Archive for the ‘Sri Vaishna Concepts’ Category

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty Seven-Lord Krishna’s Instructions on the Process of Deity Worship..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-uddhava uväca
kriyä-yogaà samäcakñva
bhavad-ärädhanaà prabho
yasmät tväà ye yathärcanti
sätvatäù sätvatarñabha

Çré Uddhava said: My dear Lord, O master of the devotees, please explain to
me the prescribed method of worshiping You in Your Deity form. What are the
qualifications of those devotees who worship the Deity, on what basis is such
worship established, and what is the specific method of worship?

2–etad vadanti munayo
muhur niùçreyasaà nåëäm
närado bhagavän vyäsa
äcäryo ‘ìgirasaù sutaù

All the great sages repeatedly declare that such worship brings the greatest
benefit possible in human life. This is the opinion of Närada Muni, the great
Vyäsadeva and my own spiritual master, Båhaspati.

3/4–niùsåtaà te mukhämbhojäd
yad äha bhagavän ajaù
putrebhyo bhågu-mukhyebhyo
devyai ca bhagavän bhavaù
etad vai sarva-varëänäm
äçramäëäà ca sammatam
çreyasäm uttamaà manye
stré-çüdräëäà ca mäna-da

O most magnanimous Lord, the instructions on this process of Deity worship
first emanated from Your lotus mouth. Then they were spoken by the great
Lord Brahmä to his sons, headed by Bhågu, and by Lord Çiva to his wife,
Pärvaté. This process is accepted by and appropriate for all the occupational and
spiritual orders of society. Therefore I consider worship of You in Your Deity
form to be the most beneficial of all spiritual practices, even for women and
çüdras.

5–etat kamala-paträkña
karma-bandha-vimocanam
bhaktäya cänuraktäya
brühi viçveçvareçvara

O lotus-eyed one, O Supreme Lord of all lords of the universe, please explain
to Your devoted servant this means of liberation from the bondage of work.

6–çré-bhagavän uväca
na hy anto ‘nanta-pärasya
karma-käëòasya coddhava
saìkñiptaà varëayiñyämi
yathävad anupürvaçaù

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, there is no
end to the innumerable Vedic prescriptions for executing Deity worship; so I
shall explain this topic to you briefly, one step at a time.

7–vaidikas täntriko miçra
iti me tri-vidho makhaù
trayäëäm épsitenaiva
vidhinä mäà samarcaret

One should carefully worship Me by selecting one of the three methods by
which I receive sacrifice: Vedic, tantric or mixed.

8–yadä sva-nigamenoktaà
dvijatvaà präpya püruñaù
yathä yajeta mäà bhaktyä
çraddhayä tan nibodha me

Now please listen faithfully as I explain exactly how a person who has
achieved twice-born status through the relevant Vedic prescriptions should
worship Me with devotion.

9–arcäyäà sthaëòile ‘gnau vä
sürye väpsu hådi dvijaù
dravyeëa bhakti-yukto ‘rcet
sva-guruà mäm amäyayä

A twice-born person should worship Me, his worshipable Lord, without
duplicity, offering appropriate paraphernalia in loving devotion to My Deity
form or to a form of Me appearing upon the ground, in fire, in the sun, in water
or within the worshiper’s own heart.

10–pürvaà snänaà prakurvéta
dhauta-danto ‘ìga-çuddhaye
ubhayair api ca snänaà
mantrair måd-grahaëädinä

One should first purify his body by cleansing his teeth and bathing. Then
one should perform a second cleansing by smearing the body with earth and
chanting both Vedic and tantric mantras.

11–sandhyopästyädi-karmäëi
vedenäcoditäni me
püjäà taiù kalpayet samyaksaìkalpaù
karma-pävaném

Fixing the mind on Me, one should worship Me by his various prescribed
duties, such as chanting the Gäyatré mantra at the three junctures of the day.
Such performances are enjoined by the Vedas and purify the worshiper of
reactions to fruitive activities.

12–çailé däru-mayé lauhé
lepyä lekhyä ca saikaté
mano-mayé maëi-mayé
pratimäñöa-vidhä småtä

The Deity form of the Lord is said to appear in eight varieties—stone, wood,
metal, earth, paint, sand, the mind or jewels.

13–caläcaleti dvi-vidhä
pratiñöhä jéva-mandiram
udväsävähane na staù
sthiräyäm uddhavärcane

The Deity form of the Lord, who is the shelter of all living entities, can be
established in two ways: temporarily or permanently. But a permanent Deity,
having been called, can never be sent away, My dear Uddhava.

14–asthiräyäà vikalpaù syät
sthaëòile tu bhaved dvayam
snapanaà tv avilepyäyäm
anyatra parimärjanam

The Deity that is temporarily established can optionally be called forth and
sent away, but these two rituals should always be performed when the Deity is
traced upon the ground. Bathing should be done with water except if the Deity
is made of clay, paint or wood, in which cases a thorough cleansing without
water is enjoined.

15–dravyaiù prasiddhair mad-yägaù
pratimädiñv amäyinaù
bhaktasya ca yathä-labdhair
hådi bhävena caiva hi

One should worship Me in My Deity forms by offering the most excellent
paraphernalia. But a devotee completely freed from material desire may worship
Me with whatever he is able to obtain, and may even worship Me within his
heart with mental paraphernalia.

16/17–snänälaìkaraëaà preñöham
arcäyäm eva tüddhava
sthaëòile tattva-vinyäso
vahnäv äjya-plutaà haviù
sürye cäbhyarhaëaà preñöhaà
salile salilädibhiù
çraddhayopähåtaà preñöhaà
bhaktena mama väry api

In worshiping the temple Deity, my dear Uddhava, bathing and decoration
are the most pleasing offerings. For the Deity traced on sacred ground, the
process of tattva-vinyäsa is most dear. Oblations of sesame and barley soaked in
ghee are the preferred offering to the sacrificial fire, whereas worship consisting
of upasthäna and arghya is preferred for the sun. One should worship Me in the
form of water by offering water itself. Actually, whatever is offered to Me with
faith by My devotee—even if only a little water—is most dear to Me.

18–bhüry apy abhaktopähåtaà
na me toñäya kalpate
gandho dhüpaù sumanaso
dépo ‘nnädyaà ca kià punaù

Even very opulent presentations do not satisfy Me if they are offered by
nondevotees. But I am pleased by any insignificant offering made by My loving
devotees, and I am certainly most pleased when nice presentations of fragrant
oil, incense, flowers and palatable foods are offered with love.

19–çuciù sambhåta-sambhäraù
präg-darbhaiù kalpitäsanaù
äsénaù präg udag värced
arcäyäà tv atha sammukhaù

After cleansing himself and collecting all the paraphernalia, the worshiper
should arrange his own seat with blades of kuça grass whose tips point eastward.
He should then sit facing either east or north, or else, if the Deity is fixed in
one place, he should sit directly facing the Deity.

20–kåta-nyäsaù kåta-nyäsäà
mad-arcäà päëinämåjet
kalaçaà prokñaëéyaà ca
yathävad upasädhayet

The devotee should sanctify the various parts of his body by touching them
and chanting mantras. He should do the same for My Deity forms and then
with his hands he should clean the Deity of old flowers and the remnants of
previous offerings. He should properly prepare the sacred pot and the vessel
containing water for sprinkling.

21–tad-adbhir deva-yajanaà
dravyäëy ätmänam eva ca
prokñya päträëi tréëy adbhis
tais tair dravyaiç ca sädhayet

Then, with the water of that prokñaëéya vessel he should sprinkle the area
where the Deity is being worshiped, the offerings that are going to be presented,
and his own body. Next he should decorate with various auspicious substances
three vessels filled with water.

22–pädyärghyäcamanéyärthaà
tréëi päträëi deçikaù
hådä çérñëätha çikhayä
gäyatryä cäbhimantrayet

The worshiper should then purify those three vessels. He should sanctify the
vessel holding water for washing the Lord’s feet by chanting hådayäya namaù,
the vessel containing water for arghya by chanting çirase svähä, and the vessel
containing water for washing the Lord’s mouth by chanting çikhäyai vañaö. Also,
the Gäyatré mantra should be chanted for all three vessels.

23–piëòe väyv-agni-saàçuddhe
håt-padma-sthäà paräà mama
aëvéà jéva-kaläà dhyäyen
nädänte siddha-bhävitäm

The worshiper should meditate upon My subtle form—which is situated
within the worshiper’s own body, now purified by air and fire—as the source of
all living entities. This form of the Lord is experienced by self-realized sages in
the last part of the vibration of the sacred syllable oà.

24–tayätma-bhütayä piëòe
vyäpte sampüjya tan-mayaù
ävähyärcädiñu sthäpya
nyastäìgaà mäà prapüjayet

The devotee conceives of the Supersoul, whose presence surcharges the
devotee’s body, in the form corresponding to his realization. Thus the devotee
worships the Lord to his full capacity and becomes fully absorbed in Him. By
touching the various limbs of the Deity and chanting appropriate mantras, the
devotee should invite the Supersoul to join the Deity’s form, and then the
devotee should worship Me.

25/26–pädyopasparçärhaëädén
upacärän prakalpayet
dharmädibhiç ca navabhiù
kalpayitväsanaà mama
padmam añöa-dalaà tatra
karëikä-kesarojjvalam
ubhäbhyäà veda-tanträbhyäà
mahyaà tübhaya-siddhaye

The worshiper should first imagine My seat as decorated with the
personified deities of religion, knowledge, renunciation and opulence and with
My nine spiritual energies. He should think of the Lord’s sitting place as an
eight-petaled lotus, effulgent on account of the saffron filaments within its
whorl. Then, following the regulations of both the Vedas and the tantras, he
should offer Me water for washing the feet, water for washing the mouth,
arghya and other items of worship. By this process he achieves both material
enjoyment and liberation.

27–sudarçanaà päïcajanyaà
gadäséñu-dhanur-halän
muñalaà kaustubhaà mäläà
çrévatsaà cänupüjayet

sudarçanam—the Lord’s disc; päïcajanyam—the Lord’s conchshell; gadä—His
club; asi—sword; iñu—arrows; dhanuù—bow; halän—and plow; muñalam—His
muñala weapon; kaustubham—the Kaustubha gem; mäläm—His garland;
çrévatsam—the decoration of Çrévatsa on His chest; ca—and; anupüjayet—one
should worship one after another.

One should worship, in order, the Lord’s Sudarçana disc, His Päïcajanya
conchshell, His club, sword, bow, arrows and plow, His muñala weapon, His
Kaustubha gem, His flower garland and the Çrévatsa curl of hair on His chest.

28–nandaà sunandaà garuòaà
pracaëòaà caëòaà eva ca
mahäbalaà balaà caiva
kumudaà kamudekñaëam

nandam sunandam garuòam—named Nanda, Sunanda and Garuòa; pracaëòam
caëòam—Pracaëòa and Caëòa; eva—indeed; ca—also; mahä-balam
balam—Mahäbala and Bala; ca—and; eva—indeed; kumudam
kumuda-ékñaëam—Kumuda and Kumudekñaëa.

One should worship the Lord’s associates Nanda and Sunanda, Garuòa,
Pracaëòa and Caëòa, Mahäbala and Bala, and Kumuda and Kumudekñaëa.

29–durgäà vinäyakaà vyäsaà
viñvakñenaà gurün surän
sve sve sthäne tv abhimukhän
püjayet prokñaëädibhiù

With offerings such as prokñaëa one should worship Durgä, Vinäyaka,
Vyäsa, Viñvaksena, the spiritual masters and the various demigods. All these
personalities should be in their proper places facing the Deity of the Lord

30/31–candanoçéra-karpürakuìkumäguru-
väsitaiù
salilaiù snäpayen mantrair
nityadä vibhave sati
svarëa-gharmänuväkena
mahäpuruña-vidyayä
pauruñeëäpi süktena
sämabhé räjanädibhiù

The worshiper should bathe the Deity every day, as opulently as his assets
permit, using waters scented with sandalwood, uçéra root, camphor, kuìkuma
and aguru. He should also chant various Vedic hymns, such as the anuväka
known as Svarëa-gharma, the Mahäpuruña-vidyä, the Puruña-sükta and various
songs of the Säma Veda, such as the Räjana and the Rohiëya.

32–vastropavétäbharaëa
patra-srag-gandha-lepanaiù
alaìkurvéta sa-prema
mad-bhakto mäà yathocitam

My devotee should then lovingly decorate Me with clothing, a brähmaëa
thread, various ornaments, marks of tilaka and garlands, and he should anoint
My body with fragrant oils, all in the prescribed manner.

33–pädyam äcamanéyaà ca
gandhaà sumanaso ‘kñatän
dhüpa-dépopahäryäëi
dadyän me çraddhayärcakaù

The worshiper should faithfully present Me with water for washing My feet
and mouth, fragrant oils, flowers and unbroken grains, along with incense,
lamps and other offerings.

34–guòa-päyasa-sarpéàñi
çañkuly-äpüpa-modakän
saàyäva-dadhi-süpäàç ca
naivedyaà sati kalpayet

guòa—sugar candy; päyasa—sweet rice; sarpéàñi—and ghee; çañkulé—a kind
of large, ear-shaped cake made of rice flour, sugar and sesame and fried in
ghee; äpüpa—various kinds of sweet cakes; modakän—small conical steamed
dumplings made of rice flour and filled with sweet coconut and sugar;
saàyäva—an oblong cake made of wheat, ghee and milk and covered with
sugar and spices; dadhi—yogurt; süpän—vegetable soups; ca—and;
naivedyam—offerings of food; sati—if he has sufficient means; kalpayet—the
devotee should arrange.

Within his means, the devotee should arrange to offer Me sugar candy, sweet
rice, ghee, çañkulé [rice-flour cakes], äpüpa [various sweet cakes], modaka
[steamed rice-flour dumplings filled with sweet coconut and sugar], saàyäva
[wheat cakes made with ghee and milk and covered with sugar and spices],
yogurt, vegetable soups and other palatable foods.

35–abhyaìgonmardanädarçadanta-
dhäväbhiñecanam
annädya-géta-nåtyäni
parvaëi syur utänv-aham

On special occasions, and daily if possible, the Deity should be massaged
with ointment, shown a mirror, offered a eucalyptus stick for brushing His
teeth, bathed with the five kinds of nectar, offered all kinds of opulent foods,
and entertained with singing and dancing.

36–vidhinä vihite kuëòe
mekhalä-garta-vedibhiù
agnim ädhäya paritaù
samühet päëinoditam

In an arena constructed according to scriptural injunctions, the devotee
should perform a fire sacrifice, utilizing the sacred belt, the sacrificial pit and
the altar mound. When igniting the sacrificial fire, the devotee should bring it
to a blaze with wood piled up by his own hands.

37–paristéryätha paryukñed
anvädhäya yathä-vidhi
prokñaëyäsädya dravyäëi
prokñyägnau bhävayeta mäm

After spreading kuça grass on the ground and sprinkling it with water, one
should perform the anvädhäna ritual according to the prescribed rules. Then
one should arrange the items to be offered as oblations and should sanctify them
with water from the sprinkling vessel. The worshiper should next meditate
upon Me within the fire.

38/39/40/41–tapta-jämbünada-prakhyaà
çaìkha-cakra-gadämbujaiù
lasac-catur-bhujaà çäntaà
padma-kiïjalka-väsasam
sphurat-kiréöa-kaöaka
kaöi-sütra-varäìgadam
çrévatsa-vakñasaà bhräjatkaustubhaà
vana-mälinam
dhyäyann abhyarcya därüëi
haviñäbhighåtäni ca
präsyäjya-bhägäv äghärau
dattvä cäjya-plutaà haviù
juhuyän müla-mantreëa
ñoòaçarcävadänataù
dharmädibhyo yathä-nyäyaà
mantraiù sviñöi-kåtaà budhaù

The intelligent devotee should meditate upon that form of the Lord whose
color is like molten gold, whose four arms are resplendent with the conchshell,
disc, club and lotus flower, and who is always peaceful and dressed in a garment
colored like the filaments within a lotus flower. His helmet, bracelets, belt and
1865
fine arm ornaments shine brilliantly. The symbol of Çrévatsa is on His chest,
along with the glowing Kaustubha gem and a garland of forest flowers. The
devotee should then worship that Lord by taking pieces of firewood soaked in
the sacrificial ghee and throwing them into the fire. He should perform the
ritual of äghära, presenting into the fire the various items of oblation drenched
in ghee. He should then offer to sixteen demigods, beginning with Yamaräja,
the oblation called sviñöi-kåt, reciting the basic mantras of each deity and the
sixteen-line Puruña-sükta hymn. Pouring one oblation after each line of the
Puruña-sükta, he should utter the particular mantra naming each deity

42–abhyarcyätha namaskåtya
pärñadebhyo balià haret
müla-mantraà japed brahma
smaran näräyaëätmakam

Having thus worshiped the Lord in the sacrificial fire, the devotee should
offer his obeisances to the Lord’s personal associates by bowing down and
should then present offerings to them. He should then chant quietly the
müla-mantra of the Deity of the Lord, remembering the Absolute Truth as the
Supreme Personality, Näräyaëa

43–dattväcamanam uccheñaà
viñvakñenäya kalpayet
mukha-väsaà surabhimat
tämbülädyam athärhayet

Once again he should offer the Deity water for washing His mouth, and he
should give the remnants of the Lord’s food to Viñvaksena. Then he should
present the Deity with fragrant perfume for the mouth and prepared betel nut.

44–upagäyan gåëan nåtyan
karmäëy abhinayan mama
mat-kathäù çrävayan çåëvan
muhürtaà kñaëiko bhavet

Singing along with others, chanting loudly and dancing, acting out My
transcendental pastimes, and hearing and telling stories about Me, the devotee
should for some time absorb himself in such festivity.

45–stavair uccävacaiù stotraiù
pauräëaiù präkåtair api
stutvä praséda bhagavann
iti vandeta daëòa-vat

The devotee should offer homage to the Lord with all kinds of hymns and
prayers, both from the Puräëas and from other ancient scriptures, and also from
ordinary traditions. Praying, “O Lord, please be merciful to me! “he should fall
down flat like a rod to offer his obeisances.

46–çiro mat-pädayoù kåtvä
bähubhyäà ca parasparam
prapannaà pähi mäm éça
bhétaà måtyu-grahärëavät

Placing his head at the feet of the Deity, he should then stand with folded
hands before the Lord and pray, “O my Lord, please protect me, who am
surrendered unto You. I am most fearful of this ocean of material existence,
standing as I am in the mouth of death.”

47–iti çeñäà mayä dattäà
çirasy ädhäya sädaram
udväsayec ced udväsyaà
jyotir jyotiñi tat punaù

Praying in this way, the devotee should respectfully place upon his head the
remnants I offer to him. And if the particular Deity is meant to be sent away at
the end of the worship, then this should be performed, the devotee once again
placing the light of the Deity’s presence inside the light of the lotus within his
own heart.

48–arcädiñu yadä yatra
çraddhä mäà tatra cärcayet
sarva-bhüteñv ätmani ca
sarvätmäham avasthitaù

Whenever one develops faith in Me—in My form as the Deity or in other
bona fide manifestations—one should worship Me in that form. I certainly exist
both within all created beings and also separately in My original form, since I
am the Supreme Soul of all.

49–evaà kriyä-yoga-pathaiù
pumän vaidika-täntrikaiù
arcann ubhayataù siddhià
matto vindaty abhépsitäm

By worshiping Me through the various methods prescribed in the Vedas and
tantras, one will gain from Me his desired perfection in both this life and the
next.

50–mad-arcäà sampratiñöhäpya
mandiraà kärayed dåòham
puñpodyänäni ramyäëi
püjä-yätrotsaväçritän

mat-arcäm—My Deity form; sampratiñöhäpya—properly establishing;
mandiram—a temple; kärayet—he should construct; dåòham—strong;
puñpa-udyänäni—flower gardens; ramyäëi—beautiful; püjä—for regular, daily
worship; yäträ—special festivals; utsava—and yearly holidays; äçritän—set
aside.

The devotee should more fully establish My Deity by solidly constructing a
temple, along with beautiful gardens. These gardens should be set aside to
provide flowers for the regular daily worship, special Deity processions and
holiday observances.

51–püjädénäà pravähärthaà
mahä-parvasv athänv-aham
kñeträpaëa-pura-grämän
dattvä mat-särñöitäm iyät

One who offers the Deity gifts of land, markets, cities and villages so that
the regular daily worship and special festivals of the Deity may go on
continually will achieve opulence equal to My own.

52–pratiñöhayä särvabhaumaà
sadmanä bhuvana-trayam
püjädinä brahma-lokaà
tribhir mat-sämyatäm iyät

By installing the Deity of the Lord one becomes king of the entire earth, by
building a temple for the Lord one becomes ruler of the three worlds, by
worshiping and serving the Deity one goes to the planet of Lord Brahmä, and by
performing all three of these activities one achieves a transcendental form like
My own.

53–mäm eva nairapekñyeëa
bhakti-yogena vindati
bhakti-yogaà sa labhata
evaà yaù püjayeta mäm

But one who simply engages in devotional service with no consideration of
fruitive results attains Me. Thus whoever worships Me according to the process
I have described will ultimately attain pure devotional service unto Me.

54–yaù sva-dattäà parair dattäà
hareta sura-viprayoù
våttià sa jäyate viò-bhug
varñäëäm ayutäyutam

Anyone who steals the property of the demigods or the brähmaëas, whether
originally given to them by himself or someone else, must live as a worm in
stool for one hundred million years.

55–kartuç ca särather hetor
anumoditur eva ca
karmaëäà bhäginaù pretya
bhüyo bhüyasi tat-phalam

kartuù—of the performer; ca—and; säratheù—of the assistant; hetoù—of the
instigator; anumodituù—of the person who approves; eva ca—also;
karmaëäm—of the fruitive reactions; bhäginaù—of the shareholder;
pretya—in the next life; bhüyaù—more grievously; bhüyasi—to the extent that
the action is grievous; tat—(must suffer) of that; phalam—the result.

