Archive for the ‘Geetha Saaram’ Category

Geetha saaram 4-4 to 4-6

September 26, 2007

4-4.Aandall sannathi..eraa pathu manndapam..thiruvaay mozli..ramanujarukkum aandalukkum thodarbu..nooru thaadavil niraiya vennaiyum , niraiya akkara adisil sonnathai seythu kaatinaar thirumaalirumsolai. perumaalukku…kilar oli  ezlamai mudivathan munnan sevika sonaar nammalwar..srivilliputur vanthathum aanantha pattu velliyil vanthu “annaney “entraal..gothaa virajar enum peyar. thiruppaavai jeeyar..thirupaavai villakkaha konndu geetha baashyam panninaar..antrum entrum karma yogam sollukiraay unakkum piravi unndaa?..entru ketkiraan..kuraiyillatha govinndan  nee yeyn pirakiraay?.sarvesvaran nee etharkku pirakiraay?Sarva yagjnan ekkaalathilum arivu nirammbi erukkum nee eppadi piranthaay?sathya sankalpan nee..kuzlanthai seru entru theriyaamal kaalai vaikkum..samsta kaamam.. ella aasaikalum nirammba pattavan..etharkaaha piranthaay?..avathaaram unn maiyaa?poyyaa?perumakalai vittu koduthu pirakkiraayaa?..maniika kallai seril pottaal moodikollum athu pola unathu perumaikal kuraiyumaa?nann mukkunangalaalum pancha poothakangalaalum pirakiren..nee eppadi?karma padi nam pirakirom..yen piravikku neram karma nirnayikkum.. karma tholaikka.. nee etharkaaha ?nee pirakkum kaalathai yaar sonnarkal?unathu pirappaal enna payan?..six questions.. patil adutha nangu slokathil sollukiraan..

..4-5.4-6…..thiru adi poram avatharithaal..thiru theyr..gopuram arasu sinnam.. therum romba peyar petrathu..eranndu maasam ther erukkum munbellaam..adutha nangu slokathaal  entha aaru kelvikalukkum padil solukiraan..avathaaram sathyam, poyy ellai enkiraan..4-6 moontru padil ..perumaikal kuraiyaamal -svas svaabathodu -pirakiraan..udal amaippu eppadi nilam neer ..pancha bootham- sutha sathva mayathaal aanathu thirumeni..ethen adiyaal pirakiraay? karmaavin adipaidaiyaal?..sva etchaaiyaal pirakiren enkiraan..ennudaiya aasai viruppam  pola theyrnthu eduthu pirakiren..4-7. kaalam eppadi?adarmam thalai edukkum pothu pirakiren..piranthu yenna saathikiraay?namm papam punyam pokka..nann  pirapathaal moontru payankal …pavithrana saadhoonaam..slokam…avathaara rahasya gjaanam..sollukiraan..ethai therinthavarkal pirappu arupparkal..yenakku pala piravikal kallinthana yenkiraan..unakkum pala piravikal aanathu athu pola enkiraan..nann arihireyn nee ethai ariya maattaay unathu enathu piravikalai..arjunan piravi unnmai yentru theriyum athanaal athai pola ethuvum unnmai enkiraan..avathaarangal 10 mattum ellai entru therinthu kollanum.. janmam pala pala seythu ennum paasuram..ethai kaatta thaan uthsavangal..

4-5..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna declaration of: many births have past for you and for Me is a definite affirmation of the reality of reincarnation for Arjuna and confirmation of the avatars or incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna. What He is confirming is that His present incarnation is as real as Arjunas present life reincarnation and that the ones from the past are real as well, subtly implying that there is a fundamental difference between them. The nature of the avatars, how they manifest and their purpose for incarnating is given next.

..4-6..thirumanjana manndapam 5th thirunaal garuda sevai 5 perukum..sri devikku nihar alli maalli naadanda madaimai.. renga mannar valathu pakkam aandaal. edathu kaiyil garudanai pidithu konndu eruppaar.. eval killiyai pidithu konndu eruppaal.. kuyiley ulahallanthaanai vara koovaay killikku nanbanaaha aakkuveyn enkiraal..mangalaasaasana uthsavam.. thiru thangal, thiruvannaamalai perumaal,azlagar ,aandaal renga mannar, periya perumaal..11 mani eravil garuda sevai..alwar thirunagari, thirunaangoor pola..ezlimaiyai parai saatra entha sevai..perumai kuraiyaathu enkiraan..entha slokathai moontru padil moontru naal paarpom..poornaahuti pannum pothu neruppu vanngikkum ..kuppaiyai erikkaum athey neruppu.. ellaavatraiyum punithamaakkum..pirappu erappu illaathavanaaha erunthu konndu,jeevarasikalukku aanai ettu-ull eirunthu seluthubavan..easvaran..easana seelan naaraayanan..adi sankarar sonnathu..ulahathil ulla elloraukuum easvaran..yen meynmai kuraiyaathu..unnai pola pirappathu ellai -“ajaha.”thirunaamam..yen ninta yoniyumaay piranthaay paasuram..achit ,baktan, muktan ,nithyan vida usanthavan..

..4-6..poo mannu maathu paasuram baghavan, alwar, raamanujar moovaraiyum paadum paasuram..maaran adi panninthu erunthavar.. nammalwar raamanujar sannathi eranndum aruhil srivilliputturil..aamaiyaay panniriyaay, meenaay piranthavar..ella azlahodu eruppaar..koorath alwar six gunangaludan erukkum para vasu devaa..baktarkalai anughrahikka pirakkum pothu gunangalai kuraithu konndu erukkumaa pola kaattukiraay…venum yentru kuraithu konndu raman seethaiyai deduvathu pola.. jadaayukku motsham kodutha nee vesham podukiraay enkiraan..vibeeshanakku pattabisheham engey panninaan ellaiyaa..prakruthi sareeram kidaiyaathu..namakku udambu avanukku thirumeni divya mangala vigraham..suththa satva mayam..yennudaiya perumaikalukku thakka thiru meni eduthikiraan..malaraathu..kuviyaathu..raman thanathu thirumeni kooda pohiraar thirumeni kooda vanthaar..namakku virunthaaha erukkum..minnal vettinaal mehathil.. patchai maa malai poll meni..thozlkal ayirathaay..kannkal aayirathaay..ponn mayamaaha erukiraan..pangaya kannan, thaamarai kannan..pancha sakti upanishadaal aana thiru meni..mudi jothi..paasuram..miha vuarnthavan namakkaaha thaazlnthu kaatchi tharukiraan..

..4-6..ponngum parivaal perialwar yennum peyar pettraar..pallaanndu paaduvathey thanathu kainkaryam ..veda piraan battar thiru maalighai..avar vamsathil piranthavarkal. yearly once aandal markazli mudal thirunaalil ezlunthu arulukiraar..sannathi theruvil..patchai kaay karighal parathi vaippaarkal..kann kulira nokkukiraal..mani -paruppu thirattu paal engey samaithu amudhu seyyuvaarkal..theertha maryathai aana pinbu ..thiru kalyana uthsavam panguni utharam..peralwar entha thiru maalighaiyil ezlunthu aruli kovil nooki povaarkal..manjal padutha patta dengaay koduthu renga manaar thozlukku eniyanil. .penn vamsam pillai vamsam.kalyanathil solluvaarkal… lakshmi naarayanan mukuntha battar peralwar peyarai solluvaarkal..enburum ev villaiyaatudaiyaan..piraka pirakka oli kuntraamal vallarnthu konndu pohirathu karmam adiyaal ellaamal karnai adiyaaha pirakiraan.. atma maayaiyaal avanudaiya maayaiyaal pirakiraan.. maya is not poyy..atchariyam viyakka padum sankalpa sakti gjanam thaan maaya sollukirathu..sankalpa adiyaaha etchaiyaal pirapathaal kuttram onntrum varaathu..aazlamana kuzhliyil pirantha nammudan kalakka pirakiraan..pirapilathavan pirakiraan.. adiyaarkalai kaappa ..azlivey ellathavan pirakiraan.. karmam adiyaa ellamal. karunai.. unnum kulathil- naam unnaatha kulathil avan aandal sonna maathiri pettram meythu unnum.. paasuram..thaay thanthai avaney thernthu edukiraan..

4-6..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna affirms that although He enters prakriti or material nature which is under His complete control, by His own sweet will through His internal potency known as yogamaya. He is never divested of His supreme transcendental attributes and imperishable potencies as Sovereign Lord of all creation even though His external from appears human. The forms and places where the Supreme Lord resides as described in the Vedic scriptures. He the spirit who luminously resides in the interior of the sun He the spirit who luminously resides in the etheric region of the heart He who is immortal and eternal He who manifested all the demigods and humans He who is omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent He who is resplendent and all pervasive He who is transcendental to prakriti or material nature. He who by His omniscience knows the actions and qualities of all beings The Supreme Lord Krishna assumes forms suitable to time, place and circumstances in regards to celestial being the demigods and terrestrial being humans. He manifests himself as if He were of their nature according to His desire. Being unborn He yet incarnates in many forms whenever and wherever He chooses whereas for material beings they are forcefully born impelled by their karma or the bondage caused from reactions to past actions. Next the time of manifestation for the avatars or incarnations will be indicated.

Geetha Saaram 3-42 to 4-4

September 26, 2007

..3-41 and3- 42 ..Andaal vimaanam..sannathi vaasal..venkala kannaadi ill  maalai saathum azlahai paarthu kolluvaal..soodi kodutha natchiyaar..ukkamum thattolliyum entha kannadi..seeppu kannaadi navarathiril koduppathum. entha vallakkathaal…kaamam adakka veynndum..gjana yogam thadai paduvathu–..enthirayam..miha valimai mikkathu..thisai thiruppathuvathi.,kalam neram  edam mudaliyavaikal..ethellam kooda thadangal..miha yentru  enthirankalai sonnathaal.. athai kattilum manasu, puthi, athai vida kaamam..nangu grades.. ..kamam jeyikka  entha naangaiyum mudikkanum..kannai erukka moodikkollalam.. moontru kurangukalai pola.. manasai ethai vaithu pootta mudiyum..manasai kooda mayakkam adaiyum pothu -puththi palaya vizhayangalil seluvathaal puththi –intelligence or uruthi athai vida miha pollaathathu enkiraan..athai vida kaamam pollaathathu..maththa moontraiyum adakkinaal kaamam vallvu ellakkum..atma gjanathai maraikka mudiyaathu..karma yogathill  adangiya gjana yogam sollukiraar 4 thadyaathathil..moontravathu adyaathai paaraayanam seythaal munnor yaavaraukkum ppapam pohum..

..alavanthaar  slokam..santharpa vasathal avathaara -thannudaiya perumaikalai sollukiraan. prasangikiraan..karma yogathil adangiya gjana yogathai sollukiraan..udpiruvukal solukiraan..karma gjana pahuthi eranndu erukkum..perumaalukku  nann adimai ,avan uhakka thaan enkira  ninaivu- seyalai vida yettram.. arivu thaan perisu yenkiraan..karma yogathil adangiya gjana yogam perisu enkiraan.. nann soluvathellam unnmai yenkiraan.

..upanishad kalai kadainthu  amurutham koduthaan.. mattilirunthu paal  karanthu  koduppathu pola….geetho upanishad.. gothoupanishad  andaal koduthathu–vedam anaithukkum vithuu..neeraattu uthsavam kadaisi 7 nallkal mattum utsavam..moodu pallakkil ezlunthuarula  pannivaruvaarkal..aalinilaiyaay yentru perumaalidam ketta pinbu thaan vathya koshti .. yennai kappu mandapam..malai 4 manikku yennai kappu nadakkum..5-30 thirumanjanam.. ovoru naalum oru vaahanam..1443  year varai eruntha maamuni thai madam 1st vanthaar.. avarukkaaha periya jeeyar uthsavam  entrum unndu.. antru mattum velli thirumandapathil  merkku nokki …ullay maamunikal yealli eruppaar..

3-42…Ramanujar’s commentary..

..the senses are primarily occupied in the pursuit of pleasure and delight in sense objects the realisation of the atma or soul will never manifest. Yet the mind although fickle is capable of controlling the senses but if the mind is also inclined to enjoy the senses and is filled with thoughts of the same then realisation of the atma will also never manifest. But the intellect is superior even to the mind as it possesses the discriminative faculty. This means that the mind may be tranquil but if the intellect is inclined towards the channels of sense activities then there will be a perversion in ones intelligence and no possibility again for realisation of the atma. To show the order of gradation is Lord Krishnas intention. A question may be posed what if all three being the senses, the mind and the intellect were tranquil and passive? The unvarying answer is that kama or lust which arises from desires, covertly resides deep within the heart and is always craving for sense gratification. This kama is so powerful that it will assert its mastery over them all and domineering them will have them fully pursuing the objects of the senses for sense gratification in the phenomenal world obscuring the light of knowledge and the realisation of the atma. That which is the most powerful with its domain in the spiritual phenomena is the atma and is designated by the pronoun sah.

3-43..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..So it should understood that kama or lust is able to dominate even the intellect and thus is antagonistic to jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic spiritual knowledge. So one must with firm resolve restrain the senses right from the very beginning and keeping the mind resolutely established in the atma or soul, destroy this powerful enemy known as kama eradicating it at the very root.

..4-1..4-2.4-3…mudal paasurathaal  Andaal edai pennkallai azlikiraal.. mookulam erukkkum -gangai yamunai saraswati moontrum erukkum..krishna bakti vadinthu vantha thanner.. ananthaalvaan Andaal kullitha manjal kizlangai thediya edam..4000 years kazlithu….10 slokams avathaara rahasyam  gjanaam..sollukiraan..sooriyan pillai manu bagavaan..28 sadur yugamgalukku munbu..vivasavaan pillai vaisvan avar pillai eshvaahu..karma yogam sollli koduthaar..marunthaaha  koll ethai enkiraar..naane 43 lakhsmulitiply by 28 years back.. kalaithai thaandi azliyaathathu..paramparaiyaaha varum raja rishikal ethai  kettru nadai pattu vanthaarkal…ambarishar, janahar pollvaarkal..kaalam poha poha manga thodangithu.yugam maara maara sirathai kuraiyumaa pola..theynthu poonathu..athey karma yogathai eintru yennal unakku upadesikka pattathu.. puthisaaha unnai sanndai poda vaikka sollavillai- pramaanam -source of knowledge unndu enkiraan..bakthan, atma nanban, athai pillai athalaal rahasyam unakku sollukireyn yenkiraan..puthisaaha solaamal munathaiyey solluvathai mukkiyamaaha sollukiraan.. authenticity..soorya devan manu eshvaahu ellorukkum sonnathathu thaan..

..4-4thirupaavai aranganukku addpattu ..panguni utharam manndabam..thirukalyaanam..seethai raamar  kalyaanamum nadantha naal Panguni utharam..Oonjal usthavam onbathu naal engey thaan nadakkum….kanaa kannda paasuramkal…aayanukkaaha..kannan arangan.. thaan kannda kanakkalai yeer ainthum vallavar makkalai pettru mahilvaarkal enkiraal..arangan pallakkil vara solli ..kesavi nambi kai  pidithaal arangathil..kanna avathaarithil eedupatta varkal perialwar, andal, nammalvaar..pirappaium, thottil ettu thaalaatuu paadinathum.thalanthu nadai ettathu, poochooduthal eppadi pala sarithirangal solli paalum amudhum pola utti utti solli koduthaar..unnudaiya janma nihal kaalam.. athu vivasvaan murpattavan nee avanukku ethay karma yogathai prasathithathu eppadi enkiraan..piraviyil nammbikkai ellaamal?..mun piravi gjaabaham eppadi varum?..edappillaikku mur pirappu gjabaham eppadi vanthathu?..govarthana leelai therinthavan eppadi keytkiraan..

