the
wives of the denizens of heaven were thus talking amongst themselves,
Queen Arci reached the planet which her husband, Maharaja Prthu, the
topmost self-realized soul, had attained.TEXT 30
ittham-bhutanubhavo ‘sau
prthuh sa bhagavattamah
kirtitam tasya caritam
uddama-caritasya teMaitreya continued: The greatest of all devotees, Maharaja Prthu, was
very powerful, and his character was liberal, magnificent and
magnanimous. Thus I have described him to you as far as possible.TEXT 31
ya idam sumahat punyam
sraddhayavahitah pathet
sravayec chrnuyad vapi
sa prthoh padavim iyat

Any person who describes the great characteristics of King Prthu with
faith and determination–whether he reads or hears of them himself or
helps others to hear of them–is certain to attain the very planet which
Maharaja Prthu attained. In other words, such a person also returns home
to the Vaikuntha planets, back to Godhead.TEXT 32
brahmano brahma-varcasvi
rajanyo jagati-patih
vaisyah pathan vit-patih syac
chudrah sattamatam iyat

If one hears of the characteristics of Prthu Maharaja and is a
brahmana, he becomes perfectly qualified with brahminical powers; if he
is a ksatriya, he becomes a king of the world; if he is a vaisya, he
becomes a master of other vaisyas and many animals; and if he is a sudra,
he becomes the topmost devotee.

trih krtva idam akarnya
naro nary athavadrta
aprajah suprajatamo
nirdhano dhanavattamah

It does not matter whether one is a man or woman. Anyone who, with
great respect, hears this narration of Maharaja Prthu will become the
father of many children if he is without children and will become the
richest of men if he is without money.

aspasta-kirtih suyasa
murkho bhavati panditah
idam svasty-ayanam pumsam

Also, one who hears this narration three times will become very
reputable if he is not recognized in society, and he will become a great
scholar if he is illiterate. In other words, hearing of the narrations of
Prthu Maharaja is so auspicious that it drives away all bad luck.

dhanyam yasasyam ayusyam
svargyam kali-malapaham
samyak siddhim abhipsubhih
sraddhayaitad anusravyam
caturnam karanam param

By hearing the narration of Prthu Maharaja, one can become great,
increase his duration of life, gain promotion to the heavenly planets and
counteract the contaminations of this age of Kali. In addition, one can
promote the causes of religion, economic development, sense gratification
and liberation. Therefore from all sides it is advisable for a
materialistic person who is interested in such things to read and hear
the narrations of the life and character of Prthu Maharaja.

vijayabhimukho raja
srutvaitad abhiyati yan
balim tasmai haranty agre
rajanah prthave yatha

If a king, who is desirous of attaining victory and ruling power,
chants the narration of Prthu Maharaja three times before going forth on
his chariot, all subordinate kings will automatically render all kinds of
taxes unto him–as they rendered them unto Maharaja Prthu–simply upon
his order.

muktanya-sango bhagavaty
amalam bhaktim udvahan
vainyasya caritam punyam
srnuyac chravayet pathet

A pure devotee who is executing the different processes of devotional
service may be situated in the transcendental position, being completely
absorbed in Krsna consciousness, but even he, while discharging
devotional service, must hear, read and induce others to hear about the
character and life of Prthu Maharaja.

asmin krtam atimartyam
parthavim gatim apnuyat

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, I have as far as
possible spoken the narrations about Prthu Maharaja, which enrich one’s
devotional attitude. Whoever takes advantage of these benefits also goes
back home, back to Godhead, like Maharaja Prthu.

anudinam idam adarena srnvan
prthu-caritam prathayan vimukta-sangah
bhagavati bhava-sindhu-pota-pade
sa ca nipunam labhate ratim manusyah

Whoever, with great reverence and adoration, regularly reads, chants
and describes the history of Maharaja Prthu’s activities will certainly
increase unflinching faith and attraction for the lotus feet of the Lord.
The Lord’s lotus feet are the boat by which one can cross the ocean of


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