Not only the performer of the theft but also anyone who assists him,
instigates the crime, or simply approves of it must also share the reaction in the
next life. According to their degree of participation, they each must suffer a
proportionate consequence.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty Five-The Three Modes of Nature and Beyond..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-bhagavän uväca
guëänäm asammiçräëäà
pumän yena yathä bhavet
tan me puruña-varyedam
upadhäraya çaàsataù

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O best among men, please listen
as I describe to you how the living entity attains a particular nature by
association with individual material modes.

2/3/4/5–çamo damas titikñekñä
tapaù satyaà dayä småtiù
tuñöis tyägo ‘spåhä çraddhä
hrér dayädiù sva-nirvåtiù
käma éhä madas tåñëä
stambha äçér bhidä sukham
madotsäho yaçaù-prétir
häsyaà véryaà balodyamaù
krodho lobho ‘nåtaà hiàsä
yäcïä dambhaù klamaù kaliù
çoka-mohau viñädärté
nidräçä bhér anudyamaù
sattvasya rajasaç caitäs
tamasaç cänupürvaçaù
våttayo varëita-präyäù
sannipätam atho çåëu

Mind and sense control, tolerance, discrimination, sticking to one’s
prescribed duty, truthfulness, mercy, careful study of the past and future,
satisfaction in any condition, generosity, renunciation of sense gratification,
faith in the spiritual master, being embarrassed at improper action, charity,
simplicity, humbleness and satisfaction within oneself are qualities of the mode
of goodness. Material desire, great endeavor, audacity, dissatisfaction even in
gain, false pride, praying for material advancement, considering oneself different
and better than others, sense gratification, rash eagerness to fight, a fondness
for hearing oneself praised, the tendency to ridicule others, advertising one’s
own prowess and justifying one’s actions by one’s strength are qualities of the
mode of passion. Intolerant anger, stinginess, speaking without scriptural
authority, violent hatred, living as a parasite, hypocrisy, chronic fatigue,
quarrel, lamentation, delusion, unhappiness, depression, sleeping too much,
false expectations, fear and laziness constitute the major qualities of the mode of
ignorance. Now please hear about the combination of these three modes.

6–sannipätas tv aham iti
mamety uddhava yä matiù
vyavahäraù sannipäto
mano-mätrendriyäsubhiù

My dear Uddhava, the combination of all three modes is present in the
mentality of “I” and “mine.” The ordinary transactions of this world, which are
carried out through the agency of the mind, the objects of perception, the senses
and the vital airs of the physical body, are also based on the combination of the
modes.

7–dharme cärthe ca käme ca
yadäsau pariniñöhitaù
guëänäà sannikarño ‘yaà
çraddhä-rati-dhanävahaù

When a person devotes himself to religiosity, economic development and
sense gratification, the faith, wealth and sensual enjoyment obtained by his
endeavors display the interaction of the three modes of nature.

8–pravåtti-lakñaëe niñöhä
pumän yarhi gåhäçrame
sva-dharme cänu tiñöheta
guëänäà samitir hi sä

When a man desires sense gratification, being attached to family life, and
when he consequently becomes established in religious and occupational duties,
the combination of the modes of nature is manifest

9–puruñaà sattva-saàyuktam
anuméyäc chamädibhiù
kämädibhé rajo-yuktaà
krodhädyais tamasä yutam

A person exhibiting qualities such as self-control is understood to be
predominantly in the mode of goodness. Similarly, a passionate person is
recognized by his lust, and one in ignorance is recognized by qualities such as
anger.

10–yadä bhajati mäà bhaktyä
nirapekñaù sva-karmabhiù
taà sattva-prakåtià vidyät
puruñaà striyam eva vä

Any person, whether man or woman, who worships Me with loving
devotion, offering his or her prescribed duties unto Me without material
attachment, is understood to be situated in goodness.

11–yadä äçiña äçäsya
mäà bhajeta sva-karmabhiù
taà rajaù-prakåtià vidyät
hiàsäm äçäsya tämasam

When a person worships Me by his prescribed duties with the hope of
gaining material benefit, his nature should be understood to be in passion, and
one who worships Me with the desire to commit violence against others is in
ignorance.

12–sattvaà rajas tama iti
guëä jévasya naiva me
citta-jä yais tu bhütänäà
sajjamäno nibadhyate

The three modes of material nature—goodness, passion and
ignorance—influence the living entity but not Me. Manifesting within his
mind, they induce the living entity to become attached to material bodies and
other created objects. In this way the living entity is bound up.

13–yadetarau jayet sattvaà
bhäsvaraà viçadaà çivam
tadä sukhena yujyeta
dharma-jïänädibhiù pumän

When the mode of goodness, which is luminous, pure and auspicious,
predominates over passion and ignorance, a man becomes endowed with
happiness, virtue, knowledge and other good qualities.

14–yadä jayet tamaù sattvaà
rajaù saìgaà bhidä calam
tadä duùkhena yujyeta
karmaëä yaçasä çriyä

When the mode of passion, which causes attachment, separatism and
activity, conquers ignorance and goodness, a man begins to work hard to acquire
prestige and fortune. Thus in the mode of passion he experiences anxiety and
struggle

15–yadä jayed rajaù sattvaà
tamo müòhaà layaà jaòam
yujyeta çoka-mohäbhyäà
nidrayä hiàsayäçayä

When the mode of ignorance conquers passion and goodness, it covers one’s
consciousness and makes one foolish and dull. Falling into lamentation and
illusion, a person in the mode of ignorance sleeps excessively, indulges in false
hopes, and displays violence toward others.

16-yadä cittaà prasédeta
indriyäëäà ca nirvåtiù
dehe ‘bhayaà mano-‘saìgaà
tat sattvaà viddhi mat-padam

When consciousness becomes clear and the senses are detached from matter,
one experiences fearlessness within the material body and detachment from the
material mind. You should understand this situation to be the predominance of
the mode of goodness, in which one has the opportunity to realize Me.

17–vikurvan kriyayä cä-dhér
anivåttiç ca cetasäm
gäträsvästhyaà mano bhräntaà
raja etair niçämaya

You should discern the mode of passion by its symptoms—the distortion of
the intelligence because of too much activity, the inability of the perceiving
senses to disentangle themselves from mundane objects, an unhealthy condition
of the working physical organs, and the unsteady perplexity of the mind.

18–sédac cittaà viléyeta
cetaso grahaëe ‘kñamam
mano nañöaà tamo glänis
tamas tad upadhäraya

When one’s higher awareness fails and finally disappears and one is thus
unable to concentrate his attention, his mind is ruined and manifests ignorance
and depression. You should understand this situation to be the predominance of
the mode of ignorance.

19–edhamäne guëe sattve
devänäà balam edhate
asuräëäà ca rajasi
tamasy uddhava rakñasäm

With the increase of the mode of goodness, the strength of the demigods
similarly increases. When passion increases, the demoniac become strong. And
with the rise of ignorance, O Uddhava, the strength of the most wicked
increases.

20–sattväj jägaraëaà vidyäd
rajasä svapnam ädiçet
prasväpaà tamasä jantos
turéyaà triñu santatam

It should be understood that alert wakefulness comes from the mode of
goodness, sleep with dreaming from the mode of passion, and deep, dreamless
sleep from the mode of ignorance. The fourth state of consciousness pervades
these three and is transcendental.

21–upary upari gacchanti
sattvena brähmaëä janäù
tamasädho ‘dha ä-mukhyäd
rajasäntara-cäriëaù

Learned persons dedicated to Vedic culture are elevated by the mode of
goodness to higher and higher positions. The mode of ignorance, on the other
hand, forces one to fall headfirst into lower and lower births. And by the mode
of passion one continues transmigrating through human bodies.

22–sattve pralénäù svar yänti
nara-lokaà rajo-layäù
tamo-layäs tu nirayaà
yänti mäm eva nirguëäù

Those who leave this world in the mode of goodness go to the heavenly
planets, those who pass away in the mode of passion remain in the world of
human beings, and those dying in the mode of ignorance must go to hell. But
those who are free from the influence of all modes of nature come to Me.

23–mad-arpaëaà niñphalaà vä
sättvikaà nija-karma tat
räjasaà phala-saìkalpaà
hiàsä-präyädi tämasam

mat-arpaëam—offered unto Me; niñphalam—done without expectation of
result; vä—and; sättvikam—in the mode of goodness; nija—accepted as one’s
prescribed duty; karma—work; tat—that; räjasam—in the mode of passion;
phala-saìkalpam—done in expectation of some result; hiàsä-präya-ädi—done
with violence, envy and so on; tämasam—in the mode of ignorance.

Work performed as an offering to Me, without consideration of the fruit, is
considered to be in the mode of goodness. Work performed with a desire to
enjoy the results is in the mode of passion. And work impelled by violence and
envy is in the mode of ignorance.

24–kaivalyaà sättvikaà jïänaà
rajo vaikalpikaà ca yat
präkåtaà tämasaà jïänaà
man-niñöhaà nirguëaà småtam

Absolute knowledge is in the mode of goodness, knowledge based on duality
is in the mode of passion, and foolish, materialistic knowledge is in the mode of
ignorance. Knowledge based upon Me, however, is understood to be
transcendental

25–vanaà tu sättviko väso
grämo räjasa ucyate
tämasaà dyüta-sadanaà
man-niketaà tu nirguëam

Residence in the forest is in the mode of goodness, residence in a town is in
the mode of passion, residence in a gambling house displays the quality of
ignorance, and residence in a place where I reside is transcendental.

26–sättvikaù kärako ‘saìgé
rägändho räjasaù småtaù
tämasaù småti-vibhrañöo
nirguëo mad-apäçrayaù

A worker free of attachment is in the mode of goodness, a worker blinded by
personal desire is in the mode of passion, and a worker who has completely
forgotten how to tell right from wrong is in the mode of ignorance. But a
worker who has taken shelter of Me is understood to be transcendental to the
modes of nature.

27–sättviky ädhyätmiké çraddhä
karma-çraddhä tu räjasé
tämasy adharme yä çraddhä
mat-seväyäà tu nirguëä

Faith directed toward spiritual life is in the mode of goodness, faith rooted in
fruitive work is in the mode of passion, faith residing in irreligious activities is
in the mode of ignorance, but faith in My devotional service is purely
transcendental.

28–pathyaà pütam anäyastam
ähäryaà sättvikaà småtam
räjasaà cendriya-preñöhaà
tämasaà cärti-däçuci

Food that is wholesome, pure and obtained without difficulty is in the mode
of goodness, food that gives immediate pleasure to the senses is in the mode of
passion, and food that is unclean and causes distress is in the mode of ignorance.

29–sättvikaà sukham ätmotthaà
viñayotthaà tu räjasam
tämasaà moha-dainyotthaà
nirguëaà mad-apäçrayam

Happiness derived from the self is in the mode of goodness, happiness based
on sense gratification is in the mode of passion, and happiness based on delusion
and degradation is in the mode of ignorance. But that happiness found within
Me is transcendental.

30–dravyaà deçaù phalaà kälo
jïänaà karma ca kärakaù
çraddhävasthäkåtir niñöhä
trai-guëyaù sarva eva hi

Therefore material substance, place, result of activity, time, knowledge,
work, the performer of work, faith, state of consciousness, species of life and
destination after death are all based on the three modes of material nature.

31–sarve guëa-mayä bhäväù
puruñävyakta-dhiñöhitäù
dåñöaà çrutaà anudhyätaà
buddhyä vä puruñarñabha

O best of human beings, all states of material being are related to the
interaction of the enjoying soul and material nature. Whether seen, heard of or
only conceived within the mind, they are without exception constituted of the
modes of nature.

32–etäù saàsåtayaù puàso
guëa-karma-nibandhanäù
yeneme nirjitäù saumya
guëä jévena citta-jäù
bhakti-yogena man-niñöho
mad-bhäväya prapadyate

O gentle Uddhava, all these different phases of conditioned life arise from
work born of the modes of material nature. The living entity who conquers
these modes, manifested from the mind, can dedicate himself to Me by the
process of devotional service and thus attain pure love for Me.

33–tasmäd deham imaà labdhvä
jïäna-vijïäna-sambhavam
guëa-saìgaà vinirdhüya
mäà bhajantu vicakñaëäù

Therefore, having achieved this human form of life, which allows one to
develop full knowledge, those who are intelligent should free themselves from
all contamination of the modes of nature and engage exclusively in loving
service to Me.

34–niùsaìgo mäà bhajed vidvän
apramatto jitendriyaù
rajas tamaç cäbhijayet
sattva-saàsevayä muniù

A wise sage, free from all material association and unbewildered, should
subdue his senses and worship Me. He should conquer the modes of passion and
ignorance by engaging himself only with things in the mode of goodness.

35–sattvaà cäbhijayed yukto
nairapekñyeëa çänta-dhéù
sampadyate guëair mukto
jévo jévaà vihäya mäm

Then, being fixed in devotional service, the sage should also conquer the
material mode of goodness by indifference toward the modes. Thus pacified
within his mind, the spirit soul, freed from the modes of nature, gives up the
very cause of his conditioned life and attains Me.

36–jévo jéva-vinirmukto
guëaiç cäçaya-sambhavaiù
mayaiva brahmaëä pürëo
na bahir näntaraç caret

Freed from the subtle conditioning of the mind and from the modes of
nature born of material consciousness, the living entity becomes completely
satisfied by experiencing My transcendental form. He no longer searches for
enjoyment in the external energy, nor does he contemplate or remember such
enjoyment within himself.

37–

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty Four-The Philosophy of Sankhya..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-bhagavän uväca
atha te sampravakñyämi
säìkhyaà pürvair viniçcitam
yad vijïäya pumän sadyo
jahyäd vaikalpikaà bhramam

Lord Çré Kåñëa said: Now I shall describe to you the science of Säìkhya,
which has been perfectly established by ancient authorities. By understanding
this science a person can immediately give up the illusion of material duality.

2–äséj jïänam atho artha
ekam evävikalpitam
yadä viveka-nipuëä
ädau kåta-yuge ‘yuge

Originally, during the Kåta-yuga, when all men were very expert in spiritual
discrimination, and also previous to that, during the period of annihilation, the
seer existed alone, nondifferent from the seen object.

3–tan mäyä-phala-rüpeëa
kevalaà nirvikalpitam
väì-mano-‘gocaraà satyaà
dvidhä samabhavad båhat

That one Absolute Truth, remaining free from material dualities and
inaccessible to ordinary speech and mind, divided Himself into two
categories—the material nature and the living entities who are trying to enjoy
the manifestations of that nature.

4–tayor ekataro hy arthaù
prakåtiù sobhayätmikä
jïänaà tv anyatamo bhävaù
puruñaù so ‘bhidhéyate

Of these two categories of manifestation, one is material nature, which
embodies both the subtle causes and manifests products of matter. The other is
the conscious living entity, designated as the enjoyer.

5–tamo rajaù sattvam iti
prakåter abhavan guëäù
mayä prakñobhyamäëäyäù
puruñänumatena ca

When material nature was agitated by My glance, the three material
modes—goodness, passion and ignorance—became manifest to fulfill the
pending desires of the conditioned souls.

6–tebhyaù samabhavat sütraà
mahän sütreëa saàyutaù
tato vikurvato jäto
yo ‘haìkäro vimohanaù

From these modes arose the primeval sütra, along with the mahat-tattva. By
the transformation of the mahat-tattva was generated the false ego, the cause of
the living entities’ bewilderment.

7–vaikärikas taijasaç ca
tämasaç cety ahaà tri-våt
tan-mätrendriya-manasäà
käraëaà cid-acin-mayaù

False ego, which is the cause of physical sensation, the senses, and the mind,
encompasses both spirit and matter and manifests, in three varieties: in the
modes of goodness, passion and ignorance.

8–arthas tan-mätrikäj jajïe
tämasäd indriyäëi ca
taijasäd devatä äsann
ekädaça ca vaikåtät

From false ego in the mode of ignorance came the subtle physical
perceptions, from which the gross elements were generated. From false ego in
the mode of passion came the senses, and from false ego in the mode of goodness
arose the eleven demigods.

9–mayä saïcoditä bhäväù
sarve saàhatya-käriëaù
aëòam utpädayäm äsur
mamäyatanam uttamam

Impelled by Me, all these elements combined to function in an orderly
fashion and together gave birth to the universal egg, which is My excellent place
of residence.

10–tasminn ahaà samabhavam
aëòe salila-saàsthitau
mama näbhyäm abhüt padmaà
viçväkhyaà tatra cätma-bhüù

I Myself appeared within that egg, which was floating on the causal water,
and from My navel arose the universal lotus, the birthplace of self-born
Brahmä.

11–so ‘såjat tapasä yukto
rajasä mad-anugrahät
lokän sa-pälän viçvätmä
bhür bhuvaù svar iti tridhä

Lord Brahmä, the soul of the universe, being endowed with the mode of
passion, performed great austerities by My mercy and thus created the three
planetary divisions, called Bhür, Bhuvar and Svar, along with their presiding
deities.

12–devänäm oka äsét svar
bhütänäà ca bhuvaù padam
martyädénäà ca bhür lokaù
siddhänäà tritayät param

Heaven was established as the residence of the demigods, Bhuvarloka as that
of the ghostly spirits, and the earth system as the place of human beings and
other mortal creatures. Those mystics who strive for liberation are promoted
beyond these three divisions.

13–adho ‘suräëäà nägänäà
bhümer oko ‘såjat prabhuù
tri-lokyäà gatayaù sarväù
karmaëäà tri-guëätmanäm

Lord Brahmä created the region below the earth for the demons and the
Näga snakes. In this way the destinations of the three worlds were arranged as
the corresponding reactions for different kinds of work performed within the
three modes of nature.

14–yogasya tapasaç caiva
nyäsasya gatayo ‘maläù
mahar janas tapaù satyaà
bhakti-yogasya mad-gatiù

By mystic yoga, great austerities and the renounced order of life, the pure
destinations of Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka are attained. But
by devotional yoga, one achieves My transcendental abode.

15-mayä kälätmanä dhäträ
karma-yuktam idaà jagat
guëa-praväha etasminn
unmajjati nimajjati

All results of fruitive work have been arranged within this world by Me, the
supreme creator acting as the force of time. Thus one sometimes rises up toward
the surface of this mighty river of the modes of nature and sometimes again
submerges.

16–aëur båhat kåçaù sthülo
yo yo bhävaù prasidhyati
sarvo ‘py ubhaya-saàyuktaù
prakåtyä puruñeëa ca

Whatever features visibly exist within this world—small or great, thin or
stout—certainly contain both the material nature and its enjoyer, the spirit
soul.

17–yas tu yasyädir antaç ca
sa vai madhyaà ca tasya san
vikäro vyavahärärtho
yathä taijasa-pärthiväù

Gold and earth are originally existing as ingredients. From gold one may
fashion golden ornaments such as bracelets and earrings, and from earth one
may fashion clay pots and saucers. The original ingredients gold and earth exist
before the products made from them, and when the products are eventually
destroyed, the original ingredients, gold and earth, will remain. Thus, since the
ingredients are present in the beginning and at the end, they must also be
present in the middle phase, taking the form of a particular product to which we
assign for convenience a particular name, such as bracelet, earring, pot or
saucer. We can therefore understand that since the ingredient cause exists
before the creation of a product and after the product’s destruction, the same
ingredient cause must be present during the manifest phase, supporting the
product as the basis of its reality.

18–yad upädäya pürvas tu
bhävo vikurute ‘param
ädir anto yadä yasya
tat satyam abhidhéyate

A material object, itself composed of an essential ingredient, creates another
material object through transformation. Thus one created object becomes the
cause and basis of another created object. A particular thing may thus be called
real in that it possesses the basic nature of another object that constitutes its
origin and final state.

19–prakåtir yasyopädänam
ädhäraù puruñaù paraù
sato ‘bhivyaïjakaù kälo
brahma tat tritayaà tv aham

The material universe may be considered real, having nature as its original
ingredient and final state. Lord Mahä-Viñëu is the resting place of nature,
which becomes manifest by the power of time. Thus nature, the almighty Viñëu
and time are not different from Me, the Supreme Absolute Truth.

20–sargaù pravartate tävat
paurväparyeëa nityaçaù
mahän guëa-visargärthaù
sthity-anto yävad ékñaëam

As long as the Supreme Personality of Godhead continues to glance upon
nature, the material world continues to exist, perpetually manifesting through
procreation the great and variegated flow of universal creation.

21–viräë mayäsädyamäno
loka-kalpa-vikalpakaù
païcatväya viçeñäya
kalpate bhuvanaiù saha

I am the basis of the universal form, which displays endless variety through
the repeated creation, maintenance and destruction of the planetary systems.
Originally containing within itself all planets in their dormant state, My
universal form manifests the varieties of created existence by arranging the
coordinated combination of the five elements.

22/23/24/25/26/27–anne praléyate martyam
annaà dhänäsu léyate
dhänä bhümau praléyante
bhümir gandhe praléyate
apsu praléyate gandha
äpaç ca sva-guëe rase
léyate jyotiñi raso
jyoté rüpe praléyate
rüpaà väyau sa ca sparçe
léyate so ‘pi cämbare
ambaraà çabda-tan-mätra
indriyäëi sva-yoniñu
yonir vaikärike saumya
léyate manaséçvare
çabdo bhütädim apyeti
bhütädir mahati prabhuù
sa léyate mahän sveñu
guëesu guëa-vattamaù
te ‘vyakte sampraléyante
tat käle léyate ‘vyaye

kälo mäyä-maye jéve
jéva ätmani mayy aje
ätmä kevala ätma-stho
vikalpäpäya-lakñaëaù

At the time of annihilation, the mortal body of the living being becomes
merged into food. Food merges into the grains, and the grains merge back into
the earth. The earth merges into its subtle sensation, fragrance. Fragrance
merges into water, and water further merges into its own quality, taste. That
taste merges into fire, which merges into form. Form merges into touch, and
touch merges into ether. Ether finally merges into the sensation of sound. The
senses all merge into their own origins, the presiding demigods, and they, O
gentle Uddhava, merge into the controlling mind, which itself merges into false
ego in the mode of goodness. Sound becomes one with false ego in the mode of
ignorance, and all-powerful false ego, the first of all the physical elements,
merges into the total nature. The total material nature, the primary repository
of the three basic modes, dissolves into the modes. These modes of nature then
merge into the unmanifest form of nature, and that unmanifest form merges
into time. Time merges into the Supreme Lord, present in the form of the
omniscient Mahä-puruña, the original activator of all living beings. That origin
of all life merges into Me, the unborn Supreme Soul, who remains alone,
established within Himself. It is from Him that all creation and annihilation are
manifested.