In chapter four Lord Krishna reveals how spiritual knowledge is received by disciplic succession and the reason and nature of His descent into the material worlds. Here He also explains the paths of action and knowledge as well as the wisdom regarding the supreme knowledge which results at the culmination of the two paths. Thus this chapter is entitled: Approaching the Ultimate Truth.

4-1.. Ramanuja’s Commentary//

..In the third chapter Lord Krishna explained that only karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities was suitable for the materialistic person aspiring for moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death and that such an aspirant was not competent to follow the path of jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge. It was also shown that even for jnana yoga practitioners that karma yoga when performed as a matter of duty without attachment was preferable. It was further illustrated that for leaders of prominence in society it is an important necessity to perform karma yoga in order that the public is guided and inspired in a righteous manner. The objective of this fourth chapter is to further emphasise the worthiness of karma yoga by giving evidence that it was taught to great personalities at the beginning of this Manavatar or cyclic appearance of one type of divine incarnations as verified in Vedic scriptures over a period of time comprising approximately every 350 million years. Also it will be shown in this chapter how karma yoga partakes of the nature of jnana yoga by reason of spiritual intentions underlying all prescribed Vedic activities. Chapter four finishes up by explaining the nature and varieties of karma yoga and the importance of spiritual awareness connected to performing every action.

4-2..There is no commentary for this verse.

4.3..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna is suggesting that it should not be presumed that the yoga or knowledge of the individual consciousness in communion with the Ultimate Consciousness being given by him is just a persuasive speech intended to prompt one to do their duty; for He now reveals that He also instructed it to Visvavan the demi-god controlling the sun, as a way of attaining moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death. A method intended for the salvation of all the universes and a measure designed to benefit all of creation, truly being the sublime goal of humans. Visvavan taught it to Manu who instructed it to Ikshavaku and so on successively until it was transmitted to the saintly kings from the mouths of their spiritual masters. But due to the passage of time and dull understanding of humanity this knowledge was lost and forgotten. But the very same yoga, pure and pristine is being revealed in all its entirety and details by Lord Krishna because Arjuna has taken full shelter in Him in loving devotion as the only refuge. No one other then the Supreme Lord Krishna is able to originally explain the Bhagavad-Gita as it is the essence of the sublime wisdom of all the Vedas and encapsulates the mysteries of Vedanta.

4-4..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The sun-god Visvavan had duly received the Bhagavad-Gita from Lord Krishna 120 million years previously; yet he was Arjunas contemporary; so an explanation of this anomalous anachronism is being requested. One may question what is the purpose to ask this from one who is aware of Lord Krishnas supreme position for it is known that even saintly and noble souls remember events from previous incarnations. Also before when the Pandava king Yudhisthira performed the Rajasuya ceremony the grandsire Bhishma was heard to say that Lord Krishna alone is the origin of all created beings and the beginning and the ending of all movable and immovable beings. So the reason Arjuna asked such a question was to get clarification presented in an exposition on the meaning of avatars or Lord Krishnas authorised incarnations in the Vedic scriptures and answer these questions.Are avatars real or illusory?Under what circumstances do avatars manifest? What is the nature of the body the avatar assumes?Are all the avatars expanding from Lord Krishna? Are all the avatars omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent?Are all avatars transcendental to the cycle of birth and death?Are all avatars able to fulfill all desires?What is the time schedule which avatars manifest themselves?This was the purpose of this question so Lord Krishna would give an expose on these topics.

Geetha Saaram 3-37 to 3-41

September 26, 2007

..3-37 slokam..perialwar sannathi..ponngum parivu..vallaba devan paandiya rajanukku muzlu mudal kadavullai kaatti.. virainthu kizli aruthaan..pallaandu paadinaar garuda sevai seyvithathum..thanakku ontru veynndum yentru keytkaamal..thinapadi vada pathrasaayi paarthu  paadukiraar..kama krotham arivin vevveru nilaikal..rajo gunathaal vallarnthathu..mula prakurthi kull  erukkum muk-kunangal..atmaavai moodi maraikum..kaamam enbathu ellathilum aasai ..pattruthal..theeraa neruppu pola..ethanai theeni pottaalum adangaathu..pahaivan entru purinthu koll enkiraan..sadva gunathaal kaamam thaniyaathaa? enkiraan..anubavitha puthi valimai udaiyathu..adakka mudiyaathaa?..sadva gunam valrthukollanum..atma arivu erukku sooriyan oli pola -kamam enum meham maraikkum..atma veru manasu veru..arivu sadva gunathodu velliya vanthaal nallathu..showerill azlukku erunthu thaner varum pothu azlukku thanner varum pola..manasum enthiriyamum karma yogathil yeedu paduthinaal entha azlukku varaathu..   

3-37..Ramanujar’s cpmmentary..

..The most powerful obstruction in their pursuit of jnana yoga or the path of cultivating Vedic knowledge is kama or lust. The intense addiction to enjoy sense objects. This addiction is fueled by past habits such as remembering senses enjoyed or by senses frustrated in the attempt to satisfy ones desires. Because the person is helplessly attached to the attraction and aversion of the three gunas or goodness , passion and nescience which are constantly fluctuating the mind and senses influencing all beings. This kama is a most powerful enemy and exerting its power compels a person to enter into its province of sense delights in pursuit of pleasure. Then if by chance while in the pursuit of sense delights ones desires are thwarted or frustrated then this same lust transforms itself into intense krodha or anger. Enacting sinful actions in the attempt to satisfy ones frustrated senses even if futilely and prepared to perpetrate even violent acts against anyone that thwarts in any way the gratification of their senses. It should be known that kama and krodha arise from rajas guna or the mode of passion and it is a very hostile adversary to those who are engaged in jnana yoga.

..3-38 karunaikku yentru pirantha Andalai saranam enkiraar Desikar..vada pathra saayi kovil..villi  kandan sarithiram..villi nadakkinaan.. villi puttur..sri erunthathaal srivilliputtur..kalanemi yai mudithu..gangai yamanai saraswati moontrum sernthu thiru muk kulam..vada perum kovil. aala maram ..anna paravai villaiyaada.. patchai thirumeni..thiruvadiel villi kanndan eruppaarkal..seyvithu sadva gunam valarkanum..kamam eppadi maraikirathu entru keta arjunanukku padil sollukiraan.. neruppu puhaiyaal solla paduvathu pola maraikirathu..kannadi azlukkaal maraikka paduvathu pola.. garbaithai vayaru maraippathu pola.. yentru moontru udaaranam sollukiraan..neruppu elirunthu puhai vanthu athai thadukkum pola..veshti veluppu pola.. atma udambai eduthu kondu piravi eduppuvathu pola.udalin vaasanaiyaal vantha kaamam moodukirathu..erandum ennainthu eruppathaal..kannaadi azlukkai vilakka vilakka meenndum vanthu moodum pola..kaamam meendum. ravanin pathu thalai vetta vetta varum pola..garbam atma .garba pai vilakki vara mudiyaathu. thaay muyarchiyaal thaan mudiyum.. atma kamathi lirunthu vilaha Avanathu arul veynndum..gothaa vilasa manndabam.. pahal pathu uthsavam nadakkum..

3-38..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..Lord Krishna is giving the three examples to indicate the varying degrees of kama or lust and that everyone is immersed in kama in some way that this is the situation in the world. How kama envelopes the mind and the intellect is coming next.

..3-39 ..alwarin uruellam orey vadivaaha Andal avatharthaal..   nonbu noothaal..kathyaayani nonbu.kannanai kannavanaaha adaiya..anugaaram…thamarai yahiya kallai thamaraiyahaiya kaiyaal thamarai aahiya vayil vaithau erupavan..gopuram raja gopuram..namathu sinnam..   gjanam muda pattu erukirathu..pahaivan kaamam krotham..nithya virothikal.motsham pohum varaiyum..nadakaatha aasaikal .analeyna pothum ennum puthi varathu neruppum athanaal anal entru peyar..kidaithai porum yentru ninaikaatha kaamam..gjana yogam muyartchi nilaiyil ullavanathu gjanathai maraikku.. ulaga gjanathai maraikkaathu..veedu etc ethai..atma vizhayathai maraikum.. ulahathin pakkam ezlukkum.. mudalai gajengranai ezlukkumaa pola..ulaha enbathil yeedu padutha..kaaamum gjanathin nilai thanney..oliyai mattru oru oli maraikkumaa?..kudikka aasai arivin nilai kudikka koodaathu ennum arivai maraikkumaa pola..meduvaaha pokka veynndum..kunthi puthiraney entru sollukiraan.. kaamathaal pokkalaam.. krishna kaamam veynndum..

3-39..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..The intellect of one who even has understanding of atma tattva or soul realisation becomes clouded by the eternal enemy known as kama or lust and which generates fascination and excitement for enjoying the objects of the senses. The word duspurena means insatiable, it can never be satisfied. It constantly hungers for sense gratification even if it is inaccessible to get and impossible to have still kama yearns for it. It is anala or inexhaustible as nothing ever completely satisfies kama permanently. When the object of its desires has been acquired and the senses fully gratified then at once kama wants more and looks for something new. It is never satisfied. In what way kama utilises itself to envelope the atma or soul Lord Krishna reveals next.

..3-40 ..Battar thanian Andalukku..   andal sannathi yekathasi manndabam kannadi arangam..adi pooram 10 nallilum engey thaan. thiru kalyana uthsavamum engey thaan..kannadi pola pirathi palikum namathu manasaiyum padaithavan avan.. reflection..ninaithai thirumbi thirumbi paarkirom..    kamam ethai karviyaha kondu moodum?engirunthu?..deham enthiraya-pulankal einthum.., manasu ..ninaikka , buddi…ethai anubavithu theera veynndum entra ninaippu..mind and intellect pola.. moontraiyum..  poqtchikalai viratta marunthu adippathu pola..moontraiyum vasa paduthi kollum kaamam.. atmavai mayanga seyyum..thanakkum udalukkum ulla  verupattai maraithu mayakka vaikum..ellam ennathu entru ninaikka vaikirathu.. ahangaaram mahangaaram vallarkka vaithathu..eniathu ellathavaikalai eniathaaha ninaithaan..nenjam avanodu poy vittathu entru alwar sonnathu pola.. kaamam or bagavan entha ory nenjai konndu poha paarkiraarkal. bagavath kaamam thaan bakti.. karpooram naarum.. entru Andal paadinaal pola.. atma thahuntha virunthu ethu yentru therinthu kollanum..antha kaamathai jeyikkanum..

3-40..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..The senses, the mind and the intellect which controls the discriminatory faculty, is where kama or lust covertly resides and exercises its dominion over the atma or soul. Through kama the senses, the mind and the intellect become addicted to craving for sense objects. Kama seizes hold of the embodied beings and beguiles them by clouding the intellect and then kama covers and envelopes the atma or soul of that being in many ways and who subsequently becomes kamas slave doing anything to gratify its senses and is plunged into the prison garden of sense objects. This is what Lord Krishna is stating here.

..3-41 ..vimanam thiruppaavai vimaanam..5th paasuram vaayinaal paadi manathinall sinthithu.thoomalar thoovi thozluthu …varaha perumaal piraatikku sonnathai solukiraal..    10 pennkalai ezlupukiraal 6-15 varai..18,19, 20 nappinnai    piratti munnittu kannanai ezlupukiraal..     

3-41..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..One who is interested in qualifying for jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge must restrain the natural out going tendency of the five senses from pursuing sense objects. But the mighty enemy kama or lust covertly causes dissent in the enquiring of atma tattva or realisation of the soul and contrarily causes enthusiasm for procuring the delights of the senses. One understanding that the senses operate in their own natural sphere within the physical body, directs them to perform the appropriate occupational duties according to ones rank and station in life in karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities and thus the senses are constrained. Lord Krishna thus gives the key to vanquishing this great enemy known as kama which is so terrible and which destroys both jnana or spiritual knowledge and vijnana or spiritual wisdom.

                                                         

Geetha Saaram 3-33 to 3-36

September 26, 2007

.3-33 slokam..uthamar kovil thiru kadambanoor..purushothaman.. poorna valli thaayar..brahma , sivan sabam–poornam arul ,moovarum devimarudan sevai..sooriyan chandran kannkal..avalin eranndu kannkalum chandran pola..mukunangalal avan aannaikku udpattu nadakanum..gjana yogam panna edarpaadukalai sollukiraan..nambikkai vaithu..nalla gjanavaan kooda prahurithi eyarkkaikku thahuntha kaariyam pannuvaarkal..vasanai eyalbaana ..janma janma vasanaikal maaraathu..karma yogam palahinathu..udaludan koodiya mukkunankal, ahangaaram mahamgaaram vazli pin thodanthu pohiraarkal..aathu vellathil pohum pothu arivu urai payan padaathu..gjana yogam anushtippathu siramam..

3-33..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..That person situated in jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic wisdom is very knowledgeable with the Vedic declarations regarding the distinct difference between the atma or soul and prakriti or material nature. Such a person is also completely aware of the fact that the atma should be the sole object of their contemplation and meditation. But despite this knowledge it is seen that due to the deep influence of samskaras or impressions from past life activities, they are carried along by their subsequent nature which forces them to be act in the current of their natural tendencies and they find themselves preoccupied with various material pursuits enjoying assorted material sense objects. The reason is that living entities become indoctrinated and content with whatever relationship they establish in their environment. In other words whatever habits they form from their association with prakriti they continue to maintain and persistently follow. With the overpowering influence of these deep rooted habits how can the words of the Vedic scriptures impose restraint on such a person? One is helplessly carried away by the forceful current of past life actions and impressions. The objects of the senses are perceived through the sense organs. For example hearing is perceived by the ears through sound, seeing is perceived by the eyes through sight, smelling is perceived by the nose through smells and so on. For each of the senses one has affection and the desire to enjoy through them. But the same senses operate depending upon attraction or aversion to sense objects. For sense objects that are pleasing one has attraction for pleasure and for sense objects that are displeasing one has aversion to displeasure. All these habits are conditioned from ancient predilections of past life reminisces. Such dualities of attraction and aversion obstructs one who would want to succeed in jnana yoga by subjugating their sense. These dualities which can be understood as different degrees of love and hate, hold a person in an iron grip and forcefully drive them to commit actions that are in conformance with the attributes of one of the three gunas of goodness, passion or nescience which ones nature adheres to from past life impressions. Thus one is being constantly diverted from the real purpose of human existence, that of atma tattva or realisation of the soul and their precious human life is wasted pursuing sense objects.

