atha sindhu-sauvira-pate rahuganasya vrajata iksumatyas tate tat-kulapatina
sibika-vaha-purusanvesana-samaye daivenopasaditah sa dvija-vara
upalabdha esa piva yuva samhananango go-kharavad dhuram vodhum alam iti
purva-visti-grhitaih saha grhitah prasabham atad-arha uvaha sibikam sa
Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, after this, King Rahugana,
ruler of the states known as Sindhu and Sauvira, was going to
Kapilasrama. When the King’s chief palanquin carriers reached the banks
of the River Iksumati, they needed another carrier. Therefore they began
searching for someone, and by chance they came upon Jada Bharata. They
considered the fact that Jada Bharata was very young and strong and had
firm limbs. Like cows and asses, he was quite fit to carry loads.
Thinking in this way, although the great soul Jada Bharata was unfit for
such work, they nonetheless unhesitatingly forced him to carry the
yada hi dvija-varasyesu-matravalokanugater na samahita purusa-gatis tada
visama-gatam sva-sibikam rahugana upadharya purusan adhivahata aha he
vodharah sadhv atikramata kim iti visamam uhyate yanam iti.
The palanquin, however, was very erratically carried by Jada Bharata
due to his sense of nonviolence. As he stepped forward, he checked before
him every three feet to see whether he was about to step on ants.
Consequently he could not keep pace with the other carriers. Due to this,
the palanquin was shaking, and King Rahugana immediately asked the
carriers, “Why are you carrying this palanquin unevenly? Better carry it
atha ta isvara-vacah sopalambham upakarnyopaya-turiyac chankita-manasas
tam vijnapayam babhuvuh.
When the palanquin carriers heard the threatening words of Maharaja
Rahugana, they became very afraid of his punishment and began to speak to
him as follows.
na vayam nara-deva pramatta bhavan-niyamanupathah sadhv eva vahamah; ayam
adhunaiva niyukto ‘pi na drutam vrajati nanena saha vodhum u ha vayam
O lord, please note that we are not at all negligent in discharging
our duties. We have been faithfully carrying this palanquin according to
your desire, but this man who has been recently engaged to work with us
cannot walk very swiftly. Therefore we are not able to carry the
palanquin with him.
samsargiko dosa eva nunam ekasyapi sarvesam samsargikanam bhavitum
arhatiti niscitya nisamya krpana-vaco raja rahugana upasita-vrddho ‘pi
nisargena balat krta isad-utthita-manyur avispasta-brahma-tejasam jatavedasam
iva rajasavrta-matir aha.
King Rahugana could understand the speeches given by the carriers, who
were afraid of being punished. He could also understand that simply due
to the fault of one person, the palanquin was not being carried properly.
Knowing this perfectly well and hearing their appeal, he became a little
angry, although he was very advanced in political science and was very
experienced. His anger arose due to his inborn nature as a king. Actually
King Rahugana’s mind was covered by the mode of passion, and he therefore
spoke as follows to Jada Bharata, whose Brahman effulgence was not
clearly visible, being covered like a fire covered by ashes.
aho kastam bhratar vyaktam uru-parisranto dirgham adhvanam eka eva uhivan
suciram nati-piva na samhananango jarasa copadruto bhavan sakhe no
evapara ete sanghattina iti bahu-vipralabdho ‘py avidyaya racita-dravyaguna-
karmasaya-sva-carama-kalevare ‘vastuni samsthana-visese ‘ham mamety
anadhyaropita-mithya-pratyayo brahma-bhutas tusnim sibikam purvavad
King Rahugana told Jada Bharata: How troublesome this is, my dear
brother. You certainly appear very fatigued because you have carried this
palanquin alone without assistance for a long time and for a long
distance. Besides that, due to your old age you have become greatly
troubled. My dear friend, I see that you are not very firm, nor very
strong and stout. Aren’t your fellow carriers cooperating with you?