28–evam anvékñamäëasya
kathaà vaikalpiko bhramaù
manaso hådi tiñöheta
vyomnévärkodaye tamaù

Just as the rising sun removes the darkness of the sky, similarly, this
scientific knowledge of cosmic annihilation removes all illusory duality from the
mind of a serious student. Even if illusion somehow enters his heart, it cannot
remain there.

29–eña säìkhya-vidhiù proktaù
saàçaya-granthi-bhedanaù
pratilomänulomäbhyäà
parävara-dåça mayä

Thus I, the perfect seer of everything material and spiritual, have spoken
this knowledge of Säìkhya, which destroys the illusion of doubt by scientific
analysis of creation and annihilation.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty Three-The Song of the Avanté Brähmanna…

January 7, 2010

1–çré-bädaräyaëir uväca
sa evam äçaàsita uddhavena
bhägavata-mukhyena däçärha-mukhyaù
sabhäjayan bhåtya-vaco mukundas
tam äbabhäñe çravaëéya-véryaù

Çukadeva Gosvämé said: Lord Mukunda, the chief of the Däçärhas, having
thus been respectfully requested by the best of His devotees, Çré Uddhava, first
acknowledged the fitness of his servant’s statements. Then the Lord, whose
glorious exploits are most worthy of being heard, began to reply to him.

2–çré-bhagavän uväca
bärhaspatya sa nästy atra
sädhur vai durjaneritaiù
duraktair bhinnam ätmänaà
yaù samädhätum éçvaraù

Lord Çré Kåñëa said: O disciple of Båhaspati, there is virtually no saintly man
in this world capable of resettling his own mind after it has been disturbed by
the insulting words of uncivilized men.

3–na tathä tapyate viddhaù
pumän bäëais tu marma-gaiù
yathä tudanti marma-sthä
hy asatäà paruñeñavaù

Sharp arrows which pierce one’s chest and reach the heart do not cause as
much suffering as the arrows of harsh, insulting words that become lodged
within the heart when spoken by uncivilized men.

4–kathayanti mahat puëyam
itihäsam ihoddhava
tam ahaà varëayiñyämi
nibodha su-samähitaù

My dear Uddhava, in this regard a most pious story is told, and I shall now
describe it to you. Please listen with careful attention.

5–kenacid bhikñuëä gétaà
paribhütena durjanaiù
smaratä dhåti-yuktena
vipäkaà nija-karmaëäm

Once a certain sannyäsé was insulted in many ways by impious men.
However, with determination he remembered that he was suffering the fruit of
his own previous karma. I will narrate to you his story and that which he spoke.

6–avantiñu dvijaù kaçcid
äséd äòhyatamaù çriyä
värtä-våttiù kadaryas tu
kämé lubdho ‘ti-kopanaù

In the country of Avanté there once lived a certain brähmaëa who was very
rich and gifted with all opulences, and who was engaged in the occupation of
commerce. But he was a miserly person—lusty, greedy and very prone to anger

7–jïätayo ‘tithayas tasya
väì-mätreëäpi närcitäù
çünyävasatha ätmäpi
käle kämair anarcitaù

In his home, devoid of religiosity and lawful sense gratification, the family
members and guests were never properly respected, even with words. He would
not even allow sufficient gratification for his own body at the suitable times.

8–duhçélasya kadaryasya
druhyante putra-bändhaväù
därä duhitaro bhåtyä
viñaëëä näcaran priyam

Since he was so hardhearted and miserly, his sons, in-laws, wife, daughters
and servants began to feel inimical toward him. Becoming disgusted, they would
never treat him with affection.

9–tasyaivaà yakña-vittasya
cyutasyobhaya-lokataù
dharma-käma-vihénasya
cukrudhuù païca-bhäginaù

In this way the presiding deities of the five family sacrifices became angry at
the båähmaëa, who, being niggardly, guarded his wealth like a Yakña, who had
no good destination either in this world or the next, and who was totally
deprived of religiosity and sense enjoyment.

10–tad-avadhyäna-visrastapuëya-
skandhasya bhüri-da
artho ‘py agacchan nidhanaà
bahv-äyäsa-pariçramaù

O magnanimous Uddhava, by his neglect of these demigods he depleted his
stock of piety and all his wealth. The accumulation of his repeated exhaustive
endeavors was totally lost.

11–jïätyo jagåhuù kiïcit
kiïcid dasyava uddhava
daivataù kälataù kiïcid
brahma-bandhor nå-pärthivät

Some of the wealth of this so-called brähmaëa was taken away by his
relatives, My dear Uddhava, some by thieves, some by the whims of providence,
some by the effects of time, some by ordinary men and some by government
authorities.

12–sa evaà draviëe nañöe
dharma-käma-vivarjitaù
upekñitaç ca sva-janaiç
cintäm äpa duratyayäm

Finally, when his property was completely lost, he who never engaged in
religiosity or sense enjoyment became ignored by his family members. Thus he
began to feel unbearable anxiety

13–tasyaivaà dhyäyato dérghaà
nañöa-räyas tapasvinaù
khidyato bäñpa-kaëöhasya
nirvedaù su-mahän abhüt

Having lost all his wealth, he felt great pain and lamentation. His throat
choked up with tears, and he meditated for a long time on his fortune. Then a
powerful feeling of renunciation came over him.

14–sa cähedam aho kañöaà
våthätmä me ‘nutäpitaù
na dharmäya na kämäya
yasyärthäyäsa édåçaù

The brähmaëa spoke as follows: O what great misfortune! I have simply
tormented myself uselessly, struggling so hard for money that was not even
intended for religiosity or material enjoyment.

15–präyeëäthäù kadaryäëäà
na sukhäya kadäcana
iha cätmopatäpäya
måtasya narakäya ca

Generally, the wealth of misers never allows them any happiness. In this life
it causes their self-torment, and when they die it sends them to hell.

16–yaço yaçasvinäà çuddhaà
çläghyä ye guëinäà guëäù
lobhaù sv-alpo ‘pi tän hanti
çvitro rüpam ivepsitam

Whatever pure fame is possessed by the famous and whatever praiseworthy
qualities are found in the virtuous are destroyed by even a small amount of
greed, just as one’s attractive physical beauty is ruined by a trace of white
leprosy.

17–arthasya sädhane siddhe
utkarñe rakñaëe vyaye
näçopabhoga äyäsas
träsaç cintä bhramo nåëäm

In the earning, attainment, increase, protection, expense, loss and enjoyment
of wealth, all men experience great labor, fear, anxiety and delusion.

18/19–steyaà hiàsänåtaà dambhaù
kämaù krodhaù smayo madaù
bhedo vairam aviçväsaù
saàspardhä vyasanäni ca
ete païcadaçänarthä
hy artha-mülä matä nåëäm
tasmäd anartham arthäkhyaà
çreyo-‘rthé düratas tyajet

Theft, violence, speaking lies, duplicity, lust, anger, perplexity, pride,
quarreling, enmity, faithlessness, envy and the dangers caused by women,
gambling and intoxication are the fifteen undesirable qualities that contaminate
men because of greed for wealth. Although these qualities are undesirable, men
falsely ascribe value to them. One desiring to achieve the real benefit of life
should therefore remain aloof from undesirable material wealth

20–bhidyante bhrätaro däräù
pitaraù suhådas tathä
ekäsnigdhäù käkiëinä
sadyaù sarve ‘rayaù kåtäù

Even a man’s brothers, wife, parents and friends united with him in love will
immediately break off their affectionate relationships and become enemies over
a single coin.

21–arthenälpéyasä hy ete
saàrabdhä dépta-manyavaù
tyajanty äçu spådho ghnanti
sahasotsåjya sauhådam

For even a small amount of money these relatives and friends become very
agitated and their anger is inflamed. Acting as rivals, they quickly give up all
sentiments of goodwill and will reject one at a moment’s notice, even to the
point of committing murder.

22–labdhvä janmämara-prärthyaà
mänuñyaà tad dvijägryatäm
tad anädåtya ye svärthaà
ghnanti yänty açubhäà gatim

Those who obtain human life, which is prayed for even by the demigods, and
in that human birth become situated as first-class brähmaëas, are extremely
fortunate. If they disregard this important opportunity, they are certainly
killing their own self-interest and thus achieve a most unfortunate end.

23–svargäpavargayor dväraà
präpya lokam imaà pumän
draviëe ko ‘nuñajjeta
martyo ‘narthasya dhämani

What mortal man, having achieved this human life, which is the very
gateway to both heaven and liberation, would willingly become attached to that
abode of worthlessness, material property?

24–devarñi-pitå-bhütäni
jïätén bandhüàç ca bhäginaù
asaàvibhajya cätmänaà
yakña-vittaù pataty adhaù

One who fails to distribute his wealth to the proper shareholders—the
demigods, sages, forefathers and ordinary living entities, as well as his
immediate relatives, in-laws and own self—is maintaining his wealth simply
like a Yakña and will fall down.

25–vyarthayärthehayä vittaà
pramattasya vayo balam
kuçalä yena sidhyanti
jaraöhaù kià nu sädhaye

Discriminating persons are able to utilize their money, youth and strength to
achieve perfection. But I have feverishly squandered these in the useless
endeavor for further wealth. Now that I am an old man, what can I achiev

26–kasmät saìkliçyate vidvän
vyarthayärthehayäsakåt
kasyacin mäyayä nünaà
loko ‘yaà su-vimohitaù

Why must an intelligent man suffer by his constant vain efforts to get
wealth? Indeed, this whole world is most bewildered by someone’s illusory
potency.

27–kià dhanair dhana-dair vä kià
kämair vä käma-dair uta
måtyunä grasyamänasya
karmabhir vota janma-daiù

For one who is in the grips of death, what is the use of wealth or those who
offer it, sense gratification or those who offer it, or, for that matter, any type of
fruitive activity, which simply causes one to again take birth in the material
world?

28–nünaà me bhagaväàs tuñöaù
sarva-deva-mayo hariù
yena néto daçäm etäà
nirvedaç cätmanaù plavaù

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, who contains within
Himself all the demigods, must be satisfied with me. Indeed, He has brought me
to this suffering condition and forced me to experience detachment, which is
the boat to carry me over this ocean of material life

29–so ‘haà kälävaçeñeëa
çoñayiñye ‘ìgam ätmanaù
apramatto ‘khila-svärthe
yadi syät siddha ätmani

If there is any time remaining in my life, I will perform austerities and force
my body to subsist on the bare necessities. Without further confusion I shall
pursue that which constitutes my entire self-interest in life, and I shall remain
satisfied within the self.

30–tatra mäm anumoderan
deväs tri-bhuvaneçvaräù
muhürtena brahma-lokaà
khaöväìgaù samasädhayat

Thus may the presiding demigods of these three worlds kindly show their
mercy upon me. Indeed, Mahäräja Khaöväìga was able to achieve the spiritual
world in a single moment.

31–çré-bhagavän uväca
ity abhipretya manasä
hy ävantyo dvija-sattamaù
unmucya hådaya-granthén
çänto bhikñur abhün muniù

Lord Çré Kåñëa continued: His mind thus determined, that most excellent
Avanté brähmaëa was able to untie the knots of desire within his heart. He
then assumed the role of a peaceful and silent sannyäsé mendicant.

32–sa cacära mahém etäà
saàyatätmendriyänilaù
bhikñärthaà nagara-grämän
asaìgo ‘lakñito ‘viçat

He wandered about the earth, keeping his intelligence, senses and life air
under control. To beg charity he traveled alone to various cities and villages. He
did not advertise his advanced spiritual position and thus was not recognized by
others.

33–taà vai pravayasaà bhikñum
avadhütam asaj-janäù
dåñövä paryabhavan bhadra
bahvébhiù paribhütibhiù

O kind Uddhava, seeing him as an old, dirty beggar, rowdy persons would
dishonor him with many insults.

34–kecit tri-veëuà jagåhur
eke pätraà kamaëòalum
péöhaà caike ‘kña-sütraà ca
kanthäà céräëi kecana
pradäya ca punas täni
darçitäny ädadur muneù

Some of these persons would take away his sannyäsé rod, and some the
waterpot which he was using as a begging bowl. Some took his deerskin seat,
some his chanting beads, and some would steal his torn, ragged clothing.
Displaying these things before him, they would pretend to offer them back but
would then hide them again.

35–annaà ca bhaikñya-sampannaà
bhuïjänasya sarit-taöe
mütrayanti ca päpiñöhäù
ñöhévanty asya ca mürdhani

When he was sitting on the bank of a river about to partake of the food that
he had collected by his begging, such sinful rascals would come and pass urine
on it, and they would dare to spit on his head.

36–yata-väcaà väcayanti
täòayanti na vakti cet
tarjayanty apare vägbhiù
steno ‘yam iti vädinaù
badhnanti rajjvä taà kecid
badhyatäà badhyatäm iti

Although he had taken a vow of silence, they would try to make him speak,
and if he did not speak they would beat him with sticks. Others would chastise
him, saying, “This man is just a thief.” And others would bind him up with
rope, shouting, “Tie him up! Tie him up!”

37–kñipanty eke ‘vajänanta
eña dharma-dhvajaù çaöhaù
kñéëa-vitta imäà våttim
agrahét sva-janojjhitaù

They would criticize and insult him, saying, “This man is just a hypocrite
and a cheat. He makes a business of religion simply because he lost all his
wealth and his family threw him out.”

38/39–aho eña mahä-säro
dhåtimän giri-räò iva
maunena sädhayaty arthaà
baka-vad dåòha-niçcayaù
ity eke vihasanty enam
eke durvätayanti ca
taà babandhur nirurudhur
yathä kréòanakaà dvijam

Some would ridicule him by saying, “Just see this greatly powerful sage! He
is as steadfast as the Himalaya Mountains. By practice of silence he strives for
his goal with great determination, just like a duck.” Other persons would pass
foul air upon him, and sometimes others would bind this twice-born brähmaëa
in chains and keep him captive like a pet animal.

40–evaà sa bhautikaà duùkhaà
daivikaà daihikaà ca yat
bhoktavyam ätmano diñöaà
präptaà präptam abudhyata

The brähmaëa understood that all his suffering—from other living beings,
from the higher forces of nature and from his own body—was unavoidable,
being allotted to him by providence.

41–paribhüta imäà gäthäm
agäyata narädhamaiù
pätayadbhiù sva dharma-stho
dhåtim ästhäya sättvikém

Even while being insulted by these low-class men who were trying to effect
his downfall, he remained steady in his spiritual duties. Fixing his resolution in
the mode of goodness, he began to chant the following song.

42–dvija uväca
näyaà jano me sukha-duùkha-hetur
na devatätmä graha-karma-käläù
manaù paraà käraëam ämananti
saàsära-cakraà parivartayed yat

The brähmaëa said: These people are not the cause of my happiness and
distress. Neither are the demigods, my own body, the planets, my past work, or
time. Rather, it is the mind alone that causes happiness and distress and
perpetuates the rotation of material life.

43–mano guëän vai såjate baléyas
tataç ca karmäëi vilakñaëäni
çukläni kåñëäny atha lohitäni
tebhyaù sa-varëäù såtayo bhavanti

The powerful mind actuates the functions of the material modes, from which
evolve the different kinds of material activities in the modes of goodness,
ignorance and passion. From the activities in each of these modes develop the
corresponding statuses of life.

44–anéha ätmä manasä saméhatä
hiraë-mayo mat-sakha udvicañöe
manaù sva-liìgaà parigåhya kämän
juñan nibaddho guëa-saìgato ‘sau

Although present along with the struggling mind within the material body,
the Supersoul is not endeavoring, because He is already endowed with
transcendental enlightenment. Acting as my friend, He simply witnesses from
His transcendental position. I, the infinitesimal spirit soul, on the other hand,
have embraced this mind, which is the mirror reflecting the image of the
material world. Thus I have become engaged in enjoying objects of desire and
am entangled due to contact with the modes of nature.

45–dänaà sva-dharmo niyamo yamaç ca
çrutaà ca karmäëi ca sad-vratäni
sarve mano-nigraha-lakñaëäntäù
paro hi yogo manasaù samädhiù

Charity, prescribed duties, observance of major and minor regulative
principles, hearing from scripture, pious works and purifying vows all have as
their final aim the subduing of the mind. Indeed, concentration of the mind on
the Supreme is the highest yoga.

46–samähitaà yasya manaù praçäntaà
dänädibhiù kià vada tasya kåtyam
asaàyataà yasya mano vinaçyad
dänädibhiç ced aparaà kim ebhiù

If one’s mind is perfectly fixed and pacified, then tell me what need does one
have to perform ritualistic charity and other pious rituals? And if one’s mind
remains uncontrolled, lost in ignorance, then of what use are these engagements
for him?

47–mano-vaçe ‘nye hy abhavan sma devä
manaç ca nänyasya vaçaà sameti
bhéñmo hi devaù sahasaù sahéyän
yuïjyäd vaçe taà sa hi deva-devaù

All the senses have been under the control of the mind since time
immemorial, and the mind himself never comes under the sway of any other.
He is stronger than the strongest, and his godlike power is fearsome. Therefore,
anyone who can bring the mind under control becomes the master of all the
senses.

48–tam durjayaà çatrum asahya-vegam
arun-tudaà tan na vijitya kecit
kurvanty asad-vigraham atra martyair
miträëy udäséna-ripün vimüòhäù

Failing to conquer this irrepressible enemy, the mind, whose urges are
intolerable and who torments the heart, many people are completely bewildered
and create useless quarrel with others. Thus they conclude that other people are
either their friends, their enemies or parties indifferent to them.

49–dehaà mano-mätram imaà gåhétvä
mamäham ity andha-dhiyo manuñyäù
eño ‘ham anyo ‘yam iti bhrameëa
duranta-päre tamasi bhramanti

Persons who identify with this body, which is simply the product of the
material mind, are blinded in their intelligence, thinking in terms of “I” and
“mine.” Because of their illusion of “this is I, but that is someone else,” they
wander in endless darkness.

50–janas tu hetuù sukha-duùkhayoç cet
kim ätmanaç cätra hi bhaumayos tat
jihväà kvacit sandaçati sva-dadbhis
tad-vedanäyäà katamäya kupyet

If you say that these people are the cause of my happiness and distress, then
where is the place of the soul in such a conception? This happiness and distress
pertain not to the soul but to the interactions of material bodies. If someone
bites his tongue with his own teeth, at whom can he become angry in his
suffering?

51–duùkhasya hetur yadi devatäs tu
kim ätmanas tatra vikärayos tat
yad aìgam aìgena nihanyate kvacit
krudhyeta kasmai puruñaù sva-dehe

If you say that the demigods who rule the bodily senses cause suffering, still,
how can such suffering apply to the spirit soul? This acting and being acted
upon are merely interactions of the changeable senses and their presiding
deities. When one limb of the body attacks another, with whom can the person
in that body be angry?

52–ätmä yadi syät sukha-duùkha-hetuù
kim anyatas tatra nija-svabhävaù
na hy ätmano ‘nyad yadi tan måñä syät
krudhyeta kasmän na sukhaà na duùkham

If the soul himself were the cause of happiness and distress, then we could
not blame others, since happiness and distress would be simply the nature of the
soul. According to this theory, nothing except the soul actually exists, and if we
were to perceive something besides the soul, that would be illusion. Therefore,
since happiness and distress do not actually exist in this concept, why become
angry at oneself or others?

53–grahä nimittaà sukha-duùkhayoç cet
kim ätmano ‘jasya janasya te vai
grahair grahasyaiva vadanti péòäà
krudhyeta kasmai puruñas tato ‘nyaù

And if we examine the hypothesis that the planets are the immediate cause
of suffering and happiness, then also where is the relationship with the soul,
who is eternal? After all, the effect of the planets applies only to things that
have taken birth. Expert astrologers have moreover explained how the planets
are only causing pain to each other. Therefore, since the living entity is distinct
from these planets and from the material body, against whom should he vent his
anger?

54–karmästu hetuù sukha-duùkhayoç cet
kim ätmanas tad dhi jaòäjaòatve
dehas tv acit puruño ‘yaà suparëaù
krudhyeta kasmai na hi karma mülam

If we assume that fruitive work is the cause of happiness and distress, we
still are not dealing with the soul. The idea of material work arises when there
is a spiritual actor who is conscious and a material body that undergoes the
transformation of happiness and distress as a reaction to such work. Since the
body has no life, it cannot be the actual recipient of happiness and distress, nor
can the soul, who is ultimately completely spiritual and aloof from the material
body. Since karma thus has no ultimate basis in either the body or the soul, at
whom can one become angry?

55–kälas tu hetuù sukha-duùkhayoç cet
kim ätmanas tatra tad-ätmako ‘sau
nägner hi täpo na himasya tat syät
krudhyeta kasmai na parasya dvandvam

If we accept time as the cause of happiness and distress, that experience still
cannot apply to the spirit soul, since time is a manifestation of the Lord’s
spiritual potency and the living entities are also expansions of the Lord’s
spiritual potency manifesting through time. Certainly a fire does not burn its
own flames or sparks, nor does the cold harm its own snowflakes or hail. In
fact, the spirit soul is transcendental and beyond the experience of material
happiness and distress. At whom, therefore, should one become angry?

56–na kenacit kväpi kathaïcanäsya
dvandvoparägaù parataù parasya
yathähamaù saàsåti-rüpiëaù syäd
evaà prabuddho na bibheti bhütaiù

The false ego gives shape to illusory material existence and thus experiences
material happiness and distress. The spirit soul, however, is transcendental to
material nature; he can never actually be affected by material happiness and
distress in any place, under any circumstance or by the agency of any person. A person who understands this has nothing whatsoever to fear from the material
creation.