..3-34 slokam..vimaanam.kadali maram..alwar mandabam kadamba theertham..thirumangai alwar engey thangi madil kainkaryam panninaar..british french sandai eruvarum kovillukku niraiya  samarpithaarkalaam..ongi ulahalanda uthaman peyr paadi ..padum pothu peyar solli thaan paadanum -peyar paadi  entru thaniyaaha sonnathu.. avanai vida peyr perisu enkiraal andal..pulangal adangi, vedam solvathai kettu thirunthalaam..gjana margam appadi thaan.. karma yogam meduvaaha nammai seppan eda mudiyum..vasanai eppadi tholaipom entru kettkiraan..enthirasya- kann roopa.kathu saptha,nakku ,mookku .gjana einthriams.and karma einthirams..vakku kai, kall, aasana ,etc athanin seyal paadukal .ethil veruppu viruppu nilai nirkkum.. ethan moolam seyal paadukal..marupidiyum papam punyam meendum janma  soozlal.. pattru attra nilai adaiya veynndum..kulanthaikku thaay paal vasanai pola namakku karma vasanai..viruppu veruppu mihunthu kaama krodham varum..entha dadangalai virattanum..vella arithu.. athanaal gjana yogam pohaamal karma yogam pannu enkiraan..uthyoga vimaanam..karma pannuvathu .

3-34..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..Lord Krishna confirms that a person who embarks upon the path of jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic wisdom should never fall again under the influence of dualities as they work against one and undermines all one efforts. The dualities of love and hate, attraction and aversion are a persons most invincible enemies and they completely frustrate all ones attempts for success and higher understanding.

..3-35 slokam..nammaal mudiaathathu entru therinthu kolla pinbu saranaagati panna manasu pakkuvam varanum..ethellam solli pinbu 18-66 slokathil solukiraan..karma yogathil – seyal paadukal niraiya..thappu vara niraiya vaayppukal..harchandra maha raja kaal -pinnangaal- sariyaaha alambaathalaal– patta kashtam..”su=darma” entru palahiya karma yogathaiyum “para-darma “yentru gjana yogathai sollukiraan..sreyaan mihavum uhandathu enkiraan..kuraivodu pannina karma yogam usanthathu enkiraan..palaakka padaatha gjana yogathai vida enkiraan..atma sashadkaarathai nokkaaha konndathaal enkiraan..payan kidaippathu othi poduvathu pola adutha janmathil thodarum….vasanaa palathaal oduhirathu karma yogam thaan…

3-35..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..For obvious reasons the performance of ones own dharma or righteous duties according to karma yoga or actions performed according to prescribed Vedic injunctions is the best course to follow even if they do not possess great virtues. Ones own duties are easy and natural to discharge in karma yoga and unattended with risk. Whereas that person performing jnana yoga or the path of cultivating Vedic knowledge which is most excellent; but who is beguiled by prakriti or material nature finds it extremely difficult to achieve success. Although the path of jnana yoga is shorter than the path of karma yoga there are many dangers accosting the path of jnana yoga. The path of karma yoga is performed by one most easily as it naturally befits the person performing it. Even if death comes before one has the opportunity to fulfill lifes purpose and attain moksa or liberation form the cycle of birth and death, still ones progress is not impeded by any obstacle even death as ones merits are applied to the next life and they are born in a situation where they can easily pick up the thread from where they left off in the last life and continue on. Whereas one who although beguiled by prakriti attempts to practice jnana yoga anyway is surrounded by danger and obstacles on their path which deter one from easily adopting and putting into practice the cultivation of Vedic wisdom.

..3-36 slokam..nammalwar sannathi sri rengathil. garuda mandabam pakkam..valathu pakkam thirumangai edathu pakkathil madurakavi..namm sadagopan yentru nam perumaley sonnathu..raamaanujar pannina vigraham..alwar thirunagari nammawar vanthu 20 nall uthsavam nadakkum..gjana yogam seyya mudiyaamal thathalikrathu yeyn?..aasai erunthum yenkiran arjunan..sooravalli kattril adithu kondu pohumpadahu pola einthirangal vevveru  pakkam ezlukirathu ..why?.kaaranam sollu yentru keytkiraan.. attrankarai val maram pol anjukireyn yentru alwar sonna maathiri..eru pakkam yeriyum kolli kattaiyil ulla erumbu pola yenkiraar..emberumaanai pattri ninaikka nammai piduthu thallukirathu enthirangal..kaimma .. mudalai vaayil patta yaanai kakka vanthaay..vanamaamalai padigam yennai adaiya vittaamal thadupathai jayikkum sakthi ellai yentru azlukiraar alwar..vishnu kulathil pirantha kannanai paarthu keytkiraan..

3-36..There is no commentary for this verse.

GeethaSaaram 3-28to 3-32

September 26, 2007

..slokam3-28  .sri rama  ..ramethi…arangathil pattabi ramar sannathi melay.. keeley  eranndu sannithi..pattabisheham thiru kolam..peria nambi poojai seythirukiraar..paduhai kodukkum katchi chitiram..eranndu varam koduthathu rajo damo gunam..kettu koduthathu..kaikeyi, dasarathar eruvarum..mukkunathin thaakkathill erunthu vilahanum..sohapadaathey entru baradanidam sollukiraan raaman..gunam,karmaa,purinthu konndavan..satva gunam muyarchi.rajo gopam asai peraasi etc..tamo mayakam thookam etc.maari maari varum..ravanan sisubaalan  pola maari maari pannuhirom..nan seykiren entru ellaamal erukanum enkiraan..pattru vittu pohum

3-28..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..In respect of the three gunas or modes of material nature being sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance. That person who is blinded by false ego and bewildered by material nature believes they themselves are the root cause and sole determining factor of all actions they engage in. In the previous verse the word ahankara means bewildered by ego identification or misidentifying the body to be the atma or soul. Such a person is situated in nescience thinking that the interactions of the three gunas in the physical body are the actions of the atma, such a one foolishly considers that they are the doer of their actions. But the tattva-vit or knower of the truth is competent in discerning in all activities the properties and influences of the three gunas as they manifest themselves through ones actions. Whoever becomes proficient in discerning the manifestation of the three gunas in all actions will not commit the error of thinking that they through their body are the doer.

..3-29th slokam.periyavatchaan pillai.nampillai sishyar..karuthu urai manndabam pakkam..vykyana chakravarthi..thani slokam. rahasra traya urai divya prabanda urai. avani rohini..kannan pirantha naal.. thiru kana mangai..nampillai thirumangai alwar ..kannaney sishyan..mukkgunangalaal thoonnda pattu,karmaavil eedu padukirarkal..arivazli purinthu konndu meenndum pannaamal erukiraan..yannathu yentru eedu padaamal eruppathaal pattru arukiraan..mukkunam maraikkum  namathu atma swaropathai..naama sangeerthanam panna panna ..munnodiyaaha erukkanum..gjana yogam therinthaalum karma yogam pannanum.. atma gjanam ellathavarkal pinpatra vasathiyaaha seyyanum..

3-29..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..The misinformed make attempts for atma-tattva or soul realisation but due to their ignorance of the true nature of the atma or soul and becauseof their acute identification with the physical body and the senses they areobstructed in their attempts by the influences of the three gunas being the mode of goodness, passion and nescience. Such a person is quickly brought under the control of the gunas by their association with sense objects and cannot divert these natural tendencies towards atma-tattva. Thus they are not qualified for jnana yoga or the cultivation of knowledge but are only competent for karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities. The person situated in Vedic wisdom in jnana yoga after observing the meager capacities of the ignorant masses with their sluggish understanding should not attempt to convert them to jnana yoga from their easy to perform path of karma yoga. This is because it would be dangerous for the ignorant to give up the path of karma yoga to follow the path of jnana yoga when they are in no way qualified to do so. Leaving the path of karma yoga and unable to follow the path of jnana yoga they would having nothing and be at a loss in their lives. The conclusion is that one situated in Vedic wisdom and is a prominent leading figure in society should also perform prescribed Vedic activities in karma yoga even though such a person is a knower of atma-tattva. By acting in this way and performing Vedic activities without attachment lesser men will follow his example and perform in a like manner.It has been shown earlier in this chapter that even for jnana yogis the path of karma yoga is preferable, hence persons of Vedic wisdom who are leaders in society should also tread the path of karma yoga as beacons of light for the masses in the world. The method of performing karma yoga by understanding that the atma is distinct from the physical body and thus ascribing the activities of the senses to be from the influences of the gunas has been thoroughly described.One should contemplate and reflect on the atma and its essential nature which is purely spiritual. The atma performs no material activity but has association with actions through the gunas due to the conjunction with prakriti. Thus in association with prakriti there is doer ship with the atma and without association there is none. The next verse will explain the relationship between the senses and the gunas in regards to the Supreme Lord who is omniscient and omnipresent. Paramatma who is the Supreme Soul of all living entities evidenced by the fact that every individual soul constitutes His eternal, transcendental, spiritual body and are His eternal parts and parcels.

..3-30 slokam.parthasarathy perumaal sannthi arangathil..ramanujar ,pillai lohachariaar sannathiku naduvil..manthram moontrum arangan thayarkku upadesithaan..nintra thirukolam..arjunan ther chakkaram nara narayanan sevai.. nangu thiru kolam. vala kaiyil sangu ..edak kaiyil chakkaram.. maari erukkum..ommkaaram seyya. vasathiyaaha .nann seyvikkia nee seykiraay..nann thaan thoondukireyn enkiraan..gunangal arivu ellai eppadi thoonndum?..nnaney seykiren svaathanthiram pirakum.. mukunanalum avanal thoonda pattu seykirom..atmavai pattri therinthavan karmangalai avanidam samarpikkanum..karthaa yenkira putti vidanum.. mudal thiaagam..nirasai palathil asai ellamal mama thuyaagam ..thaazlntha palan ethir parthu erukkathu palan -thyaagam,moontru theeyaagam..avan muham malara seyyanum..paapam neengum..nann seyya villai yennum yennam vanthaal .kananathu yentru erukkanum –gaandeepam payanpaduvathu pola..

3-30..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..Dedicate thy mind and all activities to the Supreme Being in the heart represented by the eternal atma or soul within all living beings. The word nirasih means desireless. Being free from desires and free from hankering for the rewards of all actions while evicting all vanity. The word nirmamah means without a sense of ego. Prohibiting all ego constructs of I-ness and my-ness and relieved from the fever of mental delusion, discharge the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures according to your qualification at once as a matter of duty without attachment. In this Lord Krishna is instructing the warrior prince Arjuna how he should fight his enemies. The words “adhyatma-cetasa “means with the mind absorbed in the atma within the heart. Ones thoughts should be focused on the nature of the soul, its attributes and qualities as delineated previously in chapter two, verses 13 – 25. There are many scriptures that reveal some of the attributes of the atma. In the Taittiriya Upanisad we find: Enveloped within the interior of the heart, the ruler of all beings, the eternal Supersoul, the origin of all. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanisad we find: He who is residing in the atma, He who is interior to the atma, He whom the atma knows not, He whom the atma knows not, He who rules from the interior of the atma, He who is the indwelling monitor, He who is the giver of immortality, He whose body constitutes the atma of all living beings, He who is the knower of all and is the inner guide to all. Therefore we see that by inference that the Supreme Lord Krishna is revealing that since He is the atma within all living beings and that also the atma within all created beings constitute His eternal, transcendental body and derive all their energy from Him; then it is natural that one should dedicate all their actions to Lord Krishna, the Supreme Being as an act of yagna or worship. One should very reverently reflect that ones atma is a part of the Supreme Lord and therefore He is within me and I am within Him. The Supreme Lord Krishna is the Lord and Master of all. It is He alone who causes acts of yagna to be performed by me to Him and therefore I am His instrument. Therefore no conceptions of I-ness or my-ness, or authorship can be accepted by me for any actions that are performed. Thus I will be free from the fever of mental delusion fuelled by the fire of illusion. The Paramapurusa is the Supreme Being and Sarveshvara is the Supreme Controller. In the Svetavatara Upanisad VI.VII we find: Let us take complete shelter of the Omnipotent Supreme Lord, the Supreme Lord over all lords, the Supreme Ruler of all rulers, the Supreme Master of all masters. The word isvaratva means lordship and the word niyantritva means ruler and the word patitva means master denoting the relationship between the Supreme Lord and His servitors. In the Narayana Upanisad we find: He is the Supreme Lord of the universe. In the Brahma Samhita V.I we find isvarah parama krishna which means that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Controller. Arjuna was also reflecting on how he would become free from the myriads of sins about to be committed by him in the battle for all the warriors he would be slaying. Now he is being instructed to cheerfully begin the fray performing his prescribed duties as yagna or worship in karma yoga or the path of prescribed Vedic activities without attachment according to the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. By dedicating oneself according to the edicts of the Vedic scriptures one is actually worshipping the Supreme Being and the person who performs their activities in this ordained manner is automatically exempt from all reactions as the Supreme Being Himself accepts their actions of offerings as His own and accepting complete responsibility of His surrendered devotee factually frees them from bondage. Thus the quintessence of all the Upanisads has been duly given.

..3-31 slokam.nathamuni sannathi..therkku vasalil ranga vilas pakkathil..823 year -aani anusham..gaanam thaazlam..renga naatha muni..esai amaithu paasuram pahuthu koduthaar..veera naarayana perumaal, aalavanddarum sevai..aandavan sishyar pathukara..venaikku aadum pillai aandal sevai…vidaamal nithya anushtaanam karma yogathil eedu pattu,nambikkaiyodu pannanum enkiraan..srethai erunthaalum pothum enkiraan. mudalil anushtaanam.. appuram srethai..aasai erukkanum..poraamai elaamalaavathu erukkanum..udaaseenam pannaamal asooyai ellamal erukkanum..moovahai patta makkalum karmangalirunthu papa punyangalieruntu viduthalai adaikiraarkal enkiraan..gopikal nonbu aandaal manasal ninaithaal anddal paadina thiruppaavai namm sollukirom entha moontru vahai makkalum kannanin anbukku paatiram..gangaa theertham paarthaalum kulithalum paruhinaalum payan pola..natha munikalai paarthu enakku motsham kodu enkiraar aalavandaar..pidithaar pidithaarai pattri kollanum..

3-31..

Ramanuja’s CommentaryThe word manavah means men. It is derived from Manu the father of mankind, who wrote the Manu Samhita which are the guidelines for the human race. Thus all mankind as the descendants of Manu are followers of Vedic scriptures. The great personalities like Manu contemplating and reflecting on the Vedas determine what is the main import of the Vedas, which is precisely the formulised will of the Lord act accordingly to this inner directive.There are persons who although unable to practice the prescribed injunctions enjoined in the Vedic scriptures still have faith and believe in the tenets inculcated therein. There are others who although not fully understanding and believing still do not doubt the veracity and authority of the Vedic scriptures.All these three classes of mankind shall be redeemed and delivered from the vast aggregate of past sins accumulated since time immemorial that keeps one locked in bondage to the material existence. Lord Krishna uses the words te api meaning they also to emphasise that these even those not fully believing if they remain passive and do not blaspheme they are also entitled to absolution from past sins which is the cause of bondage and gradually attain moksa or deliverance from the cycle of birth and death.The next verse tells the fate of the blasphemers and non-observers of this edict.