In this way the King criticized Jada Bharata with sarcastic words, yet
despite being criticized in this way, Jada Bharata had no bodily
conception of the situation. He knew that he was not the body, for he had
attained his spiritual identity. He was neither fat, lean nor thin, nor
had he anything to do with a lump of matter, a combination of the five
gross and three subtle elements. He had nothing to do with the material
body and its two hands and legs. In other words, he had completely
realized his spiritual identity [aham brahmasmi]. He was therefore
unaffected by this sarcastic criticism from the King. Without saying
anything, he continued carrying the palanquin as before.
atha punah sva-sibikayam visama-gatayam prakupita uvaca rahuganah kim
idam are tvam jivan-mrto mam kadarthi-krtya bhartr-sasanam aticarasi
pramattasya ca te karomi cikitsam danda-panir iva janataya yatha prakrtim
svam bhajisyasa iti.
Thereafter, when the King saw that his palanquin was still being
shaken by the carriers, he became very angry and said: You rascal, what
are you doing? Are you dead despite the life within your body? Do you not
know that I am your master? You are disregarding me and are not carrying
out my order. For this disobedience I shall now punish you just as
Yamaraja, the superintendent of death, punishes sinful people. I shall
give you proper treatment so that you will come to your senses and do the
evam bahv abaddham api bhasamanam nara-devabhimanam rajasa
tamasanuviddhena madena tiraskrtasesa-bhagavat-priya-niketam panditamaninam
sa bhagavan brahmano brahma-bhuta-sarva-bhuta-suhrd-atma
yogesvara-caryayam nati-vyutpanna-matim smayamana iva vigata-smaya idam
Thinking himself a king, King Rahugana was in the bodily conception
and was influenced by material nature’s modes of passion and ignorance.
Due to madness, he chastised Jada Bharata with uncalled-for and
contradictory words. Jada Bharata was a topmost devotee and the dear
abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although considering himself
very learned, the King did not know about the position of an advanced
devotee situated in devotional service, nor did he know his
characteristics. Jada Bharata was the residence of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; he always carried the form of the Lord within his
heart. He was the dear friend of all living beings, and he did not
entertain any bodily conception. He therefore smiled and spoke the
tvayoditam vyaktam avipralabdham
bhartuh sa me syad yadi vira bharah
gantur yadi syad adhigamyam adhva
piveti rasau na vidam pravadah
The great brahmana Jada Bharata said: My dear King and hero, whatever
you have spoken sarcastically is certainly true. Actually these are not
simply words of chastisement, for the body is the carrier. The load
carried by the body does not belong to me, for I am the spirit soul.
There is no contradiction in your statements because I am different from
the body. I am not the carrier of the palanquin; the body is the carrier.
Certainly, as you have hinted, I have not labored carrying the palanquin,
for I am detached from the body. You have said that I am not stout and
strong, and these words are befitting a person who does not know the
distinction between the body and the soul. The body may be fat or thin,
but no learned man would say such things of the spirit soul. As far as
the spirit soul is concerned, I am neither fat nor skinny; therefore you
are correct when you say that I am not very stout. Also, if the object of
this journey and the path leading there were mine, there would be many
troubles for me, but because they relate not to me but to my body, there
is no trouble at all.
sthaulyam karsyam vyadhaya adhayas ca
ksut trd bhayam kalir iccha jara ca
nidra ratir manyur aham madah suco
dehena jatasya hi me na santi
Fatness, thinness, bodily and mental distress, thirst, hunger, fear,
disagreement, desires for material happiness, old age, sleep, attachment
for material possessions, anger, lamentation, illusion and identification
of the body with the self are all transformations of the material
covering of the spirit soul. A person absorbed in the material bodily
conception is affected by these things, but I am free from all bodily
conceptions. Consequently I am neither fat nor skinny nor anything else
you have mentioned.
jivan-mrtatvam niyamena rajan
adyantavad yad vikrtasya drstam
sva-svamya-bhavo dhruva idya yatra
tarhy ucyate ‘sau vidhikrtya-yogah
My dear King, you have unnecessarily accused me of being dead though
alive. In this regard, I can only say that this is the case everywhere
because everything material has its beginning and end. As far as your
thinking that you are the king and master and are thus trying to order
me, this is also incorrect because these positions are temporary. Today
you are a king and I am your servant, but tomorrow the position may be
changed, and you may be my servant and I your master. These are temporary
circumstances created by providence.
visesa-buddher vivaram manak ca
pasyama yan na vyavaharato ‘nyat
ka isvaras tatra kim isitavyam
tathapi rajan karavama kim te
My dear King, if you still think that you are the King and that I am
your servant, you should order me, and I should follow your order. I can
then say that this differentiation is temporary, and it expands only from
usage or convention. I do not see any other cause. In that case, who is
the master, and who is the servant? Everyone is being forced by the laws
of material nature; therefore no one is master, and no one is servant.