57–etäà sa ästhäya parätma-niñöhäm
adhyäsitäà pürvatamair maharñibhiù
ahaà tariñyämi duranta-päraà
tamo mukundäìghri-niñevayaiva

I shall cross over the insurmountable ocean of nescience by being firmly
fixed in the service of the lotus feet of Kåñëa. This was approved by the
previous äcäryas, who were fixed in firm devotion to the Lord, Paramätmä, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.

58–çré-bhagavän uväca
nirvidya nañöa-draviëe gata-klamaù
pravrajya gäà paryaöamäna ittham
niräkåto ‘sadbhir api sva-dharmäd
akampito ‘müà munir äha gäthäm

Lord Çré Kåñëa said: Thus becoming detached upon the loss of his property,
this sage gave up his moroseness. He left home, taking sannyäsa, and began to travel about the earth. Even when insulted by foolish rascals he remained
unswerved from his duty and chanted this song.

59–sukha-duùkha-prado nänyaù
puruñasyätma-vibhramaù
mitrodäséna-ripavaù
saàsäras tamasaù kåtaù

No other force besides his own mental confusion makes the soul experience
happiness and distress. His perception of friends, neutral parties and enemies
and the whole material life he builds around this perception are simply created
out of ignorance.

60–tasmät sarvätmanä täta
nigåhäëa mano dhiyä
mayy äveçitayä yukta
etävän yoga-saìgrahaù

My dear Uddhava, fixing your intelligence on Me, you should thus
completely control the mind. This is the essence of the science of yoga.

61–ya etäà bhikñuëä gétäà
brahma-niñöhäà samähitaù
dhärayaï chrävayaï chåëvan
dvandvair naiväbhibhüyate

Anyone who listens to or recites to others this song of the sannyäsé, which
presents scientific knowledge of the Absolute, and who thus meditates upon it
with full attention, will never again be overwhelmed by the dualities of material
happiness and distress.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty Two-Enumeration of the Elements of Material Creation..

January 7, 2010

1/2/3–

çré-uddhava uväca
kati tattväni viçveça

saìkhyätäny åñibhiù prabho

navaikädaça païca tréëy

ättha tvam iha çuçruma

1563

kecit ñaò-viàçatià prähur
apare païca-viàçatià

saptaike nava ñaö kecic

catväry ekädaçäpare

kecit saptadaça prähuù

ñoòaçaike trayodaça

etävattvaà hi saìkhyänäm

åñayo yad-vivakñayä

gäyanti påthag äyuñmann

idaà no vaktum arhasi

My dear Lord, O master of the universe, how many
different elements of creation have been enumerated by the great sages? I have

heard You personally describe a total of twenty-eight—God, the jéva soul, the

mahat-tattva, false ego, the five gross elements, the ten senses, the mind, the

five subtle objects of perception and the three modes of nature. But some

authorities say that there are twenty-six elements, while others cite twenty-five

or else seven, nine, six, four or eleven, and even others say that there are

seventeen, sixteen or thirteen. What did each of these sages have in mind when

he calculated the creative elements in such different ways? O supreme eternal,

kindly explain this to me.

4–çré-bhagavän uväca
yuktaà ca santi sarvatra
bhäñante brähmaëä yathä
mäyäà madéyäm udgåhya
vadatäà kià nu durghaöam

Lord Kåñëa replied:

 

 

Because all material elements are present everywhere, itis reasonable that different learned brähmaëas have analyzed them in different
ways. All such philosophers spoke under the shelter of My mystic potency, and

thus they could say anything without contradicting the truth.

5–

naitad evaà yathättha tvaà
yad ahaà vacmi tat tathä

evaà vivadatäà hetuà

çaktayo me duratyayäù

When philosophers argue, “I don’t choose to analyze this particular case in
the same way that you have,” it is simply My own insurmountable energies that

are motivating their analytic disagreements.

6–

yäsäà vyatikaräd äséd
vikalpo vadatäà padam

präpte çama-dame ‘pyeti

vädas tam anu çämyati

By interaction of My energies different opinions arise. But for those who
have fixed their intelligence on Me and controlled their senses, differences of

perception disappear, and consequently the very cause for argument is removed.

7–

parasparänupraveçät
tattvänäà puruñarñabha

paurväparya-prasaìkhyänaà

yathä vaktur vivakñitam

 

O best among men, because subtle and gross elements mutually enter into

one another, philosophers may calculate the number of basic material elements

 

 
 

 

in different ways, according to their personal desire.
8–

ekasminn api dåçyante
praviñöänétaräëi ca

pürvasmin vä parasmin vä

tattve tattväni sarvaçaù

All subtle material elements are actually present within their gross effects;
similarly, all gross elements are present within their subtle causes, since

material creation takes place by progressive manifestation of elements from

subtle to gross. Thus we can find all material elements within any single

element.

9–

paurväparyam ato ‘méñäà
prasaìkhyänam abhépsatäm

yathä viviktaà yad-vaktraà

gåhëémo yukti-sambhavät

Therefore, no matter which of these thinkers is speaking, and regardless of
whether in their calculations they include material elements within their

previous subtle causes or else within their subsequent manifest products, I

accept their conclusions as authoritative, because a logical explanation can

always be given for each of the different theories.

10–

anädy-avidyä-yuktasya
puruñasyätma-vedanam

svato na sambhaväd anyas

tattva-jïo jïäna-do bhavet

 

Because a person who has been covered by ignorance since time immemorial

is not capable of effecting his own self-realization, there must be some other

 

 
 

 

personality who is in factual knowledge of the Absolute Truth and can impart
this knowledge to him.

11–

puruñeçvarayor atra
na vailakñaëyam aëv api

tad-anya-kalpanäpärthä

jïänaà ca prakåter guëaù

According to knowledge in the material mode of goodness, there is no
qualitative difference between the living entity and the supreme controller. The

imagination of qualitative difference between them is useless speculation.

12–

prakåtir guëa-sämyaà vai
prakåter nätmano guëäù

sattvaà rajas tama iti

sthity-utpatty-anta-hetavaù

Nature exists originally as the equilibrium of the three material modes,
which pertain only to nature, not to the transcendental spirit soul. These

modes—goodness, passion and ignorance—are the effective causes of the

creation, maintenance and destruction of this universe.

13–

sattvaà jïänaà rajaù karma
tamo ‘jïänam ihocyate

guëa-vyatikaraù kälaù

svabhävaù sütram eva ca

In this world the mode of goodness is recognized as knowledge, the mode of
passion as fruitive work, and the mode of darkness as ignorance. Time is

perceived as the agitated interaction of the material modes, and the totality of

functional propensity is embodied by the primeval

 

 
sütra, or mahat-tattva.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ahaìkäro nabho ‘nilaù

jyotir äpaù kñitir iti

tattväny uktäni me nava

I have described the nine basic elements as the enjoying soul, nature,

nature’s primeval manifestation of the

 

 

mahat-tattva,

false ego, ether, air, fire,water and earth.

15–çrotraà tvag darçanaà ghräëo
jihveti jïäna-çaktayaù
väk-päëy-upastha-päyv-aìghriù
karmäëy aìgobhayaà manaù

 

Hearing, touch, sight, smell and taste are the five knowledge acquiring

senses, My dear Uddhava, and speech, the hands, the genitals, the anus and the

 

 

 

legs constitute the five working senses. The mind belongs to both these

categories.

16–

çabdaù sparço raso gandho

rüpaà cety artha-jätayaù

gaty-ukty-utsarga-çilpäni

karmäyatana-siddhayaù

 

Sound, touch, taste, smell and form are the objects of the

knowledge-acquiring senses, and movement, speech, excretion and manufacture

 

 

 

are functions of the working senses.

17–

sargädau prakåtir hy asya

kärya-käraëa-rüpiëé

sattvädibhir guëair dhatte

puruño ‘vyakta ékñate

In the beginning of creation nature assumes, by the modes of goodness,

passion and ignorance, its form as the embodiment of all subtle causes and gross

manifestations within the universe. The Supreme Personality of Godhead does

not enter the interaction of material manifestation but merely glances upon

nature.

18–

vyaktädäyo vikurväëä

dhätavaù puruñekñayä

labdha-véryäù såjanty aëòaà

saàhatäù prakåter balät

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the material elements, headed by the

 

 

mahat-tattva, are transformed, theyreceive their specific potencies from the glance of the Supreme Lord, and being

amalgamated by the power of nature, they create the universal egg.

19–saptaiva dhätava iti

taträrthäù païca khädayaù

jïänam ätmobhayädhäras

tato dehendriyäsavaù

According to some philosophers there are seven elements, namely earth,

water, fire, air and ether, along with the conscious spirit soul and the Supreme

Soul, who is the basis of both the material elements and the ordinary spirit soul.

According to this theory, the body, senses, life air and all material phenomena

are produced from these seven elements.

20–ñaò ity aträpi bhütäni

païca ñañöhaù paraù pumän

tair yuita ätma-sambhütaiù

såñövedaà samapäviçat

Other philosophers state that there are six elements—the five physical

elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether) and the sixth element, the Supreme

Personality of Godhead. That Supreme Lord, endowed with the elements that

He has brought forth from Himself, creates this universe and then personally

enters within it.

21–catväry eveti taträpi

teja äpo ‘nnam ätmanaù

jätäni tair idaà jätaà

janmävayavinaù khalu

Some philosophers propose the existence of four basic elements, of which

three—fire, water and earth—emanate from the fourth, the Self. Once

existing, these elements produce the cosmic manifestation, in which all material

creation takes place.

22–saìkhyäne saptadaçake

bhüta-mätrendriyäëi ca

païca païcaika-manasä

ätmä saptadaçaù småtaù

Some calculate the existence of seventeen basic elements, namely the five

gross elements, the five objects of perception, the five sensory organs, the mind,

and the soul as the seventeenth element.

23–tadvat ñoòaça-saìkhyäne

ätmaiva mana ucyate

bhütendriyäëi païcaiva

mana ätmä trayodaça

According to the calculation of sixteen elements, the only difference from

the previous theory is that the soul is identified with the mind. If we think in

terms of five physical elements, five senses, the mind, the individual soul and

the Supreme Lord, there are thirteen elements.

24–ekädaçatva ätmäsau

mahä-bhütendriyäëi ca

añöau prakåtayaç caiva

puruñaç ca navety atha

Counting eleven, there are the soul, the gross elements and the senses. Eight

gross and subtle elements plus the Supreme Lord would make nine.

25–iti nänä-prasaìkhyänaà

tattvänäm åñibhiù kåtam

sarvaà nyäyyaà yuktimattväd

viduñäà kim açobhanam

Thus great philosophers have analyzed the material elements in many

different ways. All of their proposals are reasonable, since they are all presented

with ample logic. Indeed, such philosophical brilliance is expected of the truly

learned.

26–çré-uddhava uväca

prakåtiù puruñaç cobhau

yady apy ätma-vilakñaëau

anyonyäpäçrayät kåñëa

 

 

dåçyate na bhidä tayoù

prakåtau lakñyate hy ätmä

prakåtiç ca tathätmani

Çré Uddhava inquired:

 

 

Although nature and the living entity areconstitutionally distinct, O Lord Kåñëa, there appears to be no difference

between them, because they are found residing within one another. Thus the

soul appears to be within nature and nature within the soul.

27–evaà me puëòarékäkña

mahäntaà saàçayaà hådi

chettum arhasi sarva-jïa

vacobhir naya-naipuëaiù

 

 

 

O lotus-eyed Kåñëa, O omniscient Lord, kindly cut this great doubt out of

my heart with Your own words, which exhibit Your great skill in reasoning.

28–tvatto jïänaà hi jévänäà

pramoñas te ‘tra çaktitaù

tvam eva hy ätma-mäyäyä

gatià vettha na cäparaù

From You alone the knowledge of the living beings arises, and by Your

potency that knowledge is stolen away. Indeed, no one but Yourself can

understand the real nature of Your illusory potency.

29–çré-bhagavän uväca

prakåtiù puruñaç ceti

vikalpaù puruñarñabha

eña vaikärikaù sargo

guëa-vyatikarätmakaù

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:

 

 

O best among men, materialnature and its enjoyer are clearly distinct. This manifest creation undergoes

constant transformation, being founded upon the agitation of the modes of

nature.

30–mamäìga mäyä guëa-mayy anekadhä

vikalpa-buddhéç ca guëair vidhatte

vaikärikas tri-vidho ‘dhyätmam ekam

athädhidaivam adhibhütam anyat

My dear Uddhava, My material energy, comprising three modes and acting

through them, manifests the varieties of creation along with varieties of

consciousness for perceiving them. The manifest result of material

transformation is understood in three aspects:

 

 

adhyätmic, adhidaivic and

adhibhautic.

31–dåg rüpam ärkaà vapur atra randhre

parasparaà sidhyati yaù svataù khe

ätmä yad eñäm aparo ya ädyaù

svayänubhütyäkhila-siddha-siddhiù

Sight, visible form and the reflected image of the sun within the aperture of

the eye all work together to reveal one another. But the original sun standing in

the sky is self-manifested. Similarly, the Supreme Soul, the original cause of all

entities, who is thus separate from all of them, acts by the illumination of His

own transcendental experience as the ultimate source of manifestation of all

mutually manifesting objects.

32–evaà tvag-ädi çravaëädi cakñur

jihvädi näsädi ca citta-yuktam

Similarly, the sense organs, namely the skin, ears, eyes, tongue and nose—as

well as the functions of the subtle body, namely conditioned consciousness,

mind, intelligence and false ego—can all be analyzed in terms of the threefold

distinction of sense, object of perception and presiding deity.

33–yo ‘sau guëa-kñobha-kåto vikäraù

pradhäna-mülän mahataù prasütaù

 

 

ahaà tri-vån moha-vikalpa-hetur

vaikärikas tämasa aindriyaç ca

When the three modes of nature are agitated, the resultant transformation

appears as the element false ego in three phases—goodness, passion and

ignorance. Generated from the

 

 

mahat-tattva, which is itself produced from theunmanifest

 

 

pradhäna, this false ego becomes the cause of all material illusionand duality.

44–ätmäparijïäna-mayo vivädo

hy astéti nästéti bhidärtha-niñöhaù

vyartho ‘pi naivoparameta puàsäà

mattaù parävåtta-dhiyäà sva-lokät

The speculative argument of philosophers—”This world is real,” “No, it is

not real”—is based upon incomplete knowledge of the Supreme Soul and is

simply aimed at understanding material dualities. Although such argument is

useless, persons who have turned their attention away from Me, their own true

Self, are unable to give it up.

çré-uddhava uväca

tvattaù parävåtta-dhiyaù

sva-kåtaiù karmabhiù prabho

uccävacän yathä dehän

gåhëanti visåjanti ca

tan mamäkhyähi govinda

durvibhävyam anätmabhiù

na hy etat präyaço loke

vidväàsaù santi vaïcitäù

Çré Uddhava said: O supreme master, the intelligence of those dedicated to
fruitive activities is certainly deviated from You. Please explain to me how such
persons accept superior and inferior bodies by their materialistic activities and
then give up such bodies. O Govinda, this topic is very difficult for foolish
persons to understand. Being cheated by illusion in this world, they generally do
not become aware of these facts.

çré-bhagavän uväca

manaù karma-mayaà ëèëäm

indriyaiù païcabhir yutam

lokäl lokaà prayäty anya

ätmä tad anuvartate

Lord Kåñëa said:

 

 

The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions offruitive work. Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to

another. The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.

38–dhyäyan mano ‘nu viñayän

dåñöän vänuçrutän atha

udyat sédat karma-tantraà

småtis tad anu çämyati

The mind, bound to the reactions of fruitive work, always meditates on the

objects of the senses, both those that are seen in this world and those that are

heard about from Vedic authority. Consequently, the mind appears to come into

being and to suffer annihilation along with its objects of perception, and thus its

ability to distinguish past and future is lost.

39–viñayäbhiniveçena

nätmänaà yat smaret punaù

jantor vai kasyacid dhetor

måtyur atyanta-vismåtiù

When the living entity passes from the present body to the next body, which

is created by his own

 

 

karma, he becomes absorbed in the pleasurable and painfulsensations of the new body and completely forgets the experience of the

previous body. This total forgetfulness of one’s previous material identity,

which comes about for one reason or another, is called death.

40–janma tv ätmatayä puàsaù

sarva-bhävena bhüri-da

viñaya-svékåtià prähur

yathä svapna-manorathaù

O most charitable Uddhava, what is called birth is simply a person’s total

identification with a new body. One accepts the new body just as one

completely accepts the experience of a dream or a fantasy as reality.

41–svapnaà manorathaà cetthaà

präktanaà na smaraty asau

tatra pürvam ivätmänam

apürvam cänupaçyati

Just as a person experiencing a dream or daydream does not remember his

previous dreams or daydreams, a person situated in his present body, although

having existed prior to it, thinks that he has only recently come into being.

42–indriyäyana-såñöyedaà

trai-vidhyaà bhäti vastuni

bahir-antar-bhidä-hetur

jano ‘saj-jana-kåd yathä

Because the mind, which is the resting place of the senses, has created the

identification with a new body, the threefold material variety of high, middle

and low class appears as if present within the reality of the soul. Thus the self

creates external and internal duality, just as a man might give birth to a bad son.

43–nityadä hy aìga bhütäni

bhavanti na bhavanti ca

kälenälakñya-vegena

sükñmatvät tan na dåçyate

My dear Uddhava, material bodies are constantly undergoing creation and

destruction by the force of time, whose swiftness is imperceptible. But because

of the subtle nature of time, no one sees this.

44–yathärciñäà srotasäà ca

phalänäà vä vanaspateù

tathaiva sarva-bhütänäà

vayo-‘vasthädayaù kåtäù

The different stages of transformation of all material bodies occur just like

those of the flame of a candle, the current of a river, or the fruits of a tree.

45–so ‘yaà dépo ‘rciñäà yadvat

srotasäà tad idaà jalam

so ‘yaà pumän iti nåëäà

måñä gér dhér måñäyuñäm

Although the illumination of a lamp consists of innumerable rays of light

undergoing constant creation, transformation and destruction, a person with

illusory intelligence who sees the light for a moment will speak falsely, saying,

“This is

 

 

the light of the lamp.” As one observes a flowing river, ever-new waterpasses by and goes far away, yet a foolish person, observing one point in the

river, falsely states, “This is

 

 

the water of the river.” Similarly, although thematerial body of a human being is constantly undergoing transformation, those

who are simply wasting their lives falsely think and say that each particular

stage of the body is the person’s real identity

46–mä svasya karma-béjena

jäyate so ‘py ayaà pumän

mriyate vämaro bhräntyä

yathägnir däru-saàyutaù

A person does not actually take birth out of the seed of past activities, nor,

being immortal, does he die. By illusion the living being appears to be born and

to die, just as fire in connection with firewood appears to begin and then cease

to exist.

47–niñeka-garbha-janmäni

bälya-kaumära-yauvanam

vayo-madhyaà jarä måtyur

ity avasthäs tanor nava

Impregnation, gestation, birth, infancy, childhood, youth, middle age, old age

and death are the nine ages of the body.

48–etä manoratha-mayér

1623

hänyasyoccävacäs tanüù

guëa-saìgäd upädatte

kvacit kaçcij jahäti ca

Although the material body is different from the self, because of the

ignorance due to material association one falsely identifies oneself with the

superior and inferior bodily conditions. Sometimes a fortunate person is able to

give up such mental concoction.

ätmanaù pitå-puträbhyäm

anumeyau bhaväpyayau

na bhaväpyaya-vastünäm

abhijïo dvaya-lakñaëaù

By the death of one’s father or grandfather one can surmise one’s own death,

and by the birth of one’s son one can understand the condition of one’s own

birth. A person who thus realistically understands the creation and destruction

of material bodies is no longer subject to these dualities

50–taror béja-vipäkäbhyäà

yo vidväï janma-saàyamau

taror vilakñaëo drañöä

evaà drañöä tanoù påthak

One who observes the birth of a tree from its seed and the ultimate death of

the tree after maturity certainly remains a distinct observer separate from the

tree. In the same way, the witness of the birth and death of the material body

remains separate from it.

51–prakåter evam ätmänam

avivicyäbudhaù pumän

tattvena sparça-sammüòhaù

saàsäraà pratipadyate

An unintelligent man, failing to distinguish himself from material nature,

thinks nature to be real. By contact with it he becomes completely bewildered

and enters into the cycle of material existence.

52–sattva-saìgäd åñén devän

rajasäsura-mänuñän

tamasä bhüta-tiryaktvaà

bhrämito yäti karmabhiù

Made to wander because of his fruitive work, the conditioned soul, by

contact with the mode of goodness, takes birth among the sages or demigods. By

contact with the mode of passion he becomes a demon or human being, and by

association with the mode of ignorance he takes birth as a ghost or in the animal

kingdom.

53–nåtyato gäyataù paçyan

yathaivänukaroti tän

evaà buddhi-guëän paçyann

 

 

aného ‘py anukäryate

Just as one may imitate persons whom one sees dancing and singing,

similarly the soul, although never the doer of material activities, becomes

captivated by material intelligence and is thus forced to imitate its qualities.

54/55–yathämbhasä pracalatä

taravo ‘pi calä iva

cakñusä bhrämyamäëena

dåçyate bhramatéva bhüù

yathä manoratha-dhiyo

viñayñänubhavo måñä

svapna-dåñöäç ca däçärha

tathä saàsära ätmanaù

The soul’s material life, his experience of sense gratification, is actually false,

O descendant of Daçärha, just like trees’ appearance of quivering when the

trees are reflected in agitated water, or like the earth’s appearance of spinning

due to one’s spinning his eyes around, or like the world of a fantasy or dream

56–arthe hy avidyamäne ‘pi

saàsåtir na nivartate

dhyäyato viñayän asya

svapne ‘narthägamo yathä

For one who is meditating on sense gratification, material life, although

lacking factual existence, does not go away, just as the unpleasant experiences

of a dream do not.

57–tasmäd uddhava mä bhuìkñva

viñayän asad-indriyaiù

ätmägrahaëa-nirbhätaà

paçya vaikalpikaà bhramam

Therefore, O Uddhava, do not try to enjoy sense gratification with the

material senses. See how illusion based on material dualities prevents one from

 

 

 

realizing the self.