..3-32 slokam uthamar kovil thiru karambanur.kidanthu sevai.purushothaman pujanga sayanam.sivan brahma eruvarum avanai sevikiraar..ella seyalkalum ennidam samarpithu vida sonnaan..thazlnthavan, uthaman,purushothaman..5-6 karambanoor uthaman. kadamba maharishi ..kadamba marathil erunthaan..than thaazlnthaalum mattravar nantraha erukkanum enbavan.. sarawati paarvathi devarkalum erukiraarkal..karma yogam pannathavarai ehazlkiraan..nammibikkai ellamal erunthum ellaathavan.sarvesan peytchu nambathavan..asooyai kondo, kadai paduthaamalo, muyartchi pannaamalerunthaalo..yennudaiya vaarthaiyai..sarva gjana ellaathavan..valvathey ezlanthu manasu attru pohiraan. erunthum ellaathathukku samam..janahar yagam panninaar naay konndu potchu.. ongi ulahu azlantha uthaman..thanmaiyai kuraithu konndu ponathaal uthaman..brahama chari pola ponathaal..indranukkaha kuraithukonnu pohiraan..mudalvaathiruuruvam avanathu..

3-32..Ramanuja’s Commentary

..Lord Krishna is revealing the eternal truth that He is the atma or soul within all beings in existence, be they human, animal, aquatic, plant, demi-gods or any other species of life that was not cloned. He is the maintainer, sustainer and monitor of all beings through the medium of the atma and all of its impulses come from Him. All souls emanate from the Supreme Lord and because of Him are completely spiritual and eternal. All the souls of all the living beings in creation everywhere in creation as a total aggregate comprise the form of the Supreme Lords eternal, transcendental spiritual body. Whoever does not avail themselves and conformably act to this eternal truth, or take this eternal truth seriously in earnest, or who deems unnecessary and not worth the effort, this person should be understood to be completely destitute of knowledge and unable to evolve spiritually and are incapable of achieving atma tattva or knowledge of the soul become lost. Spiritual intelligence is what determines the light of knowledge in the material existence. In the absence of spiritual knowledge, darkness and ignorance prevails and knowledge becomes erroneous and defective. Thus it has been illustrated that doership transpires due to the union of prakriti or material nature and the physical body being influenced by the gunas or modes of goodness, passion and nescience and this is dependent ultimately upon the Supreme Lord. Reflecting in this manner it can be ascertained that karma yoga or the path of performing prescribed Vedic actions is appropriate for one performing jnana yoga or the path of cultivating Vedic knowledge as well. Karma yoga is appropriate on account of it being easy to perform, exempt from the danger of failure and requires no assistance from other methods in its application. Contrarily jnana yoga is difficult to practice, susceptible to failure and must perform some karma yoga anyway in order to maintain health and vigor which is essential for body maintenance if one is to perform any yoga at all. Also it has been pointed out how it is necessary for a person of distinction situated in Vedic wisdom to set an example to inspire the common man for the benefit and welfare of the world.What difficulties and dangers are fraught for the performers of jnana yoga are now explained in the remainder of this chapter.

Geetha Saaram 3-18to 3-27

September 26, 2007

.3-18 slokam.. thirupernagar.kovil adi.appakudathaan..adi rengam.srirenga pattanam..appaal aarengam.thiruvarangam. thiruvinthaloor paraimala rengan. araa amudhan.. five arangam..atma darisanam kidaithavan.seyyavendiyathu ontrum ellai..karma yogam seyya veynndaam..ontrum ezlakka mattaan..pattru vaippathillai ethilum.uravinarkal, nanbarkal, anubavikum porulkalilum pattra maattaan..eisvaryam, kaivalyam,motsham.moontrilum aasai elai..gjanam padaitha dava valimai konndavarkal erunthaarkal…circusil singathudan vilayadubavan pola.palahiyavan..daragam , baanagam,poshagam ellaam atmaa yentru eruppavan..kaivalyarthin nilamai..oru nilai thaandi perumaalai anubavikkum makkal appadithaan.. swamithvam..eppo maari nammidam varuvaan yentru erupavan..sothukukaha namm poraaduvathu pola.appaala renganum appadithaan..pereyn yentru ten nenju niraiya .edam peyreyn yentru eruppavan..

3-18..There is no commentary for this verse.

.3-19th slokam..valathu kai munivar thalaiyil.. kudam apam..duruvasa mini saapam.. nithyapadi 1000 perukku unavu..emberumaan oruvaney sappittu appam koduthu thirupthi adainthaan..maalai thinam appam unndu…paarijaadam malar indran vajrayutham nadu viralaal azluthi seyal padaamal panninaan..kamalavalli thaayar..swami nammai sothaakki kolvaan..mukta sanganaaha erukkanum..asai attru atma darisanam varum varai karma yogam pannanum..atma darisanam llaathavanai solukiraan dasmaath aahaiyaal entru arambikiraan..panna venndum entrum -yaar panna veynndaam entru sonnaan keezl slokathaal..sruthui thaalam pottu mudal nilai..silar athu ellaamal padalaam. sadana disaiyil erukum pothu namm ethai panna veynndum.. pulankal ennum adanga villai avanai ninaithaalum manasu alai paayum..palanil aasai vaikaamal atmavai unarvu varum varaikkum seyyanum..palanai ethir paarkaamal pannanum..palanil pattru attru pannaninaal thaan karma yogam.. avanukaka pannanum..capsule pola..bagavan namakku  yentru yerpatta kadamai koduthu erukiraar..athai seyyanum..

3-19…Ramanuja’s commentary..

..The person who is neither in need of karma yoga the path of action or jnana yoga the path of cultivating spiritual knowledge is naturally one who is situated in atma-tattva or soul realisation. To such a person the atma or soul and the Supreme Lord are the only objects of attention and one is completely content within by them. No satisfaction that is felt in any other situation such as eating delicious foods or drinking nectarian beverages can compare with the satisfaction that the atma gives. Neither beautiful scents, nor beautiful music nor the experience of beautiful panoramas can compare either with the bliss of the atma. To that person whose focus, whose attention, whose inspiration, whose support, whose everything is emanating from the atma. What need is there to perform prescribed Vedic activities to attain atma-tattva? Such a person is already situated in atma-tattva and has attained moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence. So such a person has no need to perform prescribed Vedic activities. Both karma yoga and jnana yoga are paths for those whose minds need to be diverted and directed from the material illusion to the spiritual reality. But once one who has achieved atma-tattva there is no need to resort to any external assistance any longer. Any action such a one performs is not bound to the material nature as cause and effect due to the reality that such a person is always performing every action while in blissful contemplation and meditation on the wonders of the atma. Performing actions in this state is easy and bereft of any danger as in the case of jnana yoga furthermore sets a good example for the welfare of the world following the path of the Supreme Spirit in all beings. In this verse the word karyam means duty bound and the word asaktah means unattached. So one should perform prescribed Vedic actions in karma yoga as a matter of duty without attachment to the results until atma-tattva is achieved. In this way karma yoga is performed without ego centred conceptions of the self as the doerBecause karma yoga is recommended even to those in jnana yoga great Maharishis and rulers of great wisdom such as King Janaka also achieved atma-tattva and attained moksa solely by karma yoga performing actions following the prescribed injunctions of the Vedas. This illustrates that the aspirant for moksa who is not qualified to tread the path of jnana yoga can still achieve the highest attainment through karma yoga. Furthermore it has also been shown that there are some advantages in performing prescribed Vedic activities in karma yoga even for one qualified to tread the path of jnana yoga. In the next verse another aspect of karma yoga will be shown as the inevitable duty of a specifically distinguished and qualified class of people in society.

.3-20th slokam…4 alwar mazlisai ,nammalwar, perialwar, thirumangai  alwar paadinaar.. udaiyavan yentru .piditheyn piravi kedutheyn pini saareyn maditheyn ..kosdo gopuram..adi servathu enaku ezlithanathu..manasil vanthu puhunthaan..ethuvum pannaamal erukkum pothu vanthu puhunthaan..namakkum onntrum pannathu erunthaal vanthu puhuvaanaa?..silarukku yerkkum.. alwarukku unnum soru. ellam kannan..namm kadamai seyya veynndum..mudal paathiel janahan raja karma yogathaal atma darisanam adainthaar yenkiraar. maamarnaarai konndaadukiraar..raman upadesikka villai eppo kannan thaan panukiraan..miha periavarkalum karma yogathaley thaan adainthaarkal.. gjana yogam athigaaram ullavarum panninaar yenkiraan..sulabamaanathu neeyum pannu enkiraan..lift, steps, eranndum maadiku pohum..eranndum adaiya pohira edam onntru thaan..nilaiyil verupaadu ellai..six janagan.. siva danusu  udaiyavan janahan..pangunu uttaram natchathram kalyaanam..eiyam seethaa..mama sudha. enkiraan. mamangaaram ellaathavan..janahan vanthaal thaan paadam nadathuvaar acharyar… mithilai eriyumma pola poyy kathai solla evan mattum  asangaamal erunthaan.. seetha marihi sevikka veynndiya edam..guru janahan mmahimai therinthau enkiraar guru.. atma eriaathu entru kathu konndeyn entraan..erunthaalum karma yogathaal than atma darsanam adainthaan enkiraan..

3-20..There is no commentary for this verse.

3-21..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..So understanding that the whole Earth benefits from the performance of prescribed Vedic activities, one should act altruistically not for themselves but for the welfare of the world. This is the meaning Lord Krishna is conveying. The word “sresthah” means great personality expert in the conclusions of the Vedas. Whatever actions such a great person performs others will try to follow. It may be that a certain activity should be performed on a special day. The common people will wait to see how a great person takes the initiative on such an action and then they will follow suit. Hence the great personalities should always act in an exemplary manner to set the standard for the world. In this way they inspire everyone to perform prescribed Vedic actions according to the qualification of ones varna or caste in life and ones asrama or stage in life. If one fails to do this by neglect or omission one commits sin by omitting to help benefit the welfare of the world by their example and the consequence will be one will fall down from the path they achieved after many lifetimes.

3-22..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna is declaring that in all the three worlds if He by His Supreme Will were to be present in the guise of a human or demi-god or whatever He desired there would of course be no activity He would be bound to perform as He is the maintainer of all the worlds and the Supreme Lord all prescribed activities in the Vedic scriptures are for His pleasure and satisfaction solely. Yet even when he appears in His original two armed form or in any of His scriptural authorised incarnations, Lord Krishna still applies Himself in all kinds of actions for the ultimate benefit and welfare for all the worlds.

..3-23 slokam..vamana trivikrama..thirukuralappan sannathi.. srirengathil..edathu kaiyil kudai valathu kai kamandalam. kilakku thaayar vadakku nokki..aandal pallakil perialwarudan..engey thaan erangi neeraadi ponaal..namm perumaal 8thu tsavam vali adi ubayamaaha varuvaar..24 thoon gayatri mantram..brahmachari mantram..aham naanum sombal ellaamal karma panninndu..appadi seyyavillaiyaha erunthaal manusharkal yennai pin pattri nadapparkal. kannaney seyya villai. uyarntha sthnathil eruppavar kadaimai vida koodaathu.. moontru lohathilum..monntru piravikalilum.. deva, manushan, vilangu..pantri uruvam eduthu,boomi piraatti paaasi pidithu edarnthu boovaraha sri mooshnum..udambin vaasanai theriyum..jaathi vaasani eraivan maraithu pantri vaasanaiyudan piranthaan “maanamilla pantriyaay.”. enkiraal aandaal..kadamai maaraathavan..nijathil kalanthu kolkiran.. maya maan maareesan..nija man ellai matra maankal vilahi pohirathu enkiraar lakshmanan. .athu pola …vaamana moorthy.. srivasta thaayar thiru mangai thannodum thihaluvaan..vamana moorthy..brahmachaary vedam..pitchai edukka vasathiyaaha mudal asramam.. piraati udkaarnthu erukka..mann tholai eduthu moodi konndaar..aval kadatcham maha-bali meyl padaamal panninaan..maaruthalum sothai vidaamal erukka.. indranai  ratchikka  thannai kuraithu konndu kadamai vidaamal panninaan..arjuna unnai pinpattra azhkal erukaa..neeyum unathu kadamai thavaraamal pannu enkiraan..

3-23..There is no commentary for this verse.

..3-24 slokam..therkkuvasal renga vilas pakkam..venu gopalan sannathi..4 tholkal..sangu chakaram. pullaangulal vaasikiraan..kunjitha paadam ..yasodai piraati kooda sevai..engey thaan kidaikkum..gaana rasam..acharyan moolam pullaangulal..athannai pattri sollukiraan..aham karma nahuryaam. nann kadaimaikalai seyyaavittaal..thavaru purinthavan aaveyn..shadriyan darmam por purivathu un kadamai..prajakalai atma darisanam panna vidaamal pohum athanaal nann kadamai vidamal pannukiraan..brahma hiranyakasibu, ravanan vara koduthaar.ranma, narasimha avathaar panni varam udpattu azlikiraan..sattangalukku udpattu hiranya kasibuvai mudithaan..sastram, suruthi ,smrithi avan aanaial erunthaalum atharkkum evan  kattu padukiraan..devaas sarvesvaranukku udpattu kadamaikal seyhiraarkal. sarvesvaranaan avanum kadamai thavaravillai..niraiveraatha aasai ellai erunthaalum kadamai thavaraamal erukiraan..karma deenndaathu avanai..avan sari ninaippathu punyam ..koorath alwar ..nan nalathai seyyanum -nee panuvathu ellam nallathu..adiyarkalai ratchikkum kadamai eyrittu konndu erukiraan..munnodiyaaha erukkum namakellam karma sariyaaha pannanum..

3-24..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..If Lord Krishna of infallible will, the Supreme Lord of all, and in whose control the entire phenomenal display of the total material creation is created, maintained and preserved by His inconceivable potency; if He were not to conduct Himself seriously and omit to perform prescribed Vedic activities for the benefit of all the worlds then others seeing Lord Krishnas indifference would also conduct themselves indifferently following His example. When Lord Krishna took birth, seemingly as a human being, as the son of the great righteous King Vasudeva, he conducted Himself in all ways and manners as appropriate for his position in society as a prince of the royal ksatriya or warrior class. If Lord Krishna acted otherwise all mankind would begin to imitate Him thinking that such actions were virtuous, the worthy actions, of a worthy son from a worthy father, the righteous King Vasudeva. In this way Lord Krishna is explaining that if He failed to perform Vedic activities mankind following His example would be led in a negative way into a hellish perdition unable to purify themselves enough so they could achieve atma-tattva or soul realisation. This would be considered as a very serious offence and Lord Krishna would be at fault. By not setting the example of what is righteous and by not following the traditions and customs established by performing the activities prescribed in the Vedic scriptures then all humanity would deviate from righteousness and become totally lost. If Lord Krishna failed to respect the injunctions and prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures then all the world would take that to be the standard of righteousness and the final verdict. There would soon ensue the mixing of classes and a mixture of moral and immoral standards in the class of pure and righteous people, leading to the complete degradation of society. Lord Krishna is stating that if He failed to follow and perform the Vedic injunctions then it would be the cause of the destruction of society. This is the purport. Also if Arjuna who was world famous for never having been defeated in battle and who was the brother of King Yudhisthira famed for his righteousness; if Arjuna refused to fight and protect dharma or righteousness then many other worthy and noble ksatriyas who were protectors of dharma might folow his example and also renounce their prescribed duties and refuse to protect righteousness then this would bring destruction to the world balance and ruination to the welfare of the people. Thus it can be understood that for specially qualified people prescribed Vedic activities must be performed for the benefit of the entire human race and the welfare of the world.