Nonetheless, if you think that you are the master and that I am the
servant, I shall accept this. Please order me. What can I do for you?
gatasya me vira cikitsitena
arthah kiyan bhavata siksitena
stabdha-pramattasya ca pistapesah
My dear King, you have said, “You rascal, you dull, crazy fellow! I am
going to chastise you, and then you will come to your senses.” In this
regard, let me say that although I live like a dull, deaf and dumb man, I
am actually a self-realized person. What will you gain by punishing me?
If your calculation is true and I am a madman, then your punishment will
be like beating a dead horse. There will be no effect. When a madman is
punished, he is not cured of his madness.
etavad anuvada-paribhasaya pratyudirya muni-vara upasama-sila
uparatanatmya-nimitta upabhogena karmarabdham vyapanayan raja-yanam api
Sukadeva Gosvami said: O Maharaja Pariksit, when King Rahugana
chastised the exalted devotee Jada Bharata with harsh words, that
peaceful, saintly person tolerated it all and replied properly. Nescience
is due to the bodily conception, and Jada Bharata was not affected by
this false conception. Out of his natural humility, he never considered
himself a great devotee, and he agreed to suffer the results of his past
karma. Like an ordinary man, he thought that by carrying the palanquin,
he was destroying the reactions of his past misdeeds. Thinking in this
way, he began to carry the palanquin as before.
sa capi pandaveya sindhu-sauvira-patis tattva-jijnasayam samyaksraddhayadhikrtadhikaras
tad dhrdaya-granthi-mocanam dvija-vaca asrutya
bahu-yoga-grantha-sammatam tvarayavaruhya sirasa pada-mulam upasrtah
ksamapayan vigata-nrpa-deva-smaya uvaca.
Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O best of the Pandu dynasty [Maharaja
Pariksit], the King of the Sindhu and Sauvira states [Maharaja Rahugana]
had great faith in discussions of the Absolute Truth. Being thus
qualified, he heard from Jada Bharata that philosophical presentation
which is approved by all scriptures on the mystic yoga process and which
slackens the knot in the heart. His material conception of himself as a
king was thus destroyed. He immediately descended from his palanquin and
fell flat on the ground with his head at the lotus feet of Jada Bharata
in such a way that he might be excused for his insulting words against
the great brahmana. He then prayed as follows.
kas tvam nigudhas carasi dvijanam
bibharsi sutram katamo ‘vadhutah
kasyasi kutratya ihapi kasmat
ksemaya nas ced asi nota suklah
King Rahugana said: O brahmana, you appear to be moving in this world
very much covered and unknown to others. Who are you? Are you a learned
brahmana and saintly person? I see that you are wearing a sacred thread.
Are you one of those exalted, liberated saints such as Dattatreya and
other highly advanced, learned scholars? May I ask whose disciple you
are? Where do you live? Why have you come to this place? Is your mission
in coming here to do good for us? Please let me know who you are.
naham visanke sura-raja-vajran
na tryaksa-sulan na yamasya dandat
chanke bhrsam brahma-kulavamanat
My dear sir, I am not at all afraid of the thunderbolt of King Indra,
nor am I afraid of the serpentine, piercing trident of Lord Siva. I do
not care about the punishment of Yamaraja, the superintendent of death,
nor am I afraid of fire, scorching sun, moon, wind, nor the weapons of
Kuvera. Yet I am afraid of offending a brahmana. I am very much afraid of
tad bruhy asango jadavan nigudhavijnana-
viryo vicarasy aparah
vacamsi yoga-grathitani sadho
na nah ksamante manasapi bhettum
My dear sir, it appears that the influence of your great spiritual
knowledge is hidden. Factually you are bereft of all material association
and fully absorbed in the thought of the Supreme. Consequently you are
unlimitedly advanced in spiritual knowledge. Please tell me why you are
wandering around like a dullard. O great, saintly person, you have spoken
words approved by the yogic process, but it is not possible for us to
understand what you have said. Therefore kindly explain it.