58/59–kñipto ‘vamänito ‘sadbhiù

pralabdho ‘süyito ‘tha vä

täòitaù sanniruddho vä

våttyä vä parihäpitaù

niñöhyuto mütrito väjïair

bahudhaivaà prakampitaù

çreyas-kämaù kåcchra-gata

ätmanätmänam uddharet

Even though neglected, insulted, ridiculed or envied by bad men, or even

though repeatedly agitated by being beaten, tied up or deprived of one’s

occupation, spat upon or polluted with urine by ignorant people, one who

desires the highest goal in life should in spite of all these difficulties use his

intelligence to keep himself safe on the spiritual platform.

60–çré-uddhava uväca

yathaivam anubudhyeyaà

vada no vadatäà vara

Çré Uddhava said:

 

 

O best of all speakers, please explain to me how I mayproperly understand this.

61–su-duùñaham imaà manya

ätmany asad-atikramam

viduñäm api viçvätman

prakåtir hi baléyasé

åte tvad-dharma-niratän

çäntäàs te caraëälayän

O soul of the universe, the conditioning of one’s personality in material life

is very strong, and therefore it is very difficult even for learned men to tolerate

the offenses committed against them by ignorant people. Only Your devotees,

who are fixed in Your loving service and who have achieved peace by residing at

Your lotus feet, are able to tolerate such offenses.

 

 

 

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty One-Lord Krishna’s Explanation of the Vedic Path..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-bhagavän uväca
ya etän mat-patho hitvä
bhakti-jïäna-kriyätmakän
kñudrän kämäàç calaiù präëair
juñantaù saàsaranti te

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Those who give up these
methods for achieving Me, which consist of devotional service, analytic
philosophy and regulated execution of prescribed duties, and instead, being
moved by the material senses, cultivate insignificant sense gratification,
certainly undergo the continual cycle of material existence.

2–sve sve ‘dhikäre yä niñöhä
sa guëaù parikértitaù
viparyayas tu doñaù syäd
ubhayor eña niçcayaù

Steadiness in one’s own position is declared to be actual piety, whereas
deviation from one’s position is considered impiety. In this way the two are
definitely ascertained.

3–çuddhy-açuddhé vidhéyete
samäneñv api vastuñu
dravyasya vicikitsärthaà
guëa-doñau çubhäçubhau
dharmärthaà vyavahärärthaà
yäträrtham iti cänagha

O sinless Uddhava, in order to understand what is proper in life one must
evaluate a given object within its particular category. Thus, in analyzing
religious principles one must consider purity and impurity. Similarly, in one’s
ordinary dealings one must distinguish between good and bad, and to insure
one’s physical survival one must recognize that which is auspicious and
inauspicious.

4–darçito ‘yaà mayäcäro
dharmam udvahatäà dhuram

I have revealed this way of life for those bearing the burden of mundane
religious principles

5–bhümy-ambv-agny-aniläkäçä
bhütänäà païca-dhätavaù
ä-brahma-sthävarädénäà
çärérä ätma-saàyutäù

Earth, water, fire, air and ether are the five basic elements that constitute
the bodies of all conditioned souls, from Lord Brahmä himself down to the

nonmoving creatures. These elements all emanate from the one Personality of

Godhead.

6–vedena näma-rüpäëi
viñamäëi sameñv api
dhätuñüddhava kalpyanta
eteñäà svärtha-siddhaye

My dear Uddhava, although all material bodies are composed of the same five
elements and are thus equal, the Vedic literatures conceive of different names
and forms in relation to such bodies so that the living entities may achieve their
goal of life.

7–

deça-kälädi-bhävänäà
vastünäà mama sattama

guëa-doñau vidhéyete

niyamärthaà hi karmaëäm

O saintly Uddhava, in order to restrict materialistic activities, I have
established that which is proper and improper among all material things,

including time, space and all physical objects.

akåñëa-säro deçänäm
abrahmaëyo ‘sucir bhavet

kåñëa-säro ‘py asauvérakékaöäsaàskåteriëam

Among places, those bereft of the spotted antelope, those devoid of devotion

to the

 

 
brähmaëas,

those possessing spotted antelopes but bereft of respectablemen, provinces like Kékaöa and places where cleanliness and purificatory rites
are neglected, where meat-eaters are prominent or where the earth is barren,

are all considered to be contaminated lands.

9–

karmaëyo guëavän kälo
dravyataù svata eva vä

yato nivartate karma

sa doño ‘karmakaù småtaù

 

A specific time is considered pure when it is appropriate, either by its own

 

 
 

 

nature or through achievement of suitable paraphernalia, for the performance of
one’s prescribed duty. That time which impedes the performance of one’s duty

is considered impure.

10–

dravyasya çuddhy-açuddhé ca
dravyeëa vacanena ca

saàskäreëätha kälena

mahatvälpatayätha vä

An object’s purity or impurity is established by application of another object,
by words, by rituals, by the effects of time or according to relative magnitude.

11–

çaktyäçaktyätha vä buddhyä
samåddhyä ca yad ätmane

aghaà kurvanti hi yathä

deçävasthänusärataù

Impure things may or may not impose sinful reactions upon a person,
depending on that person’s strength or weakness, intelligence, wealth, location

and physical condition.

12–dhänya-därv-asthi-tantünäà
rasa-taijasa-carmaëäm
käla-väyv-agni-måt-toyaiù
pärthivänäà yutäyutaiù

Various objects such as grains, wooden utensils, things made of bone, thread,
liquids, objects derived from fire, skins and earthy objects are all purified by

time, by the wind, by fire, by earth and by water, either separately or in

combination.

13–

amedhya-liptaà yad yena
gandha-lepaà vyapohati

bhajate prakåtià tasya

tac chaucaà tävad iñyate

A particular purifying agent is considered appropriate when its application
removes the bad odor or dirty covering of some contaminated object and makes

it resume its original nature.

14–

snäna-däna-tapo-‘vasthävérya-
saàskära-karmabhiù

mat-småtyä cätmanaù çaucaà

çuddhaù karmäcared dvijaù

The self can be cleansed by bathing, charity, austerity, age, personal
strength, purificatory rituals, prescribed duties and, above all, by remembrance

of Me. The

brähmaëa

and other twice-born men should be duly purified beforeperforming their specific activities.
15–

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mantrasya ca parijïänaà

karma-çuddhir mad-arpaëam

dharmaù sampadyate ñaòbhir

adharmas tu viparyayaù

A

 

 

mantra

is purified when chanted with proper knowledge, and one’s workis purified when offered to Me. Thus by purification of the place, time,

substance, doer,

 

 

 

mantras

and work, one becomes religious, and by negligence ofthese six items one is considered irreligious.

16–

kvacid guëo ‘pi doñaù syäd

doño ‘pi vidhinä guëaù

guëa-doñärtha-niyamas

tad-bhidäm eva bädhate

Sometimes piety becomes sin, and sometimes what is ordinarily sin becomes

piety on the strength of Vedic injunctions. Such special rules in effect eradicate

the clear distinction between piety and sin.

17–

samäna-karmäcaraëaà

patitänäà na pätakam

autpattiko guëaù saìgo

na çayänaù pataty adhaù

The same activities that would degrade an elevated person do not cause

falldown for those who are already fallen. Indeed, one who is lying on the

ground cannot possibly fall further. The material association that is dictated by

one’s own nature is considered a good quality.

18–

yato yato nivarteta

vimucyeta tatas tataù

eña dharmo nåëäà kñemaù

çoka-moha-bhayäpahaù

By refraining from a particular sinful or materialistic activity, one becomes

freed from its bondage. Such renunciation is the basis of religious and

auspicious life for human beings and drives away all suffering, illusion and fear.

19–

viñayeñu guëädhyäsät

puàsaù saìgas tato bhavet

saìgät tatra bhavet kämaù

kämäd eva kalir nåëäm

One who accepts material sense objects as desirable certainly becomes

attached to them. From such attachment lust arises, and this lust creates quarrel

among men.

20–

kaler durviñahaù krodhas

tamas tam anuvartate

tamasä grasyate puàsaç

cetanä vyäpiné drutam

From quarrel arises intolerable anger, followed by the darkness of ignorance.

This ignorance quickly overtakes a man’s broad intelligence.

21–

tayä virahitaù sädho

jantuù çünyäya kalpate

tato ‘sya svärtha-vibhraàço

mürcchitasya måtasya ca

O saintly Uddhava, a person bereft of real intelligence is considered to have

lost everything. Deviated from the actual purpose of his life, he becomes dull,

just like a dead person.

22–

viñayäbhiniveçena

nätmänaà veda näparam

våkña jévikayä jévan

vyarthaà bhastreva yaù çvasan

Because of absorption in sense gratification, one cannot recognize himself or

others. Living uselessly in ignorance like a tree, one is merely breathing just

like a bellows.

23–

Those statements of scripture promising fruitive rewards do not prescribe

the ultimate good for men but are merely enticements for executing beneficial

religious duties, like promises of candy spoken to induce a child to take

beneficial medicine.

24–

utpattyaiva hi kämeñu

präëeñu sva-janeñu ca

äsakta-manaso martyä

ätmano ‘nartha-hetuñu

Simply by material birth, human beings become attached within their minds

to personal sense gratification, long duration of life, sense activities, bodily

strength, sexual potency and friends and family. Their minds are thus absorbed

in that which defeats their actual self-interest.

25–

natän aviduñaù svärthaà

bhrämyato våjinädhvani

kathaà yuïjyät punas teñu

täàs tamo viçato budhaù

Those ignorant of their real self-interest are wandering on the path of

material existence, gradually heading toward darkness. Why would the

 

 

Vedas

further encourage them in sense gratification if they, although foolish,

submissively pay heed to Vedic injunctions?

26–

evaà vyavasitaà kecid

avijïäya kubuddhayaù

phala-çrutià kusumitäà

na veda-jïä vadanti hi

Persons with perverted intelligence do not understand this actual purpose of
Vedic knowledge and instead propagate as the highest Vedic truth the flowery
statements of the Vedas that promise material rewards. Those in actual
knowledge of the Vedas never speak in that way.

27–

käminaù kåpaëä lubdhäù

puñpeñu phala-buddhayaù

agni-mugdhä dhüma-täntäù

svaà lokaà na vidanti te

Those who are full of lust, avarice and greed mistake mere flowers to be the

actual fruit of life. Bewildered by the glare of fire and suffocated by its smoke,

they cannot recognize their own true identity.

28–

na te mäm aìga jänanti

hådi-sthaà ya idaà yataù

uktha-çasträ hy asu-tåpo

yathä néhära-cakñuñaù

My dear Uddhava, persons dedicated to sense gratification obtained through

honoring the Vedic rituals cannot understand that I am situated in everyone’s

heart and that the entire universe is nondifferent from Me and emanates from

Me. Indeed, they are just like persons whose eyes are covered by fog.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29/30–te me matam avijïäya

parokñaà viñayätmakäù

hiàsäyäà yadi rägaù syäd

yajïa eva na codanä

hiàsä-vihärä hy älabdhaiù

paçubhiù sva-sukhecchayä

yajante devatä yajïaiù

pitå-bhüta-patén khaläù

Those who are sworn to sense gratification cannot understand the
confidential conclusion of Vedic knowledge as explained by Me. Taking
pleasure in violence, they cruelly slaughter innocent animals in sacrifice for
their own sense gratification and thus worship demigods, forefathers and leaders
among ghostly creatures. Such passion for violence, however, is never
encouraged within the process of Vedic sacrifice.

svapnopamam amuà lokam

asantaà çravaëa-priyam

äçiño hådi saìkalpya

tyajanty arthän yathä vaëik

Just as a foolish businessman gives up his real wealth in useless business

speculation, foolish persons give up all that is actually valuable in life and

1543

instead pursue promotion to material heaven, which although pleasing to hear

about is actually unreal, like a dream. Such bewildered persons imagine within

their hearts that they will achieve all material blessings.

32–rajaù-sattva-tamo-niñöhä

rajaù-sattva-tamo-juñaù

upäsata indra-mukhyän

devädén na yathaiva mäm

Those established in material passion, goodness and ignorance worship the

particular demigods and other deities, headed by Indra, who manifest the same

modes of passion, goodness or ignorance. They fail, however, to properly

worship Me.

33/34–iñöveha devatä yajïair

gatvä raàsyämahe divi

tasyänta iha bhüyäsma

mahä-çälä mahä-kuläù

evaà puñpitayä väcä

vyäkñipta-manasäà nåëäm

mäninäà cäti-lubdhänäà

mad-värtäpi na rocate

The worshipers of demigods think, “We shall worship the demigods in this

life, and by our sacrifices we shall go to heaven and enjoy there. When that

enjoyment is finished we shall return to this world and take birth as great

householders in aristocratic families.” Being excessively proud and greedy, such

persons are bewildered by the flowery words of the

 

 

Vedas. They are notattracted to topics about Me, the Supreme Lord.

35–vedä brahmätma-viñayäs

tri-käëòa-viñayä ime

 

 

 

parokña-vädä åñayaù

parokñaà mama ca priyam

The

 

 

Vedas, divided into three divisions, ultimately reveal the living entity aspure spirit soul. The Vedic seers and

 

 

mantras, however, deal in esoteric terms,and I also am pleased by such confidential descriptions.

36–çabda-brahma su-durbodhaà

präëendriya-mano-mayam

ananta-päraà gambhéraà

durvigähyaà samudra-vat

The transcendental sound of the

 

 

Vedas is very difficult to comprehend andmanifests on different levels within the

 

 

präëa, senses and mind. This Vedicsound is unlimited, very deep and unfathomable, just like the ocean.

37–mayopabåàhitaà bhümnä

brahmaëänanta-çaktinä

bhüteñu ghoña-rüpeëa

viseñürëeva lakñyate

As the unlimited, unchanging and omnipotent Personality of Godhead

dwelling within all living beings, I personally establish the Vedic sound

vibration in the form of

 

 

oàkära within all living entities. It is thus perceivedsubtly, just like a single strand of fiber on a lotus stalk.

38/39/40–yathorëanäbhir hådayäd

ürëäm udvamate mukhät

äkäçäd ghoñavän präëo

manasä sparça-rüpiëä

chando-mayo ‘måta-mayaù

sahasra-padavéà prabhuù

oàkäräd vyaïjita-sparçasvaroñmäntastha-

bhüñitäm

vicitra-bhäñä-vitatäà

chandobhiç catur-uttaraiù

ananta-päräà båhatéà

såjaty äkñipate svayam

Just as a spider brings forth from its heart its web and emits it through its

mouth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as the

reverberating primeval vital air, comprising all sacred Vedic meters and full of

transcendental pleasure. Thus the Lord, from the ethereal sky of His heart,

creates the great and limitless Vedic sound by the agency of His mind, which

conceives of variegated sounds such as the

 

 

sparças. The Vedic sound branchesout in thousands of directions, adorned with the different letters expanded from

the syllable

 

 

oà: the consonants, vowels, sibilants and semivowels. The Veda isthen elaborated by many verbal varieties, expressed in different meters, each

having four more syllables than the previous one. Ultimately the Lord again

withdraws His manifestation of Vedic sound within Himself.

41–gäyatry uñëig anuñöup ca

båhaté paìktir eva ca

triñöub jagaty aticchando

hy atyañöy-atijagad-viräö

The Vedic meters are Gäyatré, Uñëik, Anuñöup, Båhaté, Paìkti, Triñöup,

Jagaté, Aticchanda, Atyañöi, Atijagaté and Ativiräö.

42–kià vidhatte kim äcañöe

kim anüdya vikalpayet

ity asyä hådayaà loke

nänyo mad veda kaçcana

In the entire world no one but Me actually understands the confidential

purpose of Vedic knowledge. Thus people do not know what the

 

 

Vedas areactually prescribing in the ritualistic injunctions of

 

 

karma-käëòa, or what objectis actually being indicated in the formulas of worship found in the

upäsanä-käëòa,

 

 

or that which is elaborately discussed through varioushypotheses in the

 

 

jïäna-käëòa section of the Vedas.

43–mäà vidhatte ‘bhidhatte mäà

vikalpyäpohyate tv aham

etävän sarva-vedärthaù

çabda ästhäya mäà bhidäm

mäyä-mätram anüdyänte

pratiñidhya prasédati

I am the ritualistic sacrifice enjoined by the

 

 

Vedas, and I am the worshipableDeity. It is I who am presented as various philosophical hypotheses, and it is I

alone who am then refuted by philosophical analysis. The transcendental sound

vibration thus establishes Me as the essential meaning of all Vedic knowledge.

The

 

 

Vedas, elaborately analyzing all material duality as nothing but My illusorypotency, ultimately completely negate this duality and achieve their own

satisfaction.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Twenty-Pure Devotional Service Surpasses Knowledge and Detachment..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-uddhava uväca
vidhiç ca pratiñedhaç ca
nigamo héçvarasya te
avekñate ‘raviëòäkña
guëaà doñaà ca karmaëäm

Çré Uddhava said: My dear lotus-eyed Kåñëa, You are the Supreme Lord,
and thus the Vedic literatures, consisting of positive and negative injunctions,
constitute Your order. Such literatures focus upon the good and bad qualities of
work.

2–varëäçrama-vikalpaà ca
pratilomänulomajam
dravya-deça-vayaù-kälän
svargaà narakam eva ca

According to Vedic literature, the superior and inferior varieties found in
the human social system, varëäçrama, are due to pious and sinful modes of
family planning. Thus piety and sin are constant points of reference in the
Vedic analysis of the components of a given situation—namely the material
ingredients, place, age and time. Indeed, the Vedas reveal the existence of
material heaven and hell, which are certainly based on piety and sin.

3–guëa-doña-bhidä-dåñöim
antareëa vacas tava
niùçreyasaà kathaà nèëäà
niñedha-vidhi-lakñaëam

Without seeing the difference between piety and sin, how can one
understand Your own instructions in the form of Vedic literatures, which order
one to act piously and forbid one to act sinfully? Furthermore, without such
authorized Vedic literatures, which ultimately award liberation, how can human
beings achieve the perfection of life?

4–pitå-deva-manuñyänäà
vedaç cakñus taveçvara
çreyas tv anupalabdhe ‘rthe
sädhya-sädhanayor api

My dear Lord, in order to understand those things beyond direct
experience—such as spiritual liberation or attainment of heaven and other
material enjoyments beyond our present capacity—and in general to understand
the means and end of all things, the forefathers, demigods and human beings
must consult the Vedic literatures, which are Your own laws, for these
constitute the highest evidence and revelation.

5–guëa-doña-bhidä-dåñöir
nigamät te na hi svataù
nigamenäpavädaç ca
bhidäyä iti ha bhramaù

My dear Lord, the distinction observed between piety and sin comes from
Your own Vedic knowledge and does not arise by itself. If the same Vedic
literature subsequently nullifies such distinction between piety and sin, there
will certainly be confusion.

6–çré-bhagavän uväca
yogäs trayo mayä proktä
nèëäà çreyo-vidhitsayä
jïänaà karma ca bhaktiç ca
nopäyo ‘nyo ‘sti kutracit

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, because I
desire that human beings may achieve perfection, I have presented three paths
of advancement—the path of knowledge, the path of work and the path of
devotion. Besides these three there is absolutely no other means of elevation.

7–nirviëëänäà jïäna-yogo
nyäsinäm iha karmasu
teñv anirviëëa-cittänäà
karma-yogas tu käminäm

Among these three paths, jïäna-yoga, the path of philosophical speculation,
is recommended for those who are disgusted with material life and are thus
detached from ordinary, fruitive activities. Those who are not disgusted with
material life, having many desires yet to fulfill, should seek perfection through
the path of karma-yoga.

8–yadåcchayä mat-kathädau
jäta-çraddhas tu yaù pumän
na nirviëëo näti-sakto
bhakti-yogo ‘sya siddhi-daù

If somehow or other by good fortune one develops faith in hearing and
chanting My glories, such a person, being neither very disgusted with nor
attached to material life, should achieve perfection through the path of loving
devotion to Me.

9–tävat karmäëi kurvéta
na nirvidyeta yävatä
mat-kathä-çravaëädau vä
çraddhä yävan na jäyate

As long as one is not satiated by fruitive activity and has not awakened his
taste for devotional service by çravaëaà kértanaà viñëoù [SB 7.5.23] one has to
act according to the regulative principles of the Vedic injunctions.

10–sva-dharma-stho yajan yajïair
anäçéù-käma uddhava
na yäti svarga-narakau
yady anyan na samäcaret

My dear Uddhava, a person who is situated in his prescribed duty, properly
worshiping by Vedic sacrifices but not desiring the fruitive result of such
worship, will not go to the heavenly planets; similarly, by not performing
forbidden activities he will not go to hell.

11–asmiû loke vartamänaù
sva-dharma-stho ‘naghaù çuciù
jïänaà viçuddham äpnoti
mad-bhaktià vä yadåcchayä

One who is situated in his prescribed duty, free from sinful activities and
cleansed of material contamination, in this very life obtains transcendental
knowledge or, by fortune, devotional service unto Me.

12–svargiëo ‘py etam icchanti
lokaà nirayiëas tathä
sädhakaà jïäna-bhaktibhyäm
ubhayaà tad-asädhakam

The residents of both heaven and hell desire human birth on the earth planet
because human life facilitates the achievement of transcendental knowledge and
love of Godhead, whereas neither heavenly nor hellish bodies efficiently provide
such opportunities.

13–na naraù svar-gatià käìkñen
närakéà vä vicakñaëaù
nemaà lokaà ca käìkñeta
dehäveçät pramädyati

A human being who is wise should never desire promotion to heavenly
planets or residence in hell. Indeed, a human being should also never desire
permanent residence on the earth, for by such absorption in the material body
one becomes foolishly negligent of one’s actual self-interest.

14–etad vidvän purä måtyor
abhaväya ghaöeta saù
apramatta idaà jïätvä
martyam apy artha-siddhi-dam

A wise person, knowing that although the material body is subject to death it
can still award the perfection of one’s life, should not foolishly neglect to take
advantage of this opportunity before death arrives.