..3-25,3-26 slokam.andal sannathi ..ull andal…6th uthsavam yaanai vaahanam.. maalai mattri kolvaan engey..amarntha thirukolam.. nintra perialwar kili vaithu kolkiraal.. veli moola moorthy.. udsava moorthu engey..loha sangraham.. namakku pinthodarnthu  varbavarkal erunthaal avarkalaal seyya mudiyum seyalai naamum seya veynndum..athai karuthil konndu pannanum..arjun neeyum raja –gjana yogam nee panna mudinthaalum karma yogam panna veynndum yenkiraan.. lohathai sangarhithal…erangi uyartha veynndum..andaal nonbu noothu vaayinaal padi manathinal sinthi enkiraal. avalukku jana margam therinthaalum namakaaha erangi  paadukiraal..nammazlvavurm erangi–pinjaay pazluthaal…

3-25..There is no commentary for this verse.

3-26..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The word “avidvamsah “means ignorant, the ignorance referred to is all those who are not knowledgeable of atma-tattva or soul realisation. Those who have desires and are attached to performing actions to obtain the fruits of such desires are unable to approach the jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. Others being more sober are only fit to follow karma yoga the path of prescribed Vedic actions as their means to achieve atma-tattva. Let the wise act and behave like one performing karma yoga performing prescribed Vedic actions even if they have no interest in the results of their actions and are qualified for jnana yoga and even if they have knowledge of atma-tattva. For such a person is naturally great and is looked up to by all the world and should always conduct themselves in an exemplary manner by performing prescribed Vedic activities according to qualification. By this mankind will be cognisant of what is proper and improper in society. Actions of this nature can only be accomplished by one performing karma yoga.The ignorant are conditioned to desires of fruitive activities being fully attached to gaining results and are incapable of adopting the path of jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. A person of wisdom should not unhinge the minds and disturb the equilibrium of ordinary people pursuing their dreams of material acquisitions in karma yoga by preaching the superior path of jnana yoga which they are incapable of following. What a person of wisdom must do is set an example by their actions and perform prescribed Vedic activities in karma yoga showing the ignorant by their example that without desire and being unattached to the results it is sufficient to achieve atma-tattva. By setting the example in this manner the great souls inspires the whole society to perform righteous activities so that eventually their minds will be come purified of all dross and they will become competent to advance in spiritual life and attain atma-tattva. The difference between how a person of wisdom performs karma yoga and how the ignorant acts in karma yoga and the reason why will be explained in the next verse.3-27..There is no commentary for this verse.

..3-27..There is no commentary for this verse.

Geetha Saaram 3-1 to 3-17.

September 26, 2007

…3rd adyaayam.. KARMA YOGAM.. alavanthaar..karmam nitchaiyum seyal padum enkiraar..ulahatil gjana yogathuku makkal kuraviu.. karma yogathil appadi ellai..kannaiyum  kaathaiyum  moodunndu 30 nimisham  erukka sollungo.. yaar pannuvaarkal?..poo maalai thodu entraal niraiya per varuvaa..loha ratchaikkaha asakthya gunangali-rajo,dama gunangalai- thalli vittu  sathyam  vallarkanum..sarvesvaranin thiruvadikalil ellaavatraiyum  samarpithu..

Chapter three establishes the fact by various points of view that the performance of prescribed duties is obligatory for everyone. Here Lord Krishna categorically and comprehensively explains how it is the duty of each and every member of society to carry out their functions and responsibilities in their respective stage of life according to the rules and regulations of the society in which one lives. Further the Lord explains why such duties must be performed, what benefit is gained by performing them, what harm is caused by not performing them. Plus what actions lead to bondage and what actions lead to salvation. All these points relating to duty have been described in great detail. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Eternal Duties of Human Beings.

karma yogathil arivum adangi povathaal  thaniyaaga gjana yogam veynndaam enkiraan.seyyan.manathil anbu erunthaal  bakti ellathavarkaluku ariyan..thirumazlisai alwar paasuram…vaikundapathi kalla piran..kaladdosahan thirudan…gives half  of stolen things for  darma karyam.raja kitta Avaney senntru..kallan vedam kondathaal sora nathan,kalla piran..first two slokams.. arjunan keyttan.. karmaavai kaatilum putthi usanthathu entru nee ninaithaal koramana yuthathil  etherkkaaha  thallukiraay enkiraan..piraviruthi markam karma yogam..nivruthi gjana yogam enkiraan..eranndum vevveru entru ninaikiraan..muran pattu pesukiraay- puthi kalaku rarpola erukku.. ontrai sollu.. ethu nallathai kodukkum enkiraan.

3-1..Ramanuja’s Commentary

The ultimate purpose of the Bhagavad-Gita is to show in a clear and lucid manner that one-pointed loving devotion to the Supreme Being who is glorified and proclaimed in the Vedas is the singular and paramount goal to be attained by all human beings specifically and for all living beings in general. Who is proclaimed in the Upanisads as the singular goal to achieve by the aspirants for moksa or liberation from material existence. Who is declared in the Puranas as being destitute of all defiling characteristics such as avidya or nescience. This Supreme Being who is possessing boundless and unlimited magnificent and glorious attributes. Bhakti yoga or loving devotional service is exclusively only in relation to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised avatars or incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures. In order to achieve full success in bhakti yoga it is essential to achieve atma tattva or realisation of ones eternal soul. The atma or soul is ones eternal nature beyond all material conceptions and is a necessary preliminary step. Atma tattva is ultimately attained by jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures which is generated by karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities without attachment. These prescribed Vedic activities are established on the foundation that the atma is eternal and can never be modified or destroyed as delineated so clearly by Lord Krishna in chapter two.Brahma has stated that the acquisition of paravidya or the knowledge required to attain the Supreme Being is known as bhakti or loving devotion and that dahara-vidya or that this method of meditation is required to realise the Supreme Being, who resides within the etheric region of the heart. In the Chandogya Upanisad it is given that the realisation of the atma within ones own heart is the first ancillary step by the God aspirant to attaining realisation of the Supreme Being Himself. Then the incorporeal and non-material reality of the atma and its eternal nature beyond the consciousness of waking, sleeping and dreaming is completely transcended. Thus does the phenomenal nature of the atma emerging from within the physical body, radiant in ineffable light shining in its natural and wonderous effulgence. In the Katha Upanisad this subject is also well elucidated as given in the following description: By perceiving paramatma which is the Supreme Soul existing simultaneously within all beings and then by discrimination obtained after realisation of the individual atma. The enlightened one delivers themselves from attraction and repulsion, joy and grief and all other dualities. Communion with the Supreme Soul is communion with the Supreme Being which is the goal to be attained through the discrimination derived directly from atma tattva. This confirms that atma tattva or realisation of the soul is an essential ingerdient and constituent component of the Supreme Being which is attained by bhakti or loving devotion. Another example is: Knowing the magnificent and all-pervading nature of paramatma the Supreme Soul, the enlightened one no longer grieves or laments which reveals the natural potency of the atma to relieve one of all mundane dross due to the influence of the material existence. The eternal soul known as the atma is not gainable merely by hearing about it. Nor is it obtainable by discoursing about it nor is it attainable by meditating exclusively on it. The atma is attainable solely to those whom the atma alone elects to attain it. Whomsoever the atma selects as an act of sovereign grace alone the atma reveals itself to such a one. Who is such a one? It is none other than that person who has discriminatory wisdom as their charioteer, who has the reins of their mind controlling the steeds of the senses, who has the actual competence to achieve moksa or liberation and attain the coveted goal of loving devotion to the Supreme Lord.So in conclusion what we have just presented in essence form is the ultimate purpose of the Bhagavad-Gita. From chapter three along with chapters four, five and six the path for the aspirant is given beginning with the very first question in this chapter. The means of cognition and the method of realisation along with the meditation required to achieve it will be delineated and forthcoming.

3-2..Ramanuja’s Commentary

What Arjuna is trying to ascertain from Lord Krishna is if the cultivation of spiritual knowledge is superior to performing physical activities for the attainment of liberation and if so then why should one engage in horrendous activities like war and killing. It is well known that jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge is the means to accomplish self-realisation of the soul. Karma yoga or performing physical activities without attachment leads one gradually to jnana yoga. This path of spiritual knowledge can be attained by with drawing all the senses along with the mind from the objects of the senses. If this is the case then Arjuna is wondering why he is not being instructed in the cessation of all physical activities; but instead he is being encouraged to fully use his mind and senses to engage in all of the violent and horrific activities that accompany warfare. Feeling confused by the conflicting instructions of with drawing the senses and the performance of actions, Arjuna now wants a single, unequivocal instruction to determine for certain exactly what course he should embark to achieve the highest good.

..3-3 slokam..vinnagar entru thiru vinnagar ..paramesvara ..kazli seer rama ..nandi pura vinnagar etc..Vaikundapathi sri vaikundam..sora nathan..kalla piran.. perumaiyum ezlimaiyum…Kannan sonna pathil arambam..gjana yogam nivruthi margam. karma yogam seyal purivathu..eranndu vithamaana yogam solapattathu..pulangalai adakka therinthavarkalukku gjaanam yogam…adakka theriaathavarkalukku karma yogam 2-55to2-71 varai ketta gjana yogam pattri namm kavalai pada veynndaam…karma yogam panni atma saktchakaaram peralaam..araadana moolam namm pannum karmangalai  avanukkaka entru panninaal….

3-3..Ramanuja’s commentary..

Lord Krishna is telling Arjuna that he has not clearly understood what has been previously spoken by Him. He tells Arjuna that in this world abounding in diversity there are two paths for two types of humans. Jnana yoga the path of knowledge and karma yoga the path of actions each suited to the capacities and qualifications of the type concerned. Not all humans in this world are born with the ambition for moksa or liberation. Neither are all humans able to embark upon the path of knowledge directly. But all humans must engage in actions at all times they cannot stop but they must perform these actions unattached without desiring any reward, perfecting them in the process as factual activities of divine worship. Then in fact all actions become divine activities as revealed forthcoming in chapter XVIII. verse forty-six worshipping God by ones actions. Performing actions in this way humans evaporate the inauspicious qualities lurking in their minds and hearts and the senses give up their turbulence and become calm and peaceful. It has already been established in chapter II. verse forty-seven that there must be no anticipation of rewards as the reason for performing activities. When this platform has been attained then after one has risen in wisdom beyond the turmoils of the quest of satisfying ones sense with sense objects then jnana yoga the cultivation of spiritual knowledge is appropriate. In chapter II. verse fity-five Lord Krishna has stated when one gives up all desires, to confirm this point. Sankhya refers to spiritual knowledge or spiritual wisdom. Those who possess this are called sankhyas as real spiritual knowledge is the knowledge that leads to realisation of the atma or soul, firmly resides within them. Those who are ineligible not fit for this course due to their own inherent qualities are the yogis who are eligible for karma yoga the path of actions. So it can be seen that there is not even the slightest contradiction when it was asserted that for one who is beguiled by the objects and distractions of the phenomenal world, karma yoga is suitable for them and for those who are not beguiled and able to renounce these objects and distractions are suited for jnana yoga the cultivation of spiritual knowledge.

It will next be shown that even if a wish for moksa or liberation arises still one may not be fully competent to experience the cultivation of knowledge by jnana yoga.

..3-4th slokam..maduramaaha paadinaan kannan..athey pol nammalwar.. thirikolur madurakavi avatharitha edam..vaithaaa -maa-nidhi perumaal..sanga kalathil ..palahaiyil vaithu  prasannamaana “kannan kazlanai ..ennum thirunamam thinnam naranamey”..perumaiyey othu konndu semam kurughaiyoo..eranndu or nanku thozla entru perumaiyai paadinaarkal…oru sorr porumo ulahin kavikal entrupaadinaar..karma yogam pannaamal gjana yogam panna mudiyaathu….karma yogathai  pathieil vittuvittu gjanam yogam panna mudiaathu..vaishnava sanyaasi vazlnthu pinbu thuravaram kollumaa pola..aasai samarthiam eranndum veynndum..aasaiyai karma yogathil vazlarthu kolla veynndum  enkiraan..

3-4..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Neither by not performing the activities prescribed in the Vedic scriptures nor by abandoning them once they were begun does one attain the qualification to perform jnana yoga the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. This is because that actions when performed as worship for the Supreme Lord for His satisfaction alone with no desire or expectation for any reward leads to perfection and without this consciousness one is not qualified for jnana yoga. For in jnana yoga exclusive attention is devoted to atma-nistha deep faith in knowledge and meditation of the soul. This is only possible for one who has relinquished all desires and expectations fully. It is not possible for one who is still mired in the pursuit of fruitive activities, burdened with sins from previous lives and for one who has never worshipped Lord Krishna with love and devotion with no anticipation of reward.

..3-5th slokam..thirukolur..kuberan sivanai parkka . sapam .. selvam tholainthu..thirukolur sentru sapam theernthathu..ezlantha selvam ov ontraaha koduthaan.. vaitha ma nidhi.. 9 selvangalum evanidam saranam puhunthanavaam..thalaikku keezl marakkaal. erukkum..darma shetram entrum solluvaarkal..nayagi pavaam.. parangusa nayagi.. paranukkum angusam vaithavar..unnum soru .paasuram entha divya desathukku padinaar..ekkalathilum yaarum vellai seyamal erukka maattaarkal..piranthathum azlukirom..kai kall udaikirathu..karma vasanai vidaathathaal..ariaamal seyyvathum karma yogam..avasak karma entru peyar..muk kunangal  nammai vittu piriyaamal erukkum.. athanaal thoonda pattu pannukirom..satva, rajo, tamas..satva gunathai vazlarthu  mattra eranndaium kuraikkanum.. atharkku karma yogam panninndu erukkanum..viruppu veruppu neenginaal eranndum kuraiyum..pulankal  kattu pada veynndum..

3-5..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..No living being in the material existence can remain inactive even for a moment without initiating or pursuing some activity or another. If one should steadfastly determine to perform absolutely nothing, still one would be compelled into action by the qualities of the the three gunas being sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance, all from prakriti, material nature. The effects of these have sprung into existence from ones past life activities. Thus by adhering to karma yoga the yoga of actions without desires ones accumulated sins will gradually dissolve and then mastery over the gunas and prakriti is achieved. At this time the mind has become pure and one becomes qualified for jnana yoga. Otherwise as Lord Krishna states anyone attempting to pursue jnana yoga in lieu of this is a charlatan and all their attempts is merely a charade.

..3-6th slokam..Ramanujar sannathi in alwar thirunagari..32 years nammalwar erunthaar..vittu piriyum pothu  avar ninaivaaha. veynndum yentru keytta madurakavi alwaarukku …neerai kaaythu silai…thaamara parani aathalaal niraiya thaamaram-copper- erukkumaam…5100 years. back nadanthathu… ramanujar only 1000 years back .. pirakka pohum avarin vighraham..”bavishathu acharya vighraham”..eranndaavathu  thadavai thaan  nammalwar thirumeyni vanthathu..orey simhasanam seyvai vaikaasi visagam..masi visaham  .. eranndum 10 days uthsavam..manas pulankal atma sinthanaiyoda erunthaal gjana yogam pannalaam…pulankal adanga viruppu veruppu neenganum..perumaal aananthamm adainthu papamkal vilahi rajo tamo gunam kuraiyum…dyyanam panna arambikkum pothu -papangal neengi pinbu thaan mudiyum..poy ozlukkam. koodaathu..nithya achaaram ..ninaippu vera seyal vera..ninaipathu ontru nadappu ontru…vimood atma..atmavil pohaatha manasu erukka koodaathu enkiraan..