aham ca yogesvaram atma-tattvavidam
muninam paramam gurum vai
prastum pravrttah kim iharanam tat
saksad dharim jnana-kalavatirnam
I consider your good self the most exalted master of mystic power. You
know the spiritual science perfectly well. You are the most exalted of
all learned sages, and you have descended for the benefit of all human
society. You have come to give spiritual knowledge, and you are a direct
representative of Kapiladeva, the incarnation of God and the plenary
portion of knowledge. I am therefore asking you, O spiritual master, what
is the most secure shelter in this world?
sa vai bhaval loka-niriksanartham
avyakta-lingo vicaraty api svit
yogesvaranam gatim andha-buddhih
katham vicaksita grhanubandhah
Is it not a fact that your good self is the direct representative of
Kapiladeva, the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead? To
examine people and see who is actually a human being and who is not, you
have presented yourself to be a deaf and dumb person. Are you not moving
this way upon the surface of the world? I am very attached to family life
and worldly activities, and I am blind to spiritual knowledge.
Nonetheless, I am now present before you and am seeking enlightenment
from you. How can I advance in spiritual life?
drstah sramah karmata atmano vai
bhartur gantur bhavatas canumanye
samula isto vyavahara-margah
You have said, “I am not fatigued from labor.” Although the soul is
different from the body, there is fatigue because of bodily labor, and it
appears to be the fatigue of the soul. When you are carrying the
palanquin, there is certainly labor for the soul. This is my conjecture.
You have also said that the external behavior exhibited between the
master and the servant is not factual, but although in the phenomenal
world it is not factual, the products of the phenomenal world can
actually affect things. That is visible and experienced. As such, even
though material activities are impermanent, they cannot be said to be
sthaly-agni-tapat payaso ‘bhitapas
King Rahugana continued: My dear sir, you have said that designations
like bodily fatness and thinness are not characteristics of the soul.
That is incorrect because designations like pain and pleasure are
certainly felt by the soul. You may put a pot of milk and rice within
fire, and the milk and rice are automatically heated one after the other.
Similarly, due to bodily pains and pleasures, the senses, mind and soul
are affected. The soul cannot be completely detached from this
sastabhigopta nrpatih prajanam
yah kinkaro vai na pinasti pistam
sva-dharmam aradhanam acyutasya
yad ihamano vijahaty aghaugham
My dear sir, you have said that the relationship between the king and
the subject or between the master and the servant are not eternal, but
although such relationships are temporary, when a person takes the
position of a king, his duty is to rule the citizens and punish those who
are disobedient to the laws. By punishing them, he teaches the citizens
to obey the laws of the state. Again, you have said that punishing a
person who is deaf and dumb is like chewing the chewed or grinding the
pulp; that is to say, there is no benefit in it. However, if one is
engaged in his own occupational duty as ordered by the Supreme Lord, his
sinful activities are certainly diminished. Therefore if one is engaged
in his occupational duty by force, he benefits because he can vanquish
all his sinful activities in that way.
tan me bhavan nara-devabhimanamadena
krsista maitri-drsam arta-bandho
yatha tare sad-avadhyanam amhah
Whatever you have spoken appears to me to be contradictory. O best
friend of the distressed, I have committed a great offense by insulting
you. I was puffed up with false prestige due to possessing the body of a
king. For this I have certainly become an offender. Therefore I pray that
you kindly glance at me with your causeless mercy. If you do so, I can be
relieved from sinful activities brought about by insulting you.
na vikriya visva-suhrt-sakhasya
samyena vitabhimates tavapi
mahad-vimanat sva-krtad dhi madrn
nanksyaty adurad api sulapanih
O my dear lord, you are the friend of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who is the friend of all living entities. You are therefore
equal to everyone, and you are free from the bodily conception. Although
I have committed an offense by insulting you, I know that there is no
loss or gain for you due to my insult. You are fixed in your
determination, but I have committed an offense. Because of this, even
though I may be as strong as Lord Siva, I shall be vanquished without
delay due to my offense at the lotus feet of a Vaisnava.