15–chidyamänaà yamair etaiù
kåta-néòaà vanaspatim
khagaù sva-ketam utsåjya
kñemaà yäti hy alampaöaù

Without attachment, a bird gives up the tree in which his nest was
constructed when that tree is cut down by cruel men who are like death
personified, and thus the bird achieves happiness in another place.

16–aho-rätraiç chidyamänaà
buddhväyur bhaya-vepathuù
mukta-saìgaù paraà buddhvä
niréha upaçämyati

Knowing that one’s duration of life is being similarly cut down by the
passing of days and nights, one should be shaken by fear. In this way, giving up
all material attachment and desire, one understands the Supreme Lord and
achieves perfect peace.

17–nå-deham ädyaà su-labhaà su-durlabhaà
plavaà su-kalpaà guru-karëadhäram
mayänukülena nabhasvateritaà
pumän bhaväbdhià na taret sa ätma-hä

The human body, which can award all benefit in life, is automatically
obtained by the laws of nature, although it is a very rare achievement. This
human body can be compared to a perfectly constructed boat having the
spiritual master as the captain and the instructions of the Personality of
Godhead as favorable winds impelling it on its course. Considering all these
advantages, a human being who does not utilize his human life to cross the
ocean of material existence must be considered the killer of his own soul.

18–yadärambheñu nirviëëo
viraktaù saàyatendriyaù
abhyäsenätmano yogé
dhärayed acalaà manaù

A transcendentalist, having become disgusted and hopeless in all endeavors
for material happiness, completely controls the senses and develops detachment.
By spiritual practice he should then fix the mind on the spiritual platform
without deviation.

19–dhäryamäëaà mano yarhi
bhrämyad açv anavasthitam
atandrito ‘nurodhena
märgeëätma-vaçaà nayet

Whenever the mind, being concentrated on the spiritual platform, is
suddenly deviated from its spiritual position, one should carefully bring it under
the control of the self by following the prescribed means.

20–mano-gatià na visåjej
jita-präëo jitendriyaù
sattva-sampannayä buddhyä
mana ätma-vaçaà nayet

One should never lose sight of the actual goal of mental activities, but rather,
conquering the life air and senses and utilizing intelligence strengthened by the
mode of goodness, one should bring the mind under the control of the self.

21–eña vai paramo yogo
manasaù saìgrahaù småtaù
hådaya-jïatvam anvicchan
damyasyevärvato muhuù

An expert horseman, desiring to tame a headstrong horse, first lets the horse
have his way for a moment and then, pulling the reins, gradually places the
horse on the desired path. Similarly, the supreme yoga process is that by which
one carefully observes the movements and desires of the mind and gradually
brings them under full control.

22–säìkhyena sarva-bhävänäà
pratilomänulomataù
bhaväpyayäv anudhyäyen
mano yävat prasédati

Until one’s mind is fixed in spiritual satisfaction, one should analytically
study the temporary nature of all material objects, whether cosmic, earthly or
atomic. One should constantly observe the process of creation through the
natural progressive function and the process of annihilation through the
regressive function.

23–nirviëëasya viraktasya
puruñasyokta-vedinaù
manas tyajati daurätmyaà
cintitasyänucintayä

When a person is disgusted with the temporary, illusory nature of this world
and is thus detached from it, his mind, guided by the instructions of his
spiritual master, considers again and again the nature of this world and
eventually gives up the false identification with matter.

24–yamädibhir yoga-pathair
änvékñikyä ca vidyayä
mamärcopäsanäbhir vä
nänyair yogyaà smaren manaù

Through the various disciplinary regulations and the purificatory procedures
of the yoga system, through logic and spiritual education or through worship
and adoration of Me, one should constantly engage his mind in remembering the
Personality of Godhead, the goal of yoga. No other means should be employed
for this purpose.

25–yadi kuryät pramädena
yogé karma vigarhitam
yogenaiva dahed aàho
nänyat tatra kadäcana

If, because of momentary inattention, a yogi accidentally commits an
abominable activity, then by the very practice of yoga he should burn to ashes
the sinful reaction, without at any time employing any other procedure.

26–sve sve ‘dhikäre yä niñöhä
sa guëaù parikértitaù
karmaëäà jäty-açuddhänäm
anena niyamaù kåtaù
guëa-doña-vidhänena
saìgänäà tyäjanecchayä

It is firmly declared that the steady adherence of transcendentalists to their
respective spiritual positions constitutes real piety and that sin occurs when a
transcendentalist neglects his prescribed duty. One who adopts this standard of
piety and sin, sincerely desiring to give up all past association with sense
gratification, is able to subdue materialistic activities, which are by nature
impure.

27/28–jäta-çraddho mat-kathäsu
nirviëëaù sarva-karmasu
veda duùkhätmakän kämän
parityäge ‘py anéçvaraù
tato bhajeta mäà prétaù
çraddhälur dåòha-niçcayaù
juñamäëaç ca tän kämän
duùkhodarkäàç ca garhayan

Having awakened faith in the narrations of My glories, being disgusted with
all material activities, knowing that all sense gratification leads to misery, but
still being unable to renounce all sense enjoyment, My devotee should remain
happy and worship Me with great faith and conviction. Even though he is
sometimes engaged in sense enjoyment, My devotee knows that all sense
gratification leads to a miserable result, and he sincerely repents such activities.

29–proktena bhakti-yogena
bhajato mäsakån muneù
kämä hådayyä naçyanti
sarve mayi hådi sthite

When an intelligent person engages constantly in worshiping Me through
loving devotional service as described by Me, his heart becomes firmly situated
in Me. Thus all material desires within the heart are destroyed.

30–bhidyate hådaya-granthiç
chidyante sarva-saàçayäù
kñéyante cäsya karmäëi
mayi dåñöe ‘khilätmani

The knot in the heart is pierced, all misgivings are cut to pieces and the
chain of fruitive actions is terminated when I am seen as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.

31–tasmän mad-bhakti-yuktasya
yogino vai mad-ätmanaù
na jïänaà na ca vairägyaà
präyaù çreyo bhaved iha

Therefore, for a devotee engaged in My loving service, with mind fixed on
Me, the cultivation of knowledge and renunciation is generally not the means of
achieving the highest perfection within this world.

32/33–yat karmabhir yat tapasä
jïäna-vairägyataç ca yat
yogena däna-dharmeëa
çreyobhir itarair api
sarvaà mad-bhakti-yogena
mad-bhakto labhate ‘ïjasä
svargäpavargaà mad-dhäma
kathaïcid yadi väïchati

Everything that can be achieved by fruitive activities, penance, knowledge,
detachment, mystic yoga, charity, religious duties and all other means of
perfecting life is easily achieved by My devotee through loving service unto Me.
If somehow or other My devotee desires promotion to heaven, liberation, or
residence in My abode, he easily achieves such benedictions.

34–na kiïcit sädhavo dhérä
bhaktä hy ekäntino mama
väïchanty api mayä dattaà
kaivalyam apunar-bhavam

Because My devotees possess saintly behavior and deep intelligence, they
completely dedicate themselves to Me and do not desire anything besides Me.
Indeed, even if I offer them liberation from birth and death, they do not accept
it.

35–nairapekñyaà paraà prähur
niùçreyasam analpakam
tasmän niräçiño bhaktir
nirapekñasya me bhavet

It is said that complete detachment is the highest stage of freedom.
Therefore, one who has no personal desire and does not pursue personal
rewards can achieve loving devotional service unto Me.

36–na mayy ekänta-bhaktänäà
guëa-doñodbhavä guëäù
sädhünäà sama-cittänäà
buddheù param upeyuñäm

Material piety and sin, which arise from the good and evil of this world,
cannot exist within My unalloyed devotees, who, being free from material
hankering, maintain steady spiritual consciousness in all circumstances. Indeed,
such devotees have achieved Me, the Supreme Lord, who am beyond anything
that can be conceived by material intelligence.

37–evam etän mayä diñöän
anutiñöhanti me pathaù
kñemaà vindanti mat-sthänaà
yad brahma paramaà vidu

Persons who seriously follow these methods of achieving Me, which I have
personally taught, attain freedom from illusion, and upon reaching My personal
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abode they perfectly understand the Absolute Truth.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Nineteen-The Perfection of Spiritual Knowledge..

January 7, 2010

1–çré-bhagavän uväca
yo vidyä-çruta-sampannaù
ätmavän nänumänikaù
mayä-mätram idaà jïätvä
jïänaà ca mayi sannyaset

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: A self-realized person who has
cultivated scriptural knowledge up to the point of enlightenment and who is
free from impersonal speculation, understanding the material universe to be
simply illusion, should surrender unto Me both that knowledge and the means
by which he achieved it.

2–jïäninas tv aham eveñöaù
svärtho hetuç ca sammataù
svargaç caiväpavargaç ca
nänyo ‘rtho mad-åte priyaù

For learned, self-realized philosophers I am the only object of worship, the
desired goal of life, the means for achieving that goal, and the settled conclusion
of all knowledge. Indeed, because I am the cause of their happiness and their
freedom from unhappiness, such learned souls have no effective purpose or dear
object in life except Me.

3–jïäna-vijïäna-saàsiddhäù
padaà çreñöhaà vidur mama
jïäné priyatamo ‘to me
jïänenäsau bibharti mäm

Those who have achieved complete perfection through philosophical and
realized knowledge recognize My lotus feet to be the supreme transcendental
object. Thus the learned transcendentalist is most dear to Me, and by his
perfect knowledge he maintains Me in happiness.

4–tapas térthaà japo dänaà
paviträëétaräëi ca
nälaà kurvanti täà siddhià
yä jïäna-kalayä kåtä

That perfection which is produced by a small fraction of spiritual knowledge
cannot be duplicated by performing austerities, visiting holy places, chanting
silent prayers, giving in charity or engaging in other pious activities.

5–tasmäj jïänena sahitaà
jïätvä svätmänam uddhava
jïäna-vijïäna-sampanno
bhaja mäà bhakti-bhävataù

Therefore, My dear Uddhava, through knowledge you should understand
your actual self. Then, advancing by clear realization of Vedic knowledge, you
should worship Me in the mood of loving devotion.

6–jïäna-vijïäna-yajïena
mäm iñövätmänam ätmani
sarva-yajïa-patià mäà vai
saàsiddhià munayo ‘gaman

Formerly, great sages, through the sacrifice of Vedic knowledge and spiritual
enlightenment, worshiped Me within themselves, knowing Me to be the
Supreme Lord of all sacrifice and the Supersoul in everyone’s heart. Thus
coming to Me, these sages achieved the supreme perfection.

7–tvayy uddhaväçrayati yas tri-vidho vikäro
mäyäntaräpatati nädy-apavargayor yat
janmädayo ‘sya yad amé tava tasya kià syur
ädy-antayor yad asato ‘sti tad eva madhye

My dear Uddhava, the material body and mind, composed of the three modes
of material nature, attach themselves to you, but they are actually illusion, since
they appear only at the present, having no original or ultimate existence. How
is it possible, therefore, that the various stages of the body, namely birth,
growth, reproduction, maintenance, dwindling and death, can have any relation
to your eternal self? These phases relate only to the material body, which
previously did not exist and ultimately will not exist. The body exists merely at
the present moment.

8–çré-uddhava uväca
jïänaà viçuddhaà vipulaà yathaitad
vairägya-vijïäna-yutaà puräëam
äkhyähi viçveçvara viçva-mürte
tvad-bhakti-yogaà ca mahad-vimågyam

Çré Uddhava said: O Lord of the universe! O form of the universe! Please
explain to me that process of knowledge which automatically brings detachment
and direct perception of the truth, which is transcendental, and which is
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traditional among great spiritual philosophers. This knowledge, sought by
elevated personalities, describes loving devotional service unto Your Lordship.

9–täpa-trayeëäbhihatasya ghore
santapyamänasya bhavädhvanéça
paçyämi nänyac charaëaà taväìghridvandvätapaträd
amåtäbhivarñät

My dear Lord, for one who is being tormented on the terrible path of birth
and death and is constantly overwhelmed by the threefold miseries, I do not see
any possible shelter other than Your two lotus feet, which are just like a
refreshing umbrella that pours down showers of delicious nectar.

10–dañöaà janaà sampatitaà bile ‘smin
kälähinä kñudra-sukhoru-tarñam
samuddharainaà kåpayäpavargyair
vacobhir äsiïca mahänubhäva

O almighty Lord, please be merciful and uplift this hopeless living entity
who has fallen into the dark hole of material existence, where the snake of time
has bitten him. In spite of such abominable conditions, this poor living entity
has tremendous desire to relish the most insignificant material happiness. Please
save me, my Lord, by pouring down the nectar of Your instructions, which
awaken one to spiritual freedom.

11–çré-bhagavän uväca
ittham etat purä räjä
bhéñmaà dharma-bhåtäà varam
ajäta-çatruù papraccha
sarveñäà no ‘nuçåëvatäm

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, just as you
are now inquiring from Me, similarly, in the past King Yudhiñöhira, who
considered no one his enemy, inquired from the greatest of the upholders of
religious principles, Bhéñma, while all of us were carefully listening.

12–nivåtte bhärate yuddhe
suhån-nidhana-vihvalaù
çrutvä dharmän bahün paçcän
mokña-dharmän apåcchata

When the great Battle of Kurukñetra had ended, King Yudhiñöhira was
overwhelmed by the death of many beloved well-wishers, and thus, after
listening to instructions about many religious principles, he finally inquired
about the path of liberation.

13–tän ahaà te ‘bhidhäsyämi
deva-vrata-makhäc chrutän
jïäna-vairägya-vijïänaçraddhä-
bhakty-upabåàhitän

I will now speak unto you those religious principles of Vedic knowledge,
detachment, self-realization, faith and devotional service that were heard
directly from the mouth of Bhéñmadeva

14–navaikädaça païca trén
bhävän bhüteñu yena vai
ékñetäthäikam apy eñu
taj jïänaà mama niçcitam

I personally approve of that knowledge by which one sees the combination of
nine, eleven, five and three elements in all living entities, and ultimately one
element within those twenty-eight.

15–etad eva hi vijïänaà
na tathaikena yena yat
sthity-utpatty-apyayän paçyed
bhävänäà tri-guëätmanäm

When one no longer sees the twenty-eight separated material elements,
which arise from a single cause, but rather sees the cause itself, the Personality
of Godhead—at that time one’s direct experience is called vijïäna, or
self-realization

16–ädäv ante ca madhye ca
såjyät såjyaà yad anviyät
punas tat-pratisaìkräme
yac chiñyeta tad eva sat

Commencement, termination and maintenance are the stages of material
causation. That which consistently accompanies all these material phases from
one creation to another and remains alone when all material phases are
annihilated is the one eternal.

17–çrutiù pratyakñam aitihyam
anumänaà catuñöayam
pramäëeñv anavasthänäd
vikalpät sa virajyate

From the four types of evidence—Vedic knowledge, direct experience,
traditional wisdom and logical induction—one can understand the temporary,
insubstantial situation of the material world, by which one becomes detached
from the duality of this world.

18–karmaëäà pariëämitväd
ä-viriïcyäd amaìgalam
vipaçcin naçvaraà paçyed
adåñöam api dåñöa-vat

An intelligent person should see that any material activity is subject to
constant transformation and that even on the planet of Lord Brahmä there is
thus simply unhappiness. Indeed, a wise man can understand that just as all that
he has seen is temporary, similarly, all things within the universe have a
beginning and an end

19–bhakti-yogaù puraivoktaù
préyamäëäya te ‘nagha
punaç ca kathayiñyämi
mad-bhakteù käraëaà paraà

O sinless Uddhava, because you love Me, I previously explained to you the
process of devotional service. Now I will again explain the supreme process for
achieving loving service unto Me.

20/21/22/23/24–çraddhämåta-kathäyäà me
çaçvan mad-anukértanam
pariniñöhä ca püjäyäà
stutibhiù stavanaà mama
ädaraù paricaryäyäà
sarväìgair abhivandanam
mad-bhakta-püjäbhyadhikä
sarva-bhüteñu man-matiù
mad-artheñv aìga-ceñöä ca
vacasä mad-guëeraëam
mayy arpaëaà ca manasaù
sarva-käma-vivarjanam
mad-arthe ‘rtha-parityägo
bhogasya ca sukhasya ca
iñöaà dattaà hutaà japtaà
mad-arthaà yad vrataà tapaù
evaà dharmair manuñyäëäm
uddhavätma-nivedinäm
mayi saïjäyate bhaktiù
ko ‘nyo ‘rtho ‘syävaçiñyate

Firm faith in the blissful narration of My pastimes, constant chanting of My
glories, unwavering attachment to ceremonial worship of Me, praising Me
through beautiful hymns, great respect for My devotional service, offering
obeisances with the entire body, performing first-class worship of My devotees,
consciousness of Me in all living entities, offering of ordinary, bodily activities
in My devotional service, use of words to describe My qualities, offering the
mind to Me, rejection of all material desires, giving up wealth for My devotional
service, renouncing material sense gratification and happiness, and performing
all desirable activities such as charity, sacrifice, chanting, vows and austerities
with the purpose of achieving Me—these constitute actual religious principles,
by which those human beings who have actually surrendered themselves to Me
automatically develop love for Me. What other purpose or goal could remain for
My devotee?

25–yadätmany arpitaà cittaà
çäntaà sattvopabåàhitam
dharmaà jïänaà sa vairägyam
aiçvaryaà cäbhipadyate

When one’s peaceful consciousness, strengthened by the mode of goodness,
is fixed on the Personality of Godhead, one achieves religiosity, knowledge,
detachment and opulence.

26–yad arpitaà tad vikalpe
indriyaiù paridhävati
rajas-valaà cäsan-niñöhaà
cittaà viddhi viparyayam

When consciousness is fixed on the material body, home and other, similar
objects of sense gratification, one spends one’s life chasing after material objects
with the help of the senses. Consciousness, thus powerfully affected by the
mode of passion, becomes dedicated to impermanent things, and in this way
irreligion, ignorance, attachment and wretchedness arise.

27–dharmo mad-bhakti-kåt prokto
jïänaà caikätmya-darçanam
guëesv asaìgo vairägyam
aiçvaryaà cäëimädayaù

Actual religious principles are stated to be those that lead one to My
devotional service. Real knowledge is the awareness that reveals My
all-pervading presence. Detachment is complete disinterest in the objects of
material sense gratification, and opulence is the eight mystic perfection, such as
aëimä-siddhi.

28/29/30/31/32–çré-uddhava uväca
yamaù kati-vidhaù prokto
niyamo väri-karñaëa
kaù çamaù ko damaù kåñëa
kä titikñä dhåtiù prabho
kià dänaà kià tapaù çauryaà
kim satyam åtam ucyate
kas tyägaù kià dhanaà ceñöaà
ko yajïaù kä ca dakñiëä
puàsaù kià svid balaà çréman
bhago läbhaç ca keçava
kä vidyä hréù parä kä çréù
kià sukhaà duùkham eva ca
kaù paëòitaù kaç ca mürkhaù
kaù panthä utpathaç ca kaù
kaù svargo narakaù kaù svit
ko bandhur uta kià gåham
ka äòhyaù ko daridro vä
kåpaëaù kaù ka éçvaraù
etän praçnän mama brühi
viparétäàç ca sat-pate

Çré Uddhava said: My dear Lord Kåñëa, O chastiser of the enemies, please
tell me how many types of disciplinary regulations and regular daily duties there
are. Also, my Lord, tell me what is mental equilibrium, what is self-control, and
what is the actual meaning of tolerance and steadfastness. What are charity,
austerity and heroism, and how are reality and truth to he described? What is
renunciation, and what is wealth? What is desirable, what is sacrifice, and what
is religious remuneration? My dear Keçava, O most fortunate one, how am I to
understand the strength, opulence and profit of a particular person? What is the
best education, what is actual humility, and what is real beauty? What are
happiness and unhappiness? Who is learned, and who is a fool? What are the
true and the false paths in life, and what are heaven and hell? Who is indeed a
true friend, and what is one’s real home? Who is a rich man, and who is a poor
man? Who is wretched, and who is an actual controller? O Lord of the devotees,
kindly explain these matters to me, along with their opposites.

33/34/35–çré-bhagavän uväca
ahiàsä satyam asteyam
asaìgo hrér asaïcayaù
ästikyaà brahmacaryaà ca
maunaà sthairyaà kñamäbhayam
çaucaà japas tapo homaù
çraddhätithyaà mad-arcanam
térthäöanaà parärthehä
tuñöir äcärya-sevanam
ete yamäù sa-niyamä
ubhayor dvädaça småtäù
puàsäm upäsitäs täta
yathä-kämaà duhanti hi

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Nonviolence, truthfulness, not
coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, humility, freedom from
possessiveness, trust in the principles of religion, celibacy, silence, steadiness,
forgiveness and fearlessness are the twelve primary disciplinary principles.
Internal cleanliness, external cleanliness, chanting the holy names of the Lord,
austerity, sacrifice, faith, hospitality, worship of Me, visiting holy places, acting
and desiring only for the supreme interest, satisfaction, and service to the
spiritual master are the twelve elements of regular prescribed duties. These
twenty-four elements bestow all desired benedictions upon those persons who
devotedly cultivate them.

36/37/38/39–çamo man-niñöhatä buddher
dama indriya-saàyamaù
titikñä duùkha-sammarño
jihvopastha-jayo dhåtiù
daëòa-nyäsaù paraà dänaà
käma-tyägas tapaù småtam
svabhäva-vijayaù çauryaà
satyaà ca sama-darçanam
anyac ca sunåtä väëé
kavibhiù parikértitä
karmasv asaìgamaù çaucaà
tyägaù sannyäsa ucyate
dharma iñöaà dhanaà nèëäà
yajïo ‘haà bhagavattamaù
dakñiëä jïäna-sandeçaù
präëäyämaù paraà balam

Absorbing the intelligence in Me constitutes mental equilibrium, and
complete discipline of the senses is self-control. Tolerance means patiently
enduring unhappiness, and steadfastness occurs when one conquers the tongue
and genitals. The greatest charity is to give up all aggression toward others, and
renunciation of lust is understood to be real austerity. Real heroism is to
conquer one’s natural tendency to enjoy material life, and reality is seeing the
Supreme Personality of Godhead everywhere. Truthfulness means to speak the
truth in a pleasing way, as declared by great sages. Cleanliness is detachment in
fruitive activities, whereas renunciation is the sannyäsa order of life. The true
desirable wealth for human beings is religiousness, and I, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, am sacrifice. Religious remuneration is devotion to the
äcärya with the purpose of acquiring spiritual instruction, and the greatest
strength is the präëäyäma system of breath control.