3-6..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Whosoever without first unburdening themselves of all their sins, who without having first gained mastery of their senses and without having first achieved self-control of the mind. If such a person pretends to strives for atma-tattva or self-realisation of the soul, with their thoughts dwelling on sense objects due to attachment for them instead of focusing on the eternal soul. Then the conduct of such a one is duplicious and false and they are a charlatan. Any person acting in this way is only deceiving themselves by their own deception and surely will never succeed in realising the eternal soul.

..3-7th slokam..Thirumalai Aandaan..vaikaasi visakam evarukum..pilai lohacharyarin sishyar.. manavaala maa munikku acharyar.. ooraiyum alwar sannathiyaiyum- sadurveda mangalam- amaithaar..thiruvaay mozli pilai -srisaila naathar entrum peyar..uyak konndar thirumeniyum angey erukirathu…arivai ull adakki konndu karma yogam pannubavar   is greater than gjaana yogi..seythu pazlakka patta karmavai seeythu munneetri kondu..our daily rituals –are those  karma yogam?.pulangalai  ellaam avanidam niyamithu ..nala kaariathil araadanamaaha pannanum..asaktha karma yogam..pattratru erukka veynndum..udammbu aroghyam. karma pannivathaal..erai adiyaarkalukku kainkaryam pannanum..

3-7..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Controlling the senses by strength of mind, utilising them to assist in achieving attma tattva by performing the prescribed duties given in the Vedic scriptures according to the natural attributes found within their character by the natural disposition of their natural impulses, then that person although performing karma yoga the yoga of actions is superior to the performer of jnana yoga the yoga of cultivating knowledge inasmuch as falsely performing jnana yoga with duplicity is far inferior to performing karma yoga with sincerity.

..3-8th slokam..punnya nathigal  ,tambarabarani karai.vahula maalai pola -..thiru sangani thurai..visagam alwar neeraduvaar.. kai palahaiel ettu -thirumanjanam panni pinbu -aattril neerattam..sangam minivar vedathil davam panninaan. dik balagarkalaaha erukka..kadal kalakkum edathil sanghu pola erunthu .kuru mudalvan mutha..ahashtiar. seyy enkiraar valluvar..kannan thaay pola sonnathai alwar seyy pola solli erukiraar..kuru entraal seyy entru artham.. niatham niyamikka karmathai seyy enkiraar..gjana yogathai vida namakku karma yogam usanthathu…thyaanam panna udambu -sappadu veynndum..sareerathai peni eruppathum karma yogam thevai..gjana yogikku karma yogam essential..ueir ponaal motsham kidaikaathu.. gjanam yogam–namathu punnyam paapam  mudinthaal thaan motsham kittum.. suicide entru paapam varum.vidhi erukkey yen kaiyil ellaiyey .niatha karma aniatha karma eranndu vahai..parishit datshakan pambu kadithu saavaan..namm muarchitaal -avan krubaiyaal -nadathuvathu niathama karma..

3-8..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The word nityatam can refer to eternal, regular or even daily. An act is eternal if it is connected to the atma which is the eternal soul. Actions merely connected to prakriti or the material nature are a persistent inheritance from ones past activities in the unknown past. Thus to perform actions comes easily as a natural phenomena and not subject to the inherent dangers of possessing an impure mind or the lack of sense control associated the with jnana yoga, the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. Therefore Lord Krishna is urging Arjuna to perform karma yoga or actions without attachment as in his case it is superior to cultivating knowledge. A-karma is non-action which implies cultivating knowledge by the abstention of activities. But it is known that it is not possible to completely achieve the actionless state. Even for the followers of jnana yoga the path of karma yoga is superior because in jnana yoga one must follow a path one is naturally not accustomed, is difficult to practice, fraught with the risk of dominant senses and also which does not flow as an inherent tendency like the path of karma yoga where actions follow the natural locomotion of the body in the course of daily activities.Further it will be shown that even one who is liberated by atma-tattva realisation of the eternal soul; still may be involved in so many activities, performing actions without attachment or as a matter of duty. Thus even atma-tattva can be connected to material activities transforming them to spiritual activities. Hence karma yoga can be superior in this way. What can be inferred about the superiority of karma yoga over jnana yoga will be evident to one who is actually engaged in practising jnana yoga.But an alternative argument could be alright suppose one is determined to abstain from all actions, then how does one expect to maintain their bodily existence which depends on eating and sleeping and washing and exercising etc. and by which the body is very helpful and useful in practising jnana yoga. The maintenance of ones physical body is absolutely essential to complete the course charted in life until one achieves their goal. The way in which one maintains their body is by actions such as labour by rightful means to acquire funds for performing worship to God by offerings of food which are subsequently imbued with spiritual potency and by partaking of the remnants of such foods solely for bodily sustenance each day maintain their bodies.In the Chandogya Upanisad VII.XXVI.II we find: It is by the purity of food that ones mind becomes purified. When the mind is purified one attains access to the eternal soul dwelling within the heart.Thus if one desires to desist from all activities how will their mind become purified and how will their bodily needs be maintained? Thus it is obvious that one who practices jnana yoga in order to maintain their bodily existence must still continue performing the daily and occasional duties prescribed in the Vedas until they reach their goal. The same as if one practised karma yoga. Also in karma yoga the contemplation of atma-tattva is also included in the conceptions that I am not my body perfoming actions and I am not the actual doer of any actions. So for all these reasons karma yoga is preferably recommended to jnana yogis.So the conclusion is for Arjuna to desist and practice karma yoga.But if it is still postulated that actions such as the acquiring of funds involves the my-ness of this is my money and the I-ness of I have earned this by the strength of my mind and the power of my faculties and that these efforts must cause bondage Lord

..3-9th slokam. Anbil divya desam..20 miles from Thiruvarangam..mazlisai alwar .sivan brahama saba motsham kidaitha edam.. brahma erumaappu konddar..sivan oru thalaiyai killinaar .eruvarum manooha maharishi. bruhu munivar paarthaar -thavallaiyaaha povaay entru sapam.. sundara raja perumaal. vaduvazlahiya thaayaar.. Andal amarnthu sevai sathikiraal..nagath anai.kudanthai.vekkha..thiruvevuul nagath anai arangam peyr anbil thiruparrkadal.anaippar karuthaavaan.. namai anaikka enkiraar alwar.. orey paasuram..yagjam. deva pooja.any type of pooja tohim is yagna.. azlaghey vadiveduthavan..9-16. eight slokams deva pooja pattri sollukiraan…pazlahina seyalai pannuvathu karma yogam.. dyaanam pazlakkam ellai. pulankal ellam adakki veikka veynndaam..pattratta thai thodakathil ethir parkka villai.edutha kaariathai muartchi seythu mudippom..nazluvathil vayyppu kuraitchal..manasum pulankalum ontru padavathu easy..seyvathu avanukku entru gjanathudan pannivathaal karma yogathilum gjana yogam erukku..gjana yogi karma yogam essential. five reasons sonnaan earliar..seyal pannum pothu viruppu veruppu varum -papam serum enkiraan Ajunan..

..3-9th slokam..azlakku sigharam Anbil perumaal..marabugal -sadanguhal -etharkku entru therium..yagam yagyam ethukku entru therium..karma yogam samsaarathil kattu podum entran Arjunan..seyalkalai pirikiraan.yagnathin poruttu seyyum karma. yagam allatha karma ..mudal karma kattu paduthaathu..deva pooja allathathu kodukkum enkiraan.pattruthal attravanaay seyyum karma  ..nammudaiya karmakalai deva pojayaahaum pattru attrum seyya veynndum enkiraan..payan karithu thaan yaagam pannukiraan. mudal padi athu..kuzlanthaikku satham voottum thaay palan karuthaamal pannuvathu pola namum namathu palanukku entru ellaamal pattru attru mattravar nalanuku panum karma deva pooja enkiraan.

3-9..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Instead of working hard to acquire funds for self gratification endeavours which causes one to bound in the material existence. Activities performed as an offering to the Supreme Lord known as yagna or sacrifice should be performed which are not bound to the material nature. Lord Krishna uses the word sanga which means attachment this means that attachment will be there when the action is undertaken for self service but as an offering to the Supreme Lord one is free from such ulterior motivations. All activities when done as an offering to the Supreme Lord with anticipating any reward become consecrated through yagna or acts of worship done for the pleasure of atma-purusha, the Supreme Lord internally within the heart and externally pervading all existence. The Supreme Lord recognising such devotion will mitigate all the sins and the merits from such offered actions which bind one to receiving punishment or rewards since time immemorial and neutralising them direct one from inside, and following this path with very little difficulty one can achieve self-realisation. It is now shown that all persons of every segment of society without exception must nourish themselves by food offered as yagna consecrated worship exclusively and that sins are imbibed by all those who do not do so.

..3-10th slokam..he explains natural cycle thro 7 slokams..anbil entrathum..anbu ellamai yenbathu  porul alla. ellaam entraal eruppidam.. anbukku eruppidam. avan thirumeyni thaan..pattrilan easanum ..paasuram..namathu meyl pattrai ellamaaha konndavan ennumo pola. nambillai vyaagyaanathil sonnathu pola…anbai koduthu anbai petru kolla veynndum..aniruddam amsamaaha soluvaarkal evarai. vasudevan  pradymnan samkarshna aniruddhnan…kakkum kadavul kanna piraan anbil perumal. ambai koduthu kakkiraan…epadi udan padikkai..praja pathi munnoru kaalathil prajakalai yagnam yagangaium  kooda srishthaan..appo  padaikum pothu – srishitukkum pothey sonnaan..”entha yaagangalaal selvam kodukkum  aasai pattathai kodukum pal karakkumaa pola kodukkum eshta kaama karmam “..athey kannan thirumbi eppo solukiraan…deva pooja panninaal avan preethi adainthu nam aasai pattathai tharuvaan.. pasu madu avan edayan deva pooja namm aasai patta paalai karanthu koduppan..43, 20, 000 years -nangu yugam mudium – 1000 sadur  ugam mudinthaal brahma ukku rathiri pozluthu mudium..avanukku 100 brahma years..pralayam appo nadukkum – papangal pannuvathai mudikiraan. vaasanai mudiya pralayathaiyum –avaluvu naal –vaikiraan….marupadiyum shrishtium yagamum pannukiraan.. kovil katti pathukappathu pola..palum theynum vootti vazlarkka..motsha enbam kodukka..

3-10..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..In the Vedic scriptures the term Prajapati is unrestrictedly designated to the Supreme Lord Krishna, or any of duly authorised avatars or incarnations such as Narayana lord of all creation or Jagannatha lord of the universes. In the beginning of creation the Supreme Lord reflected on the plight of the living entities entangled in matter from time immemorial. These living entities were destitute of name, form and a distinction between one another as they were dormant within a portion of the Supreme Lords potency. Possessing an eternal soul they had the ability to fulfill great goals but they languishing inert like latent substances.In this case Prajapati refers to Brahma, a duly authorised Guna avatar of the Supreme Lord who while reflecting on them out of His infinite mercy and for the sake of their ultimate redemption, inspired Brahma to project them into the material manifestation. Brahma worshipped the Supreme Lord as sacrifice and thus inaugurated the institution of yagna which will fulfill all ones highest ambitions granting moksa or libeartion in the spiritual worlds. How this will manifest will be further explained in the next verse...3-11th slokam..danaam dharmam mukkiyam entru sollukiraan.. dharma saalaikal niraiya erukku..para upakaaram..devas malai kodupparkal nilam nanngu villaiyum yagam panninaal enkiraan..homa gunndam neyy vaithu yagam panninaal.. avanukku po santhanam koduthaal ..pithru divasam panninaal. neruppu pinndam eppadi nanmai pannum?..seyal seythaal antha devathaiyum athan ulley erukkum naanumm   thirupthi adaivom…entrance test  sadangu viditha sadangu sariyaaha panninaal. system question pannaamal. .mrk pettru uriya athikaari seat kodukkum pola .. devas mark podum pola mazlai thruvaar.. adhikaari vishnu ..sadanngu seyythu thaan entru nambikkaiyodu pannanum.. muartchi eduthu test ezluvathai vathiaarukku theriaathu.. aanaal baghavanukku athu therium. test antru thavarinaalum muartchi eduthaal palan kidaikum..saambal anainthu pohirathu eppo palan kidaikkum?..thodarbu enna?..avan makzlinthu koduppan. paritchai 3 hrs mudinthu poonaalum appuram palan varuvathu pola..palanil prethi ellamal karma pannum gjaanam thaan..aasai pattathellem kidaikkum . evvylaha payankal motsham kodukkaathu..vaazlnthu muditha pinbu thaan motsham.. athukku vazli ethu enkiraan..devarkalai poojithaal selvam koduthu miha sirantha motsham kidakkum enkiraan.

3-11..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna explains that by yagna which is worship and appeasement of the devas or demi-gods who are His universal administrators of the material existence and who constitute His body and of whom He is the atma or soul within. Later in chapter IX.xxiv beginning with aham hi sarva we will see Him confirm that He is the sole enjoyer and rewarder of all yagnas. So let the demi-gods of whom Lord Krishna is the atma be worshipped so they will grant all prayers of prosperity and abundance. In this way by mutually offering services mankind shall reap its summum bonum and highest beatitude.

 ..3-12slokam..battar sannathi..koorathalwanum sernthu erukiraar..sri rengaraja sthvam.gunaratna gosam..nammperumaalai parthu kai koopikonndey eruppar koorathalwar. ramanujaral prathishtai pannanathu..yaagam panaamal erunthaal naam ellaam thirudarkal  thaan– devarkalukku ..aasai patta mazlai mudal elaam kodukkum devarkalukku- thirumbi kodukkaavidil..kadamai thavarivarkalaaha avom..vannaanidam kodukkum thuni pola ellai.. thaanam kodutha porulai pola ellai..eranndum pola ellai.ellam enakkum avarkalukkum yentru ellai.. naamum use pannivittu vari seluthama pola –.B-O-T..build operate and transfer pola..sareeram namakku kodukiran highways kodupathu pola .. infra structure koduthu use panni devarkalukkm kodu enkiraan..anna daanam . adiyaarkaluku seyyum sevai thaan deva pooja..toll kodukkaamal edamey yennuthu yentru solluvathu pola..uyarntha palankalukkuhaka pannaatha  karma yogam samsaarathil azluthaathu enkiraan..

3-12..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The words yagna-bhavitah means honoured by worship. The worship of pleasing the demi-gods in which Lord Krishna also resides as the atma or soul will confer on those whose perform it whatever prosperity and abundance they have prayed for. This means that by receiving these things as such one is able to worship the demi-gods and receive from them perpetually by offerings and worship to them with regularity.But if one should try to enjoy the gifts granted by them without first offering them back beforehand then such a person is a thief for misappropriating what was not sanctioned by the act of yagna or appeasement. Stena eva sah means one is certainly a thief. A thief is one who executes chaurya or larceny. The definition of larceny is the intention of or act of one to misappropriate property for oneself for the use of which they have no right which factually belongs to others.Thus to one of this nature and this description there is not only forfeiture and exemption from moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death but there will also be suffering for these sins in the infernal regions of the hellish planets described in Canto V of the Bhagavat Purana. This same subject is further explained in the next verse

...3-13 slokam..therkku vayil renga vilas manndabam pakkam moola moorthy anjeneyar uthsava moorthy pan alwar.. orey garba graham..eruvarum entha divya desathil epothum eruppavarkal..sarasarangalai vaikuntham koottiindu pohira raman anjeneyaraiyum koopida ramanai kannda kankalaal vaikuntha nathanaiyum- mattru ontraiyum -kaaneyn yentraar..neeyey than avan yentraalum. yetra yatra raghu ramakeerathanam ennumaa pola ..kannumm kanneraha ramar kathai ketkiraar. evar arangan amudinai kannda kannkal mattru ontrai kaanathau entraar..arangan evarukku aranganai pooja pannina ramar avarukku..vuanavai unna veynndumaa  allaathu  paavathai unna veynndumaa? yenkiraan..kanndu arula pannivittu sapidanum..yagjam panni mitcham pattathai anubavikkanum enkiraan..eppadi kanndu arula panni saappitaal ella papangalintrum vidubadukiraarkal enkiraan..thangalukaha samaithu mitcha peyrkaluku kodukkaamal ,avanukku kanndu arula pannathavarkal -papam unnuvathu pola..neeraadi vittu samaithu avanukku kanndarul panni vittu thaan sappidanum.. avan sappidaatha panndangalai  panna koodaathu..arul kidaithathaal punyam sapuduvathu pola..

3-13..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Those who prepare food from funds honestly acquired with the sole objective of worshipping the Supreme Lord Krishna who resides as the soul within themselves as well as within all the demi-gods and every living entity; and those who only partake of such duly consecrated food become absolved of all sins accumulated over iniquity subatomic and atomic impending the completion and fulfilment of self realisation of the atma or soul. But those sinful wretches who do not first offer to the Supreme Lord what was gifted to them and instead prepare and eat it appropriating it for theirselves verily eat only sin. The word agham meaning sin denotes their will be grave consequences for such sins. Ignorant of the path to atma-tattva or self realisation of the soul, such degraded persons perpetually eat sinful food insuring a hellish destination in their next life. It should be understood that everything is connected to yagna or worship in this world and the next, from both the point of view of sastra or Vedic scripture and from inference. It should also be clearly understood that the observance of yagna is essential for benefit and welfare of all mankind and that its omission purposefully or accidental is counter productive for the entire human race and is fraught with sinfulness and dire consequences.

..3-14 slokam.. 3-15 slokam.nallum vilavin oli ovaa.. vasantha udsavam kadaisi naal..vasantha manndabam..posedi mannthazlir nadai paathai kaveri thaay avan thiruvadikalai vilaakki konndu selkiraal..pala nalkal patta samaara veppam pohum. kuthirai vaahanam. chitrai veedi  valam vanthu vasantha manndabam vanthu erukiraan..namum anubavithu avanukkum samarpikanum..chakkaram pattri solikiraan.. gears pola.shrishti onntru onnum mattrai ethir paarthu erukkum..jeevarasikal vazla, annam veynndum..annam vazlara mazlai thevai..yagnathaal homathaal mazlai yerpadum.. devas anantham pattu kodupparkal…yagnam karmam seyal padu erunthaal nadakkum..karma udal erunthaal thaan panna mudiyum..udal azliyaatha atma ullathu..center of chakra yagjam..chakram namaku yentru yerpattathu.5-6 seykintra kidhi yelam yaane ennum..ellam avan enkiraar..we should play our part well in this game ..

3-14..There is no commentary for this verse.

3-15..There is no commentary for this verse.

..3-16 slokam..mudal alwar sanathi.dvarapa yugam 8 lakhs years back..muruhanndi maharishi edathil koodinaarkal thiru kovaloril..edar azlai neenga villakku yetrinaar.gjana sudar yetrinaar ..thiru kanndeyn enkiraar.our pulankal avanai thozlum vazlthum enkiraan..chakrathai pola..than pangukku suzlazla vidaathavan vazlvathey pazl enkiraan.ulaham namakka? namm ulahukka?. gramam muzluvathum veeddin suga thukkathil panngu pottunndu erukkum.. vasudeyva kudumbam.. namm panngu yennathu yentru therintu seyyanum kuttram paarkil suttram elai..udavikkonndu periya kudumbathil thiru maal thaayar appa yentru therinthu nadakkanum..developed countries develpoing countries udavathu pola..kariya kaarana roopamaana chakram..suzlalaathavanukku papamana aayusu kitum. enthirya ramanaha erukiraan. atma enbathukku varamaattaan..viruppu veruppu varum rajo damas gunam vazlarum..veenaana vaallkkai ..aduppu ammi kall ural ulakkai thudappam evaikal paapam panna vaikkum…. pancha paathangal  pancha maha yagnam ..nayy soru poduvathu – virunthu  poduvathu -pithru yagnam pannanum..

3-16..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..From food all creatures procreate and from rain food is produced. The whole world is witness to this. As for the evidence that yagna or worship causes rainfall sastra or the Vedic scriptures give proof. In Manu Samhita III.76 we find that oblations properly offered into the sacred fire ascend upwards to the sun, and from the sun rain clouds are produced. Actions such as earning funds are accomplished by the physical body when actions utilise such wealth following the prescribed injunction of the Vedas then the result is yagna. The word Brahma here denotes the universal body as an aggregate of all material particles. The word aksara means indestructible or imperishable in the verse brahma-aksara refers to the eternal jiva-atma, the individual soul. It is the jiva-atma who monitors the body and gives it consciousness and impels it nourish itself through food and water, fortifying it to engage in the prescribed actions of the Vedas. Hence the physical body which serves as the medium for actions is said to manifest from the all prevasive universal body of the Brahman. Thus the physical body itself is the essential item which every votary of yagna must possess and is the indispensable prerequisite for the performance of yagna.So from actions comes yagna, from yagna rain, from rainfall food and from food embodied beings. This cycle was set into motion by the Supreme Lord Krishna at the beginning of creation. This cycle is never ending and was designed to exist perpetually providing all necessities for the embodied beings allowing them to prosper and flourish, Whoever is born on this Earth whether they are performers of actions or contemplators of the ultimate truth, the Supreme Brahman; if they fail to adhere to and follow and adhere to this cycle leads a sinful life for the simple reason that they fail to even support and preserve their own embodied existence by sanctifying it with the daily food remnants eaten that was first offered in yagna.The word agha-ayuh means full of sin, this can be either that ones life is committed to making sins or that one is living a life perpetuated by sin or it can even mean both. In this way such a sinner becomes an indriyaramah or one who only seeks delights in the beguiling garden of the senses using their valuable human life only for the pursuit of pleasure, a slave under the control of sense delights. Therefore such a one never takes delight in the soul and is the antithesis of an atmaramah or one who delights in the garden of the atma or soul.Food eaten that was not first sanctified by being consecrated in yagna or offering of worship beforehand ignites rajas or passions in one and incites tamas or darkness of intellect. A person in whom these dispositions are prominent becomes hostile to achieving an even rudimental spiritual illumination let alone atma-tattva or self-realisation of the soul. Such a hostile person only finds pleasure in pursuing pleasure to gratify their senses.Blessed with the gift of a human body which is suitable for offering Divine worship in yagna and which therefore which must be nourished with sanctified food duly consecrated so ones actions fulfill there purpose. If one errs and fails to honour and respect this eternal cycle given in the Vedic injunctions, then all there hopes for spiritual realisation will not be fulfilled and all their efforts are destined to failure. There complete life was lived in vain.So from this it can be understood that the necessity for the actions of yagna as prescribed in the Vedic scriptures are essential and indispensable for the different varnas or castes and asramas or stages of society. Only that person who has attained moksa or complete liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material nature is under no obligation to in any way whatsoever to perform any activity due to the fact that the achievement of atma-tattva self-realisation of the soul has already been attained...3-17 slokam. danvanthiri sannathi..eranndu kaiyil sangu chakram valathu kaiyil amrutha kalasam edathu kaiyil attai pootchi..vaido naarayanan..aroghyathukku ..kuthirai, yaanai thaayar amudham varuvatharkku munbu danvanthari vanthaar ..brother and sister..attai potchi rana chitchai kku .uaramaana manndabam edu.. arangathin maruthuva manai edu.. sukku vellam kachaayam  ..garuda vahana panndithar erunthaar engey..atma sakshaharam petravanukku onnum panna veynndaam enkiraan entha moontru slokangalaal..rajo dama gunam thanndi viruppu veruppu apaarpattavanukku ethu vendaam..kaivalyaarthi pattri atmavai anubavikkum manithanai sollikiraan..atmavil edu pattu thirupthi adainthu atmavil mahizltchi adainthu erukiraan..rathi thirupthi santhuchti..daaraham boshaham boghyam.pola.ueir vaala valara anubavikka..pola.kudikkum thanner unnum unavu vethilai pochooduvathu santhanam ethu pola..saptham sparisa pesi roopa rasa gantham .etc dharagam.anna, variety foods,boshagam.yeedupaadu mudalil thirupthi aduthathil..kodaikaanal vethilai boghyam luxury.santhisham..rathi atma,thirupthi atma anubapathu, atma anubavathil mahizltchi..evan seyya veynniathu onntrum ellai.. 3-17There is no commentary for this verse. ..

Geetha Saaram 2-59 to 2-72

September 24, 2007

.2-59 slokam..vedam perumaiyai eduthu uraikum. alwar appadi mattum peysaamal ezliaven.. pattrudai adiyavrkalukku ezliyavan..gjana piran varaha perumaal garuda piran oru puram..thiru viruttam kadaisiyil yeenacha gjana piran allal enkiraar..meenaaha  kadalil erukiraar ..kormaavathaaram eduthu  manthra malai azluthum pothu thaanginaar..  vamana  avathaaram eduthu yemathuvaar.. narasimha, eranndu ramanaahaum nammbikai -kannan poyyey vadivaay–boomi piratti edarnthu eduthu varaaha perumaal thaan namakku yenkiraar..nangu samghaikalai paarthu midithom.. mukyamana slokam.59,60,61 slokams ..atma nilaiyai purinthaal pulankal adangum.. 60 pulangalaiadakinaal atma darisanam yerpadum ..ethu nadakkum yentru theriaa villai.. 61 vidaisollikiraan..atmavukku soru podaatha atmavukku ..pulangalai adakki vizhaya sugangal vilakki pohum..sittrinbam pohum..vaasanai suvadaium thavirrkanum..aasai virunthu pohum vaasanai erunthaal..loham vizhayangalin eruntha gjanam aanantham vadivedutha atma arinthaal antha asai vaasanai pohum..manasil uruthi konndu athan paal ezhlukka paduvom yentraal athin edam pohamal erukkanum..atma darisanam. unmaiyaana nilamai theinthaal.vasanaiyum vilahum..

2-59..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..Sensual objects of enjoyment are fuel for the senses. Lord Krishna states that the desire for these sensual objects departs when one starves them by restraining the senses from indulging in them. But although the action is restrained the craving remains subtly within the mind. Rasa is taste and raga is attachment. So the craving attachment for taste of sense objects remains present. However when the eternal nature of the soul is realised in all its glorious splendour and it is seen that it is infinitely more attractive than the most delightful sense object. At that time all desire for sense objects completely vanishes along with the residue of craving.

..2-60 slokam..navaratri manndabam..27 penn paasuram paadi erukiraar.. thaay- thozli -makazh paasuram.. 73 pathigam aanaaha paadinaar.. adyayana uthsavatil penn vesham enntrum unndu..atmavai ariya enna pannanum enkiraan arjunan..arivu buddhi evatrai purinthu kollanum..pulankal adangi atma daisanam. aanyonya asretha dosham. pithyam thezliya kalyanam.. kalyaanam pannittal paithyam thezliyum..pola..pahutu arivu konndu atmavai theriya muanntru.deham thaazlnthathu atma uarnthathu yentru pahuthu therinthavan..balavaana pulankal..manasai thangal valliyey ezluthu kollum..ull nila eivarudan niruthu- 7-1 nannmuhan nootranthaathi..evvavulahil maayan.oolamittu erukiraar alwar..yemma veedu paasuram..oru mudalai piditha yaanaiyai kakka odinaay ennai eppo einthu mudalaikalidam erunthu kaakka  odi vaa enkiraar..kovil panni seyyum nammul sanndai padavi poraattam.pulankal paduthum paadu..pulangal kattu paduthuvathu kashtam yentru sollukiraan..garudanum pannbai sappida pasi kobam pattu keyllvi keyttar..

2-60..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Until and unless self-realisation is attained by direct soul cognition the cravings and attachments for sensual experiences will never entirely cease to exist subtly or physically. The concerted exertions of even the persevering yogi can all be to no avail against the restless and powerful senses of which any one of them can forcibly decoy the mind astray. Thus the conquest of the senses is ultimately dependent upon realisation of the eternal soul and the perception of the soul is dependent upon control of the senses. Thus Lord Krishna alludes to the difficulty there is in striving for soul cognition following jnana-nishta by knowledge only.

..2-61 slokam..vadakku karaiyil puliamarathin adiyil erukkum alwar..8vathu thirunaal. appankovil ..avathaaram yerpattathu..mangalasasanam manndapam..5 naal thirunaal uthsavam engey vanthu kaalai thirumanjanamm ..eravu 11pm garuda sevai..hamsa vahanam alwar. danda naarkaaliyil madurakavi alwar..6am varai sevai..vidai koduthu araiar thazlathil esali kooti paaduvaar..padalai pettru konndu pohirarkal..veethi perumai -muni -naay kathai..vaykkum naykum paramapadam azlithaay entha peyykum edam kodu yentru alwarai keyttaar..manasil ulla rajo tamas gunam kurainthal pulankal kattu padutha mudiyum..siruthazlavu adakki yennidam layithu vazlvaay yenkiraan..kovil sentru satva gunathai vuarthikanum..pancha sakti mayam avan…avan vasapatta namathu enthirangal nilaikki nirkkum..pulankal avan paal layithaal atma dairsanam kittum enkiraan….

2-61..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Whosoever would wish to succeed in overcoming the dichotomous difficulty by the mutual inter-relating dependence of sense control and soul cognition as delineated previously, must certainly master the senses. Which due to their constant craving for pleasure are extremely troublesome to govern. Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord is instructing to make Him the sole object of ones meditation and thus become established in undisturbed serenity in the ultimate reality. When our minds have been evolved to realising Lord Krishna as the supreme absolute reality all impurities are eradicated and the mind is purified and clear, free from all desires. Now at this stage for the first time the mind is free from all desires. The mind along with the senses completely under control is then capable of achieving cognition of the eternal soul. In the Vishnu Purana XI.VII.LXXIV beginning yatha adniruddhata-sikhah it is written that as a blazing fire fanned by blowing wind burns up dry wood; in the same way Lord Krishna enthroned in the heart burns up all sins of those who link their individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness in soul cognition. Spiritual intelligence is confirmed in those whose senses are under control. But it must be noted that unless devotion has developed for the Supreme Lord Krishna, whosoever attempts to master the senses by their own might and self effort are all destined to failure.