40/41/42/43/44/45–bhago ma aiçvaro bhävo
läbho mad-bhaktir uttamaù
vidyätmani bhidä-bädho
jugupsä hrér akarmasu
çrér guëä nairapekñyädyäù
sukhaà duùkha-sukhätyayaù
duùkhaà käma-sukhäpekñä
paëòito bandha-mokña-vit
mürkho dehädy-ahaà-buddhiù
panthä man-nigamaù småtaù
utpathaç citta-vikñepaù
svargaù sattva-guëodayaù
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narakas tama-unnäho
bandhur gurur ahaà sakhe
gåhaà çaréraà mänuñyaà
guëäòhyo hy äòhya ucyate
daridro yas tv asantuñöaù
kåpaëo yo ‘jitendriyaù
guëeñv asakta-dhér éço
guëa-saìgo viparyayaù
eta uddhava te praçnäù
sarve sädhu nirüpitäù
kià varëitena bahunä
lakñaëaà guëa-doñayoù
guëa-doña-dåçir doño
guëas tübhaya-varjitaù

Actual opulence is My own nature as the Personality of Godhead, through
which I exhibit the six unlimited opulences. The supreme gain in life is
devotional service to Me, and actual education is nullifying the false perception
of duality within the soul. Real modesty is to be disgusted with improper
activities, and beauty is to possess good qualities such as detachment. Real
happiness is to transcend material happiness and unhappiness, and real misery is
to be implicated in searching for sex pleasure. A wise man is one who knows the
process of freedom from bondage, and a fool is one who identifies with his
material body and mind. The real path in life is that which leads to Me, and the
wrong path is sense gratification, by which consciousness is bewildered. Actual
heaven is the predominance of the mode of goodness, whereas hell is the
predominance of ignorance. I am everyone’s true friend, acting as the spiritual
master of the entire universe, and one’s home is the human body. My dear
friend Uddhava, one who is enriched with good qualities is actually said to be
rich, and one who is unsatisfied in life is actually poor. A wretched person is
one who cannot control his senses, whereas one who is not attached to sense
gratification is a real controller. One who attaches himself to sense gratification
is the opposite, a slave. Thus, Uddhava, I have elucidated all of the matters
about which you inquired. There is no need for a more elaborate description of
these good and bad qualities, since to constantly see good and bad is itself a bad
quality. The best quality is to transcend material good and evil.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Eighteen-Description of Varnasrama-dharma..

January 6, 2010

1–çré-bhagavän uväca
vanaà vivikñuù putreñu
bhäryäà nyasya sahaiva vä
vana eva vasec chäntas
tåtéyaà bhägam äyuñaù

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: One who desires to adopt the
third order of life, vänaprastha, should enter the forest with a peaceful mind,
leaving his wife with his mature sons, or else taking her along with him.

2–kanda-müla-phalair vanyair
medhyair våttià prakalpayet
vaséta valkalaà väsas
tåëa-parëäjinäni vä

Having adopted the vänaprastha order of life, one should arrange one’s
sustenance by eating uncontaminated bulbs, roots and fruits that grow in the
forest. One may dress oneself with tree bark, grass, leaves or animal skins.

3–keça-roma-nakha-çmaçrumaläni
bibhåyäd dataù
na dhäved apsu majjeta
tri kälaà sthaëòile-çayaù

The vänaprastha should not groom the hair on his head, body or face, should
not manicure his nails, should not pass stool and urine at irregular times and
should not make a special endeavor for dental hygiene. He should be content to
take bath in water three times daily and should sleep on the ground.

4–gréñme tapyeta païcägnén
varñäsv äsära-ñäò jale
äkaëtha-magnaù çiçira
evaà våttas tapaç caret

Thus engaged as a vänaprastha, one should execute penance during the
hottest summer days by subjecting oneself to burning fires on four sides and the
blazing sun overhead; during the rainy season one should remain outside,
subjecting oneself to torrents of rain; and in the freezing winter one should
remain submerged in water up to one’s neck.

5–agni-pakvaà samaçnéyät
käla-pakvam athäpi vä
ulükhaläçma-kuööo vä
dantolükhala eva vä

One may eat foodstuffs prepared with fire, such as grains, or fruits ripened
by time. One may grind one’s food with mortar and stone or with one’s own
teeth.

6–svayaà saïcinuyät sarvam
ätmano våtti-käraëam
deça-käla-baläbhijïo
nädadétänyadähåtam

The vänaprastha should personally collect whatever he requires for his
bodily maintenance, carefully considering the time, place and his own capacity.
He should never collect provisions for the future.

7–vanyaiç caru-puroòäçair
nirvapet käla-coditän
na tu çrautena paçunä
mäà yajeta vanäçramé

One who has accepted the vänaprastha order of life should perform seasonal
sacrifices by offering oblations of caru and sacrificial cakes prepared from rice
and other grains found in the forest. The vänaprastha, however, may never
offer animal sacrifices to Me, even those sacrifices mentioned in the Vedas.

8–agnihotraà ca darçaç ca
paurëamäsaç ca pürva-vat
cäturmäsyäni ca muner
ämnätäni ca naigamaiù

The vänaprastha should perform the agnihotra, darça and paurëamäsa
sacrifices, as he did while in the gåhastha-äçrama. He should also perform the
vows and sacrifices of cäturmäsya, since all of these rituals are enjoined for the
vänaprastha-äçrama by expert knowers of the Vedas.

9–evaà cérëena tapasä
munir dhamani-santataù
mäà tapo-mayam ärädhya
åñi-lokäd upaiti mäm

The saintly vänaprastha, practicing severe penances and accepting only the
bare necessities of life, becomes so emaciated that he appears to be mere skin
and bones. Thus worshiping Me through severe penances, he goes to the
Maharloka planet and then directly achieves Me

10–yas tv etat kåcchrataç cérëaà
tapo niùçreyasaà mahat
kämäyälpéyase yuïjyäd
bäliçaù ko ‘paras tataù

One who with long endeavor executes this painful but exalted penance,
which awards ultimate liberation, simply to achieve insignificant sense
gratification must be considered the greatest fool.

11–

yadäsau niyame ‘kalpo
jarayä jäta-vepathuù
ätmany agnén samäropya
mac-citto ‘gnià samäviçet

If the vänaprastha is overtaken by old age and because of his trembling body
is no longer able to execute his prescribed duties, he should place the sacrificial
fire within his heart by meditation. Then, fixing his mind on Me, he should
enter into the fire and give up his body.

12–yadä karma-vipäkeñu
lokeñu nirayätmasu
virägo jäyate samyaì
nyastägniù pravrajet tataù

If the vänaprastha, understanding that even promotion to Brahmaloka is a
miserable situation, develops complete detachment from all possible results of
fruitive activities, then he may take the sannyäsa order of life.

13–iñövä yathopadeçaà mäà
dattvä sarva-svam åtvije
agnén sva-präëa äveçya
nirapekñaù parivrajet

Having worshiped Me according to scriptural injunctions and having given
all one’s property to the sacrificial priest, one should place the fire sacrifice
within oneself. Thus, with the mind completely detached, one should enter the
sannyäsa order of life.

14–viprasya vai sannyasato
devä därädi-rüpiëaù
vighnän kurvanty ayaà hy asmän
äkramya samiyät param

“This man taking sannyäsa is going to surpass us and go back home, back to
Godhead.” Thus thinking, the demigods create stumbling blocks on the path of
the sannyäsé by appearing before him in the shape of his former wife or other
women and attractive objects. But the sannyäsé should pay the demigods and
their manifestations no heed.

15–bibhåyäc cen munir väsaù
kaupénäcchädanaà param
tyaktaà na daëòa-päträbhyäm
anyat kiïcid anäpadi

If the sannyäsé desires to wear something besides a mere kaupéna, he may use
another cloth around his waist and hips to cover the kaupéna. Otherwise, if
there is no emergency, he should not accept anything besides his daëòa and
waterpot.

16–dåñöi-pütaà nyaset pädaà
vastra-pütaà pibej jalam
satya-pütäà vaded väcaà
manaù-pütaà samäcaret

A saintly person should step or place his foot on the ground only after
verifying with his eyes that there are no living creatures, such as insects, who
might be injured by his foot. He should drink water only after filtering it
through a portion of his cloth, and he should speak only words that possess the
purity of truth. Similarly, he should perform only those activities his mind has
carefully ascertained to be pure.

17–maunänéhäniläyämä
daëòä väg-deha-cetasäm
na hy ete yasya santy aìga
veëubhir na bhaved yatiù

One who has not accepted the three internal disciplines of avoiding useless
speech, avoiding useless activities and controlling the life air can never be
considered a sannyäsé merely because of his carrying bamboo rods.

18–bhikñäà caturñu varëeñu
vigarhyän varjayaàç caret
saptägärän asaìkÿptäàs
tuñyel labdhena tävatä

Rejecting those houses that are polluted and untouchable, one should
approach without previous calculation seven houses and be satisfied with that
which is obtained there by begging. According to necessity, one may approach
each of the four occupational orders of society.

19–bahir jaläçayaà gatvä
tatropaspåçya väg-yataù
vibhajya pävitaà çeñaà
bhuïjétäçeñam ähåtam

Taking the food gathered through begging, one should leave the populated
areas and go to a reservoir of water in a secluded place. There, having taken a
bath and washed one’s hands thoroughly, one should distribute portions of the
food to others who may request it. One should do this without speaking. Then,
having thoroughly cleansed the remnants, one should eat everything on one’s
plate, leaving nothing for future consumption.

20–ekaç caren mahém etäà
niùsaìgaù saàyatendriyaù
ätma-kréòa ätma-rata
ätma-vän sama-darçanaù

Without any material attachment, with senses fully controlled, remaining
enthusiastic, and satisfied in realization of the Supreme Lord and his own self,
the saintly person should travel about the earth alone. Having equal vision
everywhere, he should be steady on the spiritual platform.

21–vivikta-kñema-çaraëo
mad-bhäva-vimaläçayaù
ätmänaà cintayed ekam
abhedena mayä muniù

Dwelling in a safe and solitary place, his mind purified by constant thought
of Me, the sage should concentrate on the soul alone, realizing it to be
nondifferent from Me.

22–anvékñetätmano bandhaà
mokñaà ca jïäna-niñöhayä
bandha indriya-vikñepo
mokña eñäà ca saàyamaù

By steady knowledge a sage should clearly ascertain the nature of the soul’s
bondage and liberation. Bondage occurs when the senses are deviated to sense
gratification, and complete control of the senses constitutes liberation.

23–tasmän niyamya ñaò-vargaà
mad-bhävena caren muniù
viraktaù kñudra-kämebhyo
labdhvätmani sukhaà mahat

Therefore, completely controlling the five senses and the mind by Kåñëa
consciousness, a sage, having experienced spiritual bliss within the self, should
live detached from insignificant material sense gratification.

24–pura-gräma-vrajän särthän
bhikñärthaà praviçaàç caret
puëya-deça-saric-chailavanäçrama-
vatéà mahém

The sage should travel in sanctified places, by flowing rivers and within the
solitude of mountains and forests. He should enter the cities, towns and
pasturing grounds and approach ordinary working men only to beg his bare
sustenance.

25–vänaprasthäçrama-padeñv
abhékñëaà bhaikñyam äcaret
saàsidhyaty äçv asammohaù
çuddha-sattvaù çiländhasä

One in the vänaprastha order of life should always practice taking charity
from others, for one is thereby freed from illusion and quickly becomes perfect
in spiritual life. Indeed, one who subsists on food grains obtained in such a
humble manner purifies his existence.

26–naitad vastutayä paçyed
dåçyamänaà vinaçyati
asakta-citto viramed
ihämutra-cikérñität

One should never see as ultimate reality those material things which
obviously will perish. With consciousness free from material attachment, one
should retire from all activities meant for material progress in this life and the
next.

27–yad etad ätmani jagan
mano-väk-präëa-saàhatam
sarvaà mäyeti tarkeëa
sva-sthas tyaktvä na tat smaret

One should logically consider the universe, which is situated within the
Lord, and one’s own material body, which is composed of mind, speech and life
air, to be ultimately products of the Lord’s illusory energy. Thus situated in the
self, one should give up one’s faith in these things and should never again make
them the object of one’s meditation.

28–jïäna-niñöho virakto vä
mad-bhakto vänapekñakaù
sa-liìgän äçramäàs tyaktvä
cared avidhi-gocaraù

A learned transcendentalist dedicated to the cultivation of knowledge and
thus detached from external objects, or My devotee who is detached even from
desire for liberation—both neglect those duties based on external rituals or
paraphernalia. Thus their conduct is beyond the range of rules and regulations

29–budho bälaka-vat kréòet
kuçalo jaòa-vac caret
vaded unmatta-vad vidvän
go-caryäà naigamaç caret

Although most wise, the paramahaàsa should enjoy life like a child,
oblivious to honor and dishonor; although most expert, he should behave like a
stunted, incompetent person; although most learned, he should speak like an
insane person; and although a scholar learned in Vedic regulations, he should
behave in an unrestricted manner.

30–veda-väda-rato na syän
na päñaëòé na haitukaù
çuñka-väda-viväde na
kaïcit pakñaà samäçrayet

A devotee should never engage in the fruitive rituals mentioned in the
karma-käëòa section of the Vedas, nor should he become atheistic, acting or
speaking in opposition to Vedic injunctions. Similarly, he should never speak
like a mere logician or skeptic or take any side whatsoever in useless arguments.

31–nodvijeta janäd dhéro
janaà codvejayen na tu
ati-vädäàs titikñeta
nävamanyeta kaïcana
deham uddiçya paçu-vad
vairaà kuryän na kenacit

A saintly person should never let others frighten or disturb him and,
similarly, should never frighten or disturb other people. He should tolerate the
insults of others and should never himself belittle anyone. He should never
create hostility with anyone for the sake of the material body, for he would thus
be no better than an animal.

32–eka eva paro hy ätmä
bhüteñv ätmany avasthitaù
yathendur uda-pätreñu
bhütäny ekätmakäni ca

The one Supreme Lord is situated within all material bodies and within
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everyone’s soul. Just as the moon is reflected in innumerable reservoirs of
water, the Supreme Lord, although one, is present within everyone. Thus every
material body is ultimately composed of the energy of the one Supreme Lord.

33–alabdhvä na viñédeta
käle käle ‘çanaà kvacit
labdhvä na håñyed dhåtimän
ubhayaà daiva-tantritam

If at times one does not obtain proper food one should not be depressed, and
when one obtains sumptuous food one should not rejoice. Being fixed in
determination, one should understand both situations to be under the control of
God.

34–ähärärthaà saméheta
yuktaà tat-präëa-dhäraëam
tattvaà vimåçyate tena
tad vijïäya vimucyate

If required, one should endeavor to get sufficient foodstuffs, because it is
always necessary and proper to maintain one’s health. When the senses, mind
and life air are fit, one can contemplate spiritual truth, and by understanding
the truth one is liberated.

35-yadåcchayopapannännam
adyäc chreñöham utäparam
tathä väsas tathä çayyäà
präptaà präptaà bhajen muniù

A sage should accept the food, clothing and bedding—be they of excellent or
inferior quality—that come of their own accord.

36–çaucam äcamanaà snänaà
na tu codanayä caret
anyäàç ca niyamäï jïäné
yathähaà lélayeçvaraù

Just as I, the Supreme Lord, execute regulative duties by My own free will,
similarly, one who has realized knowledge of Me should maintain general
cleanliness, purify his hands with water, take bath and execute other regulative
duties not by force but by his own free will.

37–na hi tasya vikalpäkhyä
yä ca mad-vékñayä hatä
ä-dehäntät kvacit khyätis
tataù sampadyate mayä

A realized soul no longer sees anything as separate from Me, for his realized
knowledge of Me has destroyed such illusory perception. Since the material
body and mind were previously accustomed to this kind of perception, it may
sometimes appear to recur; but at the time of death the self-realized soul
achieves opulences equal to Mine.

38–duùkhodarkeñu kämeñu
jäta-nirveda ätmavän
ajjïäsita-mad-dharmo
munià gurum upavrajet

One who is detached from sense gratification, knowing its result to be
miserable, and who desires spiritual perfection, but who has not seriously
analyzed the process for obtaining Me, should approach a bona fide and learned
spiritual master.

39–tävat paricared bhaktaù
çraddhävän anasüyakaù
yävad brahma vijänéyän
mäm eva gurum ädåtaù

Until a devotee has clearly realized spiritual knowledge, he should continue
with great faith and respect and without envy to render personal service to the
guru, who is nondifferent from Me.

40/41–yas tv asaàyata-ñaò-vargaù
pracaëòendriya-särathiù
jïäna-vairägya-rahitas
tri-daëòam upajévati
surän ätmänam ätma-sthaà
nihnute mäà ca dharma-hä
avipakva-kañäyo ‘smäd
amuñmäc ca vihéyate

One who has not controlled the six forms of illusion [lust, anger, greed,
excitement, false pride and intoxication], whose intelligence, the leader of the
senses, is extremely attached to material things, who is bereft of knowledge and
detachment, who adopts the sannyäsa order of life to make a living, who denies
the worshipable demigods, his own self and the Supreme Lord within himself,
thus ruining all religious principles, and who is still infected by material
contamination, is deviated and lost both in this life and the next.

42–bhikñor dharmaù çamo ‘hiàsä
tapa ékñä vanaukasaù
gåhiëo bhüta-rakñejyä
dvijasyäcärya-sevanam

The main religious duties of a sannyäsé are equanimity and nonviolence,
whereas for the vänaprastha austerity and philosophical understanding of the
difference between the body and soul are prominent. The main duties of a
householder are to give shelter to all living entities and perform sacrifices, and
the brahmacäré is mainly engaged in serving the spiritual master.

43–brahmacaryaà tapaù çaucaà
santoño bhüta-sauhådam
gåhasthasyäpy åtau gantuù
sarveñäà mad-upäsanam

A householder may approach his wife for sex only at the time prescribed for
begetting children. Otherwise, the householder should practice celibacy,
austerity, cleanliness of mind and body, satisfaction in his natural position, and
friendship toward all living entities. Worship of Me is to be practiced by all
human beings, regardless of social or occupational divisions.

44–iti mäà yaù sva-dharmeëa
bhajen nityam ananya-bhäk
sarva-bhüteñu mad-bhävo
mad-bhaktià vindate dåòhäm

One who worships Me by his prescribed duty, having no other object of
worship, and who remains conscious of Me as present in all living entities,
achieves unflinching devotional service unto Me.

45–bhaktyoddhavänapäyinyä
sarva-loka-maheçvaram
sarvotpatty-apyayaà brahma
käraëaà mopayäti saù

My dear Uddhava, I am the Supreme Lord of all worlds, and I create and
destroy this universe, being its ultimate cause. I am thus the Absolute Truth,
and one who worships Me with unfailing devotional service comes to Me.

46–iti sva-dharma-nirëiktasattvo
nirjïäta-mad-gatiù
jïäna-vijïäna-sampanno
na cirät samupaiti mäm

Thus, one who has purified his existence by execution of his prescribed
duties, who fully understands My supreme position and who is endowed with
scriptural and realized knowledge, very soon achieves Me.

47–varëäçramavatäà dharma
eña äcära-lakñaëaù
sa eva mad-bhakti-yuto
niùçreyasa-karaù paraù

Those who are followers of this varëäçrama system accept religious
principles according to authorized traditions of proper conduct. When such
varëäçrama duties are dedicated to Me in loving service, they award the
supreme perfection of life.

48–etat te ‘bhihitaà sädho
bhavän påcchati yac ca mäm
yathä sva-dharma-saàyukto
bhakto mäà samiyät param

My dear saintly Uddhava, I have now described to you, just as you inquired,
the means by which My devotee, perfectly engaged in his prescribed duty, can
come back to Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Sri Baagavatham Slohas..Cant0-11-Athyayam Seventeen-Lord Krishna’s Description of the Varnasrama System..

January 6, 2010

1/2–çré-uddhava uväca
yas tvayäbhihitaù pürvaà
dharmas tvad-bhakti-lakñaëaù
varëäçamäcäravatäà
sarveñäà dvi-padäm api
yathänuñöhéyamänena
tvayi bhaktir nåëäà bhavet
sva-dharmeëäravindäkña
tan mamäkhyätum arhasi

Çré Uddhava said: My dear Lord, previously You described the principles of
devotional service that are to be practiced by followers of the varëäçrama system
and even ordinary, unregulated human beings. My dear lotus-eyed Lord, now
please explain to me how all human beings can achieve loving service unto You
by the execution of their prescribed duties.

3/4–purä kila mahä-bäho
dharmaà paramakaà prabho
yat tena haàsa-rüpeëa
brahmaëe ‘bhyättha mädhava
sa idänéà su-mahatä
kälenämitra-karçana
na präyo bhavitä martyaloke
präg anuçäsitaù

My dear Lord, O mighty-armed one, previously in Your form of Lord Haàsa
You spoke to Lord Brahmä those religious principles that bring supreme
happiness to the practitioner. My dear Mädhava, now much time has passed,
and that which You previously instructed will soon practically cease to exist, O
subduer of the enemy

5/6–vaktä kartävitä nänyo
dharmasyäcyuta te bhuvi
sabhäyäm api vairiïcyäà
yatra mürti-dharäù kaläù
karträviträ pravakträ ca
bhavatä madhusüdana
tyakte mahé-tale deva
vinañöaà kaù pravakñyati

My dear Lord Acyuta, there is no speaker, creator and protector of supreme
religious principles other than Your Lordship, either on the earth or even in the
assembly of Lord Brahmä, where the personified Vedas reside. Thus, my dear
Lord Madhusüdana, when You, who are the very creator, protector and speaker
of spiritual knowledge, abandon the earth, who will again speak this lost
knowledge?