..2-62,2-63 slokams  ..therkku 3 vadakku karaiyil 5 divya desam..tholai villi mangalam erattai thirupathi…aravinda lochanan deva piraan..moolavar aravinda lotchanan.senthaamarai kannan uthsavan..asvini theerthamm karun thadam kanni thaayaar..nayagi paavathil paadukiraar..sinthaiyum seyalum avanidam vaikkanum..vidai pettru pohum pothu -erattai pallanndu petru -kann parvai varai alwar paarthu konnduay eruppaar..lakkika vaithathaal pulankal kattu pattana. avan meyl .ninaikkathu erunthaal vizhangalil konndu..athil patru yerppattu nasai siruthazlavu asai. kollunthu vittu kamam adainthu  aaha veynndum yennum peraasai yerppadum.. adaiyaavitaal kobamaha uru maarum..abi jayathey azlavilla kobam yenkiraan..ramaney ..poondeydodu azlippeyn yenkiraan kobathodu ..kobathaal guruvaiyum kolluvaarkal.. kobam vanthaal -sam moham- thadumaari padattam varum -pahuth arivu poyidum.. our gjanamum marakukirom..thodangina kaaryam maranthu puththi tholainthu pohum. atma swaroopam pohum.. kaama krodangalil edu pattu nasikirom enkiraan..

2-62..There is no commentary for this verse.

2-63..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna is explaining that one whose cravings for sensual objects linger, the effort to overcome the senses without focusing the mind on the Supreme Lord is futile. This is due to the fact that without the Supreme Lords grace the residue of past sensual activities and the pleasure or frustration derived therefrom will delude the mind to pursue sense objects. This debilitating effect creates a magnetic attraction where the desire for sense objects becomes more and more extreme. From this extreme desire springs kama lust. Lust is the next stage of desire. Lust is that which one feels when they thinks that they cannot exist without their desire being gratified. From lust springs krodha anger. Krodha is that frustrated outraged one feels against that which stands in the way of obtaining the gratification of ones senses. From krodha arises sammoha bewilderment and delusion which is the mental condition where one is no longer cognisant of what action should be performed and what action should not be performed. One will foolishly do anything in this condition. Thereafter comes dementia causing loss in memory of the process one began in order to constrain the senses and control the mind. From dementia comes loss of will power, one no longer has the drive and incentive to cultivate themselves towards obtaining spiritual realisation of the eternal soul. When this happens then one perishes their spiritual opportunity being drowned again and again in samsara the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence.

..2-64 slokam..devar piran sannathi therkey erukku..munivar davam erunthu. havis kodukka uthavunaal deva piraan uthsavar …srinivasan moolavar..pushpangal konndu varuvaar..azlahu paarthu erunthaar..sennthaamara yodu meenndum seyvai saathikiraar aeravinda lotshanaaha..sinthaiyaalum seyykaiyaalum sollalum deva piranai adainthathai paadukiraar..nammalwar arangam senntru athyana uthsavam.. masi madam swati anusham visagam erattai thirupathiel nadakkum..engu vanthu pinbu alwar thirunagari ponaar..ninaippavanaikku yenna peru kittum ..manasil ulla satva gunam valara thodanngum..ahara suddhi..raha dvasham kuraiyum..raham ethirparkkum aasai..dvesham..venndiyavarkal nallathu panninaalum yettru kolla maattom..atmavin vasam einthirankal kattu padil varum.. viruppu veruppu vilahanum yenkiraan..manasum adangi pohum..thellivu varum.. atma daisanam kittum..ninaikka ninaikka eppadi vuarvom yentru kattu kiraan..eiyappadu than meyl aanddan ..arangan yentru alwar sonnathu pola..

2-64..Ramanuja’s commentary..

..Previously in verse 61 Lord Krishna has declared that who ever meditates exclusively on Him as the Lord of all, being the soul within all hearts, then by this all impurities are eradicated and the mind becomes clear, expunging all desires. Here he says that the senses become destitute and barren of all cravings and aversions when they are mastered by the mind in this manner. Rejecting all desires for sensual objects with a mind firmly under control, one achieves lucidity of mind along with inner purity and blissfulness.

..2-65 slokam..appan kovil yennum edathil avatharithaar alwar..thiruvengadathu appan..manasu thezlivu adainthathum.thukkangal vilahum..yenna thodarbu?..manasu thezlivu adainthavan puththi nilai perum..sthipa brahjnan aahiraan..atma darsanam thaan putti nilai erukkum thanmai..bakti yogam pinbu thodangalaam..bakti pannithaal thukkam kaliyum..naduvil ulla eanndu padikalaiyum sollukiraan engey..1.perumaanai ninaithal2.rajo gunam kuraiyum 3. viruppu veruppu neenguvathu4. einthariangal vasa padum.5.manasu kattu paattukkul varum.6. manasu thezlivu..7.bakti yogam 8. thukkam pohum ..mudal padiyil kalai vaithaal pothum –ella edathilum athuvey koottinndu pohum..govindaa nama sangeerthanam panninndu seyvippathu pola..nezl kadal sool.vali ninna vall vinai pohum yentru alwar sonnathu pola.. 

2-65..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna now explains that when the mind is placid and pure it has enacted for itself the cessation of all miseries arising from conjunction with prakriti materialism. Prasanna-chetah refers to that delightful one whose mind is expunged of all impediments that hinders it from realising the eternal soul while bestowing the spiritual intelligence needed for illumination. Thus when the mind has been purified all sorrow is terminated.

..2-66 slokam.thiru kulanthai or perm kulam or then kulanthai..perm kulam ullathu..veda saaram munivar kumudavalli puthra..kamalavathi yenntru magal.thiru maarbudan naatchiarai serthu konndaan..garudan sinna uthsavarum ullaar..manavaiyai sirai vaithaar garudan meyl senntru asuranail nadanam. maya koothan..then kulanthai vann kudavaa ninna maya koothan  paasuram..55 mudal pulanakalai adakku vathu pattri sollukiraan..yuktan.avanidam putthi seluthinavan. ayuktan putthi ellathavan..atma darisanam kittathu..atma pattri sinthanai erukkaathu..yen ninanaithu pokkuveer eppothu.paasuram..shanti yerpadaathu atma sinthainai ellathavanukku..shanti is not amaithi..aasai einmai thaan shanti..atmavai pattri ninaikka ninaikka asai arum..nimmathi varum..asai inmai ellamal erunthaal moksham kittathu..ashtaanga yogam..aasanam pranayamam .pryatagaram thyaanam .daranam- asai ellamal eruppathu.-.samati.-motsham..

2-66..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..One who is unable to concentrate and focus their mind in meditation on Lord Krishna is known as ayukta devoid of spiritual intelligence. One who attempts to control their senses by their own efforts without securing the grace of the Supreme Lord merited by devotion. To these living entities no clear, definitive illumination in consciousness can develop; ergo , because one will not be able to internally realise the ultimate reality of the Supreme Lord through the medium of the eternal soul as having name, form, qualities, pastimes, abode and sweetness. Thus without being able to comprehend and contemplate on the nature of the eternal soul there can be no tranquillity. Nor is it possible to dispel the compulsive urge and inclination to experience sensual objects. To those who are not tranquil, who are addicted to sensual objects and who are submerged in sense gratification; how can they ever possibly attain eternal blessedness and transcendental bliss. Again as stated previously are the disastrous consequences that result in the inability to govern the tempestuous senses.

..2-67 slokam..periya kulam..thiruvadikku aruhil ulla kulam..seshtitha acaryam gunathai kattinaan viyaappaana thiruvilayadalai kattinaan..nava thirupathi ontrontrum oru gunangalai kaattum  alwaruku..pulankal ontrai thaan grahikum.. nam avanpakallil pulankalai seluthanum..entha manasu enthirangalai pin thodarnthu sentraal…kanndu keyttu nuharnthu ..roopam vasanai vizhayangal..pora vehathil manasaium ezluthu kondu pohum…atmavai ninaikkum puthi poey vidum..oru samayathil palathai ninaithaal kuzlapam..thanneril padahu  ethir kaathaal thathalikum pola..pulankal ethir kathu pola ..manasaium abaharikkum yenkiraan..kaathai niruthinaal padagu thathazlikaathu..athai niruthum avanathu thiruvadikalai pattru yenkiraan..kudamaadu koothan..varaayo yennarkku ..manamara koothaadi makizlnthaay.thirumadalil…parai kalanga koothadinaan.nann mattum arangathai vidaamal eruntheynn..manasumm kannum koothaadi pinney poey viddathu yenkiraar..sellkintrathu yen nenjamey sanginodum. nammalwarum.alwar sonnathu pola..avan thiruvilaiyaadalai ninaithaal pulankal adangum..

2-67..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..When the senses are rambling about in pursuit of their delights and one allows their mind to follow in hot pursuit after them, then the mind will be deprived of its inherent intelligence and will completely forget all the things that lead to ones highest good. Instead of inducing a strong will to pursue spiritual development one will develop a strong will for sensual enjoyment. Thus Lord Krishna gives this fitting analogy of a ship in the ocean being tossed about violently hither and thither by tempestuous winds. The conclusion of this rational is explained in the next verse.

..2-68 slokam..thiruperai7-3-1 paasuram then thiruperai..mahara nedum kulai kaathar..thiruperai natchiaar kuzlak kathu natchiaar nanngu. sowndrayam katti koduthaar. 10 paasuram..sri devi boo devi..kidanthi ninntru nadanthi kilarnthu eduthunazlanthu kaadal boo deikooda.. sri devi nanjathil thaan vaithu erukiraan..druvaasar kobam..sivantha meyni ellam ..karumpatchai varnam pohividum.boomi piraatti vanthu..peram sareeram thiru vinsareerathai boomi piraatti tharithathal peyar yerpattathu..thiru per nagar arangam.so then thiru perai yerpattathu..kaadu kappukal ani kalankal maharam ponntru neenndu erunthathu..masya pushkarani..perumaan nangu natchiarudan amarntha thiru kolam..avan azlahil enthiriangalai seluthinaal pulankal adangum enkiraan..manasu puthi nilai perum..atmavin unnmai nilaimai purinthu koolkiraan..thyaanathil atma darisanam kidaikkum..namathu varying rusiyai thirupti padutha 108 divya desam various nilalkalilum sevai saathikiraan..azlahil edu pattu uttraaraivittu nenjaium vittu vittar..pulankal ovuontrum avan kittey poey thirummbi varaamal manasum avan adi seyrnthathu.

2-68..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Therefore in the way that it has been definitively expounded by Lord Krishna, whosoever achieves communion with Him the most exalted reality for meditation will surely in every way have their senses abstracted and completely oblivious to the objects of the senses. Thus so qualified to them will come installation of wisdom and so established they will become fit to attain the eternal soul. The achievement of one who has subjugated their senses and whose mind is situated in sublime serenity is discussed in the next verse.

…2-69 slokam..vilva maram sthala virusham.. garudan othungi katchi azlikiraar.. vellai suri sangi..pul.garuda sevai alwar ullathil nadanthathaam..parama padathaiyum paarkadalum periya edamaaha karuthaamal nenjathai neezl nagaraha konndaan..garudauthsavam mukiyam evv vooril.. vedam oliyum  vizlavin oliyum pillaikal villaiyaadum oliyum.kadatchikka garudan  thalli erukiraan..nenjathil garuda sevai yentru ninaithaal kuppaikalai ahatri eruppathu pola mattra vizhayangalain pinbu pohaamal erukkanum..atma gjanathukku yenna palan yentru sollukiraan.miha vuyarntha nillai solukiraan..70 nadu 71 kadaisi ..solukiraan..pahal orutharuku eravu silarkku kakkay kottan pola..pulankalai adakinavanukku pahal .adakkathavanakku eravu..evanuku eravu avanukku pahal..sarva boodaanaam -pulankalai adakkathavarkaluku atma sinthanai eravu..puriaathu..eravu enbathu oli ellamai theriaathathu enkiraan..jaggarthi vilippu udauyavanuku pahal..vizlippudan ullaha vizhayathil erukkum makkal .pulankalai adakkinavan ethil eravaaha erukkum..munivan pola yenkiraan.. ethvum kannil padaathu …

2-69..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna is explaining that realisation of the soul is like the darkness of night to all conditioned living entities. Being that the wisdom of soul cognition does not shine forth unto them who pursue sensual objects being likened to the darkness of night. But that understanding of the soul for the realised being who have subjugated their senses is lucidly awake in this night and sublimely aware remaining focused on the bliss of the eternal soul. Whereas those of mundane understanding who occupy their existence awake to the pursuits of sensuous delights in this darkness of night are asleep to the reality of soul cognition. Sensual pursuits are not appealing to one situated in soul cognition.

..2-70 slokam..vellai. suri sangodu azli yenthi  thaamarai kannan. yenkiraar..sangu munnal sonnaar thamarai kanna kooti. sangodu chakarai pangaya kannan yentru andal. udal 10 kazluthu ontrualwarkaluku. avan vaay amudhu petravan sangatharaiyaa yun selvam sala siranthathu..karpooram naarumo..azli eppothaavathu kolla pirinthu pohum  evan piriyamaataar  sappida vaay amudam kidaaka avan kai yentru eppothum..thaamarai soorian uthikkum pothu malarum..valaikann  soorianai paarthu malarum edathu sangai paarthu moodum..sooriya chandrakal pola chakram sangu..entha perumaalai ninainthu konndu erukkanum..thiru ellaraiyilirunthu paandiya mannan 108 perai kooti vanthaan. oruvaraaha avaney erunthaan..vizhayangal padamal eruppathu vuarntha nilai… pattalum athu kanndu vihaaram maaruthal adaiyaamal erukkanum. prahalaadan pammbai adiseshan yentrum  malai govardanam yentrum  kadalil azluthum pothu  paarkadal yentrum  miha vuarntha nilaiyil erunthaan..vihaarathai mattum thavirkka solukiraan..baathikkathu erukkanum. vizham sappittalum atmaa azliyathu yenru erupathu amutham yentru ninaikaittaalum..kadal nadhikal serkintrana..sernthathaal kadal nirainthathaa? earghaiyaal nirainthu erunthu.thanner sernthathaal maaruthal adaiyaamal erukkum kadal neerpola..kaamangalum manithanin ulley senntru sernthathaal, yerkaneyvey manasu nirainthu..adiyavarkku utava muyal meyl kobam kondathu pola antha vihaaram padanum..namakku yentru vanthaal vihaaram adaiya koodaathu..pattratta thanmai erukkanum..

2-70.Ramanuja’s Commentary..

The ocean is full unto itself and always maintains the same form even though countless rivers enter into it. Whether the rivers enter or do not enter, the ocean is unaffected and undergoes no difference. Similarly when the senses of one in transcendent meditation come in contact with sense objects such as sound and it enters into the sense vector of hearing and is apprehended by the ears such a one still remains peaceful and maintains an equipoise state of consciousness. In other words the sublime satisfaction derived from direct soul cognition precludes any disturbance from the senses or agitation towards sense delights. Whether sense objects are experienced by the senses or not experienced by them one in transcendent meditation will not be affected and will not be subject to any disturbance. But Lord Krishna is saying that this state can never be attained by one who is kamakana full of lascivious desires or is controlled by the same, for such a being can never achieve peace.

. 2- 71slokam.bhoomi paalan..kasini veyndan… entru alwar padukiraar..sri devi, poo devi kaalai varudindu erukirarkal. kooppittu ennaium kainkaryathukku azlaikka veynndum enkiraar..vadi ella paasuram..kodin vinai ahatri kainkaryam panna prarthikiraar..muartchi thodangu kiraan.ethu namum pannalam..69, 70 mel padikal  konnjam kashtam…asai tholaithu nirmaha nir ahankaraha.. ennathu ennaamal…mudalil ahangaram ellamal,.karvam neekanum..ahamgharam- dehathi aham enntru ninaippathu..nanay udal enntru ninaithu eruppathu ahankaaram..nir mahankaaram.. ethuum