7–tat tvaà naù sarva-dharma-jïa
dharmas tvad-bhakti-lakñaëaù
yathä yasya vidhéyeta
tathä varëaya me prabho

Therefore, my Lord, since You are the knower of all religious principles,
please describe to me the human beings who may execute the path of loving
service to You and how such service is to be rendered.

8–çré-çuka uväca
itthaà sva-bhåtya-mukhyena
påñöaù sa bhagavän hariù
prétaù kñemäya martyänäà
dharmän äha sanätanän

Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé said: Çré Uddhava, the best of devotees, thus inquired
from the Lord. Hearing his question, the Personality of Godhead, çré Kåñëa,
was pleased and for the welfare of all conditioned souls spoke those religious
principles that are eternal.

9–çré-bhagavän uväca
dharmya eña tava praçno
naiùçreyasa-karo nåëäm
varëäçramäcäravatäà
tam uddhava nibodha m

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, your question
is faithful to religious principles and thus gives rise to the highest perfection in
life, pure devotional service, for both ordinary human beings and the followers
of the varëäçrama system. Now please learn from Me those supreme religious
principles.

10–ädau kåta-yuge varëo
nåëäà haàsa iti småtaù
kåta-kåtyäù prajä jätyä
tasmät kåta-yugaà viduù

In the beginning, in Satya-yuga, there is only one social class, called haàsa,
to which all human beings belong. In that age all people are unalloyed devotees
of the Lord from birth, and thus learned scholars call this first age Kåta-yuga, or
the age in which all religious duties are perfectly fulfilled.

11–vedaù praëava evägre
dharmo ‘haà våña-rüpa-dhåk
upäsate tapo-niñöhä
haàsaà mäà mukta-kilbiñäù

In Satya-yuga the undivided Veda is expressed by the syllable oà, and I am
the only object of mental activities. I become manifest as the four-legged bull of
religion, and thus the inhabitants of Satya-yuga, fixed in austerity and free from
all sins, worship Me as Lord Haàsa.

12–tretä-mukhe mahä-bhäga
präëän me hådayät trayé
vidyä prädurabhüt tasyä
aham äsaà tri-vån makhaù

O greatly fortunate one, at the beginning of Tretä-yuga Vedic knowledge
appeared from My heart, which is the abode of the air of life, in three
divisions—as Åg, Säma and Yajur. Then from that knowledge I appeared as
threefold sacrifice.

13–vipra-kñatriya-viö-çüdrä
mukha-bähüru-päda-jäù
vairäjät puruñäj jätä
ya ätmäcära-lakñaëäù

In Tretä-yuga the four social orders were manifested from the universal
form of the Personality of Godhead. The brähmaëas appeared from the Lord’s
face, the kñatriyas from the Lord’s arms, the vaiçyas from the Lord’s thighs and
the çüdras from the legs of that mighty form. Each social division was
recognized by its particular duties and behavior.

14–gåhäçramo jaghanato
brahmacaryaà hådo mama
vakñaù-sthaläd vane-väsaù
sannyäsaù çirasi sthitaù

The married order of life appeared from the loins of My universal form, and
the celibate students came from My heart. The forest-dwelling retired order of
life appeared from My chest, and the renounced order of life was situated
within the head of My universal form.

15–varëänäm äçramäëäà ca
janma-bhümy-anusäriëéù
äsan prakåtayo nènäà
nécair nécottamottamäù

The various occupational and social divisions of human society appeared
according to inferior and superior natures manifest in the situation of the
individual’s birth.

16–çamo damas tapaù çaucaà
santoñaù kñäntir ärjavam
mad-bhaktiç ca dayä satyaà
brahma-prakåtayas tv imäù

çamaù—peacefulness; damaù—sense control; tapaù—austerity;
çaucam—cleanliness; santoñaù—full satisfaction; kñäntiù—forgiveness;
ärjavam—simplicity and straightforwardness; mat-bhaktiù—devotional service
unto Me; ca—also; dayä—mercy; satyam—truth; brahma—of the brähmaëas;
prakåtayaù—the natural qualities; tu—indeed; imäù—these.

Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, cleanliness, satisfaction, tolerance,
simple straightforwardness, devotion to Me, mercy and truthfulness are the
natural qualities of the brähmaëas.

17–tejo balaà dhåtiù çauryaà
titikñaudäryam udyamaù
sthairyaà brahmanyam aiçvaryaà
kñatra-prakåtayas tv imäù

tejaù—dynamic power; balam—bodily strength; dhåtiù—determination;
çauryam—heroism; titikñä—tolerance; audäryam—generosity;
udyamaù—endeavor; sthairyam—steadiness; brahmaëyam—being always eager
to serve the brähmaëas; aiçvaryam—leadership; kñatra—of the kñatriyas;
prakåtayaù—the natural qualities; tu—indeed; imäù—these.

Dynamic power, bodily strength, determination, heroism, tolerance,
generosity, great endeavor, steadiness, devotion to the brähmaëas and leadership
are the natural qualities of the kñatriyas.

18–ästikyaà däna-niñöhä ca
adambho brahma-sevanam
atuñöir arthopacayair
vaiçya-prakåtayas tv imäù

ästikyam—faith in Vedic civilization; däna-niñöhä—dedicated to charity;
ca—also; adambhaù—being without hypocrisy; brahma-sevanam—service to
the brähmaëas; atuñöiù—remaining dissatisfied; artha—of money;
upacayaiù—by the accumulation; vaiçya—of the vaiçyas; prakåtayaù—the
natural qualities; tu—indeed; imäù—these.

Faith in Vedic civilization, dedication to charity, freedom from hypocrisy,
service to the brähmaëas and perpetually desiring to accumulate more money
are the natural qualities of the vaiçyas.

19–çuçrüñaëaà dvija-gaväà
devänäà cäpy amäyayä
tatra labdhena santoñaù
çüdra-prakåtayas tv imäù

Service without duplicity to the brähmaëas, cows, demigods and other
worshipable personalities, and complete satisfaction with whatever income is
obtained in such service, are the natural qualities of çüdras.

20–açaucam anåtaà steyaà
nästikyaà çuñka-vigrahaù
kämaù krodhaç ca tarñaç ca
sa bhävo ‘ntyävasäyinäm

Dirtiness, dishonesty, thievery, faithlessness, useless quarrel, lust, anger and
hankering constitute the nature of those in the lowest position outside the
varëäçrama system.

21–ahiàsä satyam asteyam
akäma-krodha-lobhatä
bhüta-priya-hitehä ca
dharmo ‘yaà särva-varëikaù

Nonviolence, truthfulness, honesty, desire for the happiness and welfare of
all others and freedom from lust, anger and greed constitute duties for all
members of society.

22–dvitéyaà präpyänupürvyäj
janmopanayanaà dvijaù
vasan guru-kule dänto
brahmädhéyéta cähütaù

The twice-born member of society achieves second birth through the
sequence of purificatory ceremonies culminating in Gäyatré initiation. Being
summoned by the spiritual master, he should reside within the guru’s äçrama
and with a self-controlled mind carefully study the Vedic literature.

23–mekhaläjina-daëòäkñabrahma-
sütra-kamaëòalün
jaöilo ‘dhauta-dad-väso
‘rakta-péöhaù kuçän dadhat

The brahmacäré should regularly dress with a belt of straw and deerskin
garments. He should wear matted hair, carry a rod and waterpot and be
decorated with akña beads and a sacred thread. Carrying pure kuça grass in his
hand, he should never accept a luxurious or sensuous sitting place. He should
not unnecessarily polish his teeth, nor should he bleach and iron his clothes.

24–snäna-bhojana-homeñu
japoccäre ca väg-yataù
na cchindyän nakha-romäëi
kakñopastha-gatäny api

A brahmacäré should always remain silent while bathing, eating, attending
sacrificial performances, chanting japa or passing stool and urine. He should not
cut his nails and hair, including the armpit and pubic hair.

25–reto nävakirej jätu
brahma-vrata-dharaù svayam
avakérëe ‘vagähyäpsu
yatäsus tri-padäà japet

One observing the vow of celibate brahmacäré life should never pass semen.
If the semen by chance spills out by itself, the brahmacäré should immediately
take bath in water, control his breath by präëäyäma and chant the Gäyatré
mantra

26–agny-arkäcärya-go-vipra
guru-våddha-suräï çuciù
samähita upäséta
sandhye dve yata-väg japan

Purified and fixed in consciousness, the brahmacäré should worship the
fire-god, sun, äcärya, cows, brähmaëas, guru, elderly respectable persons and
demigods. He should perform such worship at sunrise and sunset, without
speaking but by silently chanting or murmuring the appropriate mantras.

27–äcäryaà mäà vijänéyän
navamanyeta karhicit
na martya-buddhyäsüyeta
sarva-deva-mayo guruù

äcäryam—the spiritual master; mäm—Myself; vijänéyät—one should know; na
avamanyeta—one should never disrespect; karhicit—at any time; na—never;
martya-buddhyä—with the idea of his being an ordinary man; asüyeta—one
should be envious; sarva-deva—of all demigods; mayaù—representative;
guruù—the spiritual master

One should know the äcärya as Myself and never disrespect him in any way.
One should not envy him, thinking him an ordinary man, for he is the
representative of all the demigod

28–säyaà prätar upänéya
bhaikñyaà tasmai nivedayet
yac cänyad apy anujïätam
upayuïjéta saàyataù

säyam—in the evening; prätaù—in the morning; upänéya—bringing;
bhaikñyam—food that is collected by begging; tasmai—unto him (the äcärya);
nivedayet—one should deliver; yat—that which; ca—also; anyat—other
things; api—indeed; anujïätam—that which is permitted; upayuïjéta—one
should accept; saàyataù—being fully controlled.

In the morning and evening one should collect foodstuffs and other articles
and deliver them to the spiritual master. Then, being self-controlled, one should
accept for oneself that which is allotted by the äcärya

29–çuçrüñamäëa äcäryaà
sadopäséta néca-vat
yäna-çayyäsana-sthänair
näti-düre kåtäïjali

çuçrüñamäëaù—engaged in serving; äcäryam—the bona fide spiritual master;
sadä—always; upäséta—one should worship; néca-vat—as a humble servant;
yäna—by humbly following behind the guru when he is walking; çayyä—by
taking rest with the spiritual master; äsana—sitting near the guru to render
service; sthänaiù—by standing and humbly waiting upon the guru; na—not;
ati—very; düre—far away; kåta-aïjaliù—with folded hands.

While engaged in serving the spiritual master one should remain as a humble
servant, and thus when the guru is walking the servant should humbly walk
behind. When the guru lies down to sleep, the servant should also lie down
nearby, and when the guru has awakened, the servant should sit near him,
massaging his lotus feet and rendering other, similar services. When the guru is
sitting down on his äsana, the servant should stand nearby with folded hands,
awaiting the guru’s order. In this way one should always worship the spiritual
master.

30–evaà-våtto guru-kule
vased bhoga-vivarjitaù
vidyä samäpyate yävad
bibhrad vratam akhaëòitam

evam—thus; våttaù—engaged; guru-kule—in the äçrama of the spiritual
master; vaset—he should live; bhoga—sense gratification; vivarjitaù—freed
from; vidyä—Vedic education; samäpyate—is completed; yävat—until;
bibhrat—maintaining; vratam—the vow (of brahmacarya);
akhaëòitam—unbroken.

Until the student has completed his Vedic education he should remain
engaged in the äçrama of the spiritual master, should remain completely free of
material sense gratification and should not break his vow of celibacy
[brahmacarya].

31–yady asau chandasäà lokam
ärokñyan brahma-viñöapam
gurave vinyased dehaà
svädhyäyärthaà båhad-vrataù

yadi—if; asau—that student; chandasäm lokam—the Maharloka planet;
ärokñyan—desiring to ascend to; brahma-viñöapam—Brahmaloka;
gurave—unto the guru; vinyaset—he should offer; deham—his body;
sva-adhyäya—of superior Vedic studies; artham—for the purpose;
båhat-vrataù—observing the powerful vow of perpetual celibacy.

If the brahmacäré student desires to ascend to the Maharloka or Brahmaloka
planets, then he should completely surrender his activities to the spiritual
master and, observing the powerful vow of perpetual celibacy, dedicate himself
to superior Vedic studies.

32–agnau guräv ätmani ca
sarva-bhüteñu mäà param
apåthag-dhér upaséta
brahma-varcasvy akalmañaù

Thus enlightened in Vedic knowledge by service to the spiritual master,
freed from all sins and duality, one should worship Me as the Supersoul, as I
appear within fire, the spiritual master, one’s own self and all living entities.

33–stréëäà nirékñaëa-sparçasaàläpa-
kñvelanädikam
präëino mithuné-bhütän
agåhastho ‘gratas tyajet

Those who are not married—sannyäsés, vänaprasthas and
brahmacärés—should never associate with women by glancing, touching,
conversing, joking or sporting. Neither should they ever associate with any
living entity engaged in sexual activities.

34/35–çaucam äcamanaà snänaà
sandhyopästir mamärcanam
tértha-sevä japo ‘spåçyäbhakñyäsambhäñya-
varjanam
sarväçrama-prayukto ‘yaà
niyamaù kula-nandana
mad-bhävaù sarva-bhüteñu
mano-väk-käya-saàyamaù

My dear Uddhava, general cleanliness, washing the hands, bathing,
performing religious services at sunrise, noon and sunset, worshiping Me,
visiting holy places, chanting japa, avoiding that which is untouchable,
uneatable or not to be discussed, and remembering My existence within all
living entities as the Supersoul—these principles should be followed by all
members of society through regulation of the mind, words and body.

36–evaà båhad-vrata-dharo
brähmaëo ‘gnir iva jvalan
mad-bhaktas tévra-tapasä
dagdha-karmäçayo ‘malaù

A brähmaëa observing the great vow of celibacy becomes brilliant like fire
and by serious austerity burns to ashes the propensity to perform material
activities. Free from the contamination of material desire, he becomes My
devotee.

37–athänantaram ävekñyan
yathä-jijïäsitägamaù
gurave dakñiëäà dattvä
snäyäd gurv-anumoditaù

A brahmacäré who has completed his Vedic education and desires to enter
household life should offer proper remuneration to the spiritual master, bathe,
cut his hair, put on proper clothes, and so on. Then, taking permission from the
guru, he should go back to his home.

38–gåhaà vanaà vopaviçet
pravrajed vä dvijottamaù
äçramäd äçramaà gacchen
nänyathämat-paraç caret

A brahmacäré desiring to fulfill his material desires should live at home with
his family, and a householder who is eager to purify his consciousness should
enter the forest, whereas a purified brähmaëa should accept the renounced
order of life. One who is not surrendered to Me should move progressively from
one äçrama to another, never acting otherwise.

39–gåhärthé sadåçéà bhäryäm
udvahed ajugupsitäm
yavéyaséà tu vayasä
yaà sa-varëäm anu kramät

One who desires to establish family life should marry a wife of his own caste,
who is beyond reproach and younger in age. If one desires to accept many wives
he must marry them after the first marriage, and each wife should be of a
successively lower caste.

40–ijyädhyayana-dänäni
sarveñäà ca dvi-janmanäm
pratigraho ‘dhyäpanaà ca
brähmaëasyaiva yäjanam

All twice-born men—brähmaëas, kñatriyas and vaiçyas—must perform
sacrifice, study the Vedic literature and give charity. Only the brähmaëas,
however, accept charity, teach the Vedic knowledge and perform sacrifice on
behalf of others.

41–pratigrahaà manyamänas
tapas-tejo-yaço-nudam
anyäbhyäm eva jéveta
çilair vä doña-dåk tayoù

A brähmaëa who considers that accepting charity from others will destroy
his austerity, spiritual influence and fame should maintain himself by the other
two brahminical occupations, namely teaching Vedic knowledge and performing
sacrifice. If the brähmaëa considers that those two occupations also compromise
his spiritual position, then he should collect rejected grains in agricultural fields
and live without any dependence on others.

42–brähmaëasya hi deho ‘yaà
kñudra-kämäya neñyate
kåcchräya tapase ceha
pretyänanta-sukhäya ca

The body of a brähmaëa is not intended to enjoy insignificant material sense
gratification; rather, by accepting difficult austerities in his life, a brähmaëa
will enjoy unlimited happiness after death.

43–çiloïcha-våttyä parituñöa-citto
dharmaà mahäntaà virajaà juñäëaù
mayy arpitätmä gåha eva tiñöhan
näti-prasaktaù samupaiti çäntim

A brähmaëa householder should remain satisfied in mind by gleaning
rejected grains from agricultural fields and marketplaces. Keeping himself free
of personal desire, he should practice magnanimous religious principles, with
consciousness absorbed in Me. In this way a brähmaëa may stay at home as a
householder without very much attachment and thus achieve liberation.

44–samuddharanti ye vipraà
sédantaà mat-paräyaëam
tän uddhariñye na ciräd
äpadbhyo naur ivärëavät

Just as a ship rescues those who have fallen into the ocean, similarly, I very
quickly rescue from all calamities those persons who uplift brähmaëas and
devotees suffering in a poverty-stricken condition.

45–sarväù samuddhared räjä
piteva vyasanät prajäù
ätmänam ätmanä dhéro
yathä gaja-patir gajän

Just as the chief bull elephant protects all other elephants in his herd and
defends himself as well, similarly, a fearless king, just like a father, must save all
of the citizens from difficulty and also protect himself.

46–evaà-vidho nara-patir
vimänenärka-varcasä
vidhüyehäçubhaà kåtsnam
indreëa saha modate

An earthly king who protects himself and all citizens by removing all sins
from his kingdom will certainly enjoy with Lord Indra in airplanes as brilliant
as the sun.

47–sédan vipro vaëig-våttyä
paëyair eväpadaà taret
khaògena väpadäkränto
na çva-våttyä kathaïcana

If a brähmaëa cannot support himself through his regular duties and is thus
suffering, he may adopt the occupation of a merchant and overcome his
destitute condition by buying and selling material things. If he continues to
suffer extreme poverty even as a merchant, then he may adopt the occupation of
a kñatriya, taking sword in hand. But he cannot in any circumstances become
like a dog, accepting an ordinary master.

48–vaiçya-våttyä tu räjanyo
jéven mågayayäpadi
cared vä vipra-rüpeëa
na çva-våttyä kathaïcana

A king or other member of the royal order who cannot maintain himself by
his normal occupation may act as a vaiçya, may live by hunting or may act as a
brähmaëa by teaching others Vedic knowledge. But he may not under any
circumstances adopt the profession of a çüdra.

49–çüdra-våttià bhajed vaiçyaù
çüdraù käru-kaöa-kriyäm
kåcchrän mukto na garhyeëa
våttià lipseta karmaëä

A vaiçya, or mercantile man, who cannot maintain himself may adopt the
occupation of a çüdra, snd a çüdra who cannot find a master can engage in
simple activities like making baskets and mats of straw. However, all members
of society who have adopted inferior occupations in emergency situations must
give up those substitute occupations when the difficulties have passed.

50–vedädhyäya-svadhä-svähäbaly-
annädyair yathodayam
devarñi-pitå-bhütäni
mad-rüpäëy anv-ahaà yajet

One in the gåhastha order of life should daily worship the sages by Vedic
study, the forefathers by offering the mantra svadhä, the demigods by chanting
svähä, all living entities by offering shares of one’s meals, and human beings by
offering grains and water. Thus considering the demigods, sages, forefathers,
living entities and human beings to be manifestations of My potency, one
should daily perform these five sacrifices.

51–yadåcchayopapannena
çuklenopärjitena vä
dhanenäpéòayan bhåtyän
nyäyenaiväharet kratün

A householder should comfortably maintain his dependents either with
money that comes of its own accord or with that gathered by honest execution
of one’s duties. According to one’s means, one should perform sacrifices and
other religious ceremonies

52–kuöumbeñu na sajjeta
na pramädyet kuöumby api
vipaçcin naçvaraà paçyed
adåñöam api dåñöa-vat

A householder taking care of many dependent family members should not
become materially attached to them, nor should he become mentally
unbalanced, considering himself to be the lord. An intelligent householder
should see that all possible future happiness, just like that which he has already
experienced, is temporary

53–putra-däräpta-bandhünäà
saìgamaù päntha-saìgamaù
anu-dehaà viyanty ete
svapno nidränugo yathä

The association of children, wife, relatives and friends is just like the brief
meeting of travelers. With each change of body one is separated from all such
associates, just as one loses the objects one possesses in a dream when the dream
is over.

54–itthaà parimåçan mukto
gåheñv atithi-vad vasan
na gåhair anubadhyeta
nirmamo nirahaìkåtaù

Deeply considering the actual situation, a liberated soul should live at home
just like a guest, without any sense of proprietorship or false ego. In this way he
will not be bound or entangled by domestic affairs.

55–karmabhir gåha-medhéyair
iñövä mäm eva bhaktimän
tiñöhed vanaà vopaviçet
prajävän vä parivrajet

A householder devotee who worships Me by execution of his family duties
may remain at home, go to a holy place or, if he has a responsible son, take
sannyäsa.

56–yas tv äsakta-matir gehe
putra-vittaiñaëäturaù
straiëaù kåpaëa-dhér müòho
mamäham iti badhyate

But a householder whose mind is attached to his home and who is thus
disturbed by ardent desires to enjoy his money and children, who is lusty after
women, who is possessed of a miserly mentality and who unintelligently thinks,
“Everything is mine and I am everything,” is certainly bound in illusion.

57–aho me pitarau våddhau
bhäryä bälätmajätmajäù
anäthä mäm åte dénäù
kathaà jévanti duùkhitäù

“O my poor elderly parents, and my wife with a mere infant in her arms, and
my other young children! Without me they have absolutely no one to protect
them and will suffer unbearably. How can my poor relatives possibly live
without me?”

58–evaà gåhäçayäkñiptahådayo
müòha-dhér ayam
atåptas tän anudhyäyan
måto ‘ndhaà viçate tamaù

Thus, because of his foolish mentality, a householder whose heart is
overwhelmed by family attachment is never satisfied. Constantly meditating on
his relatives, he dies and enters into the darkness of ignorance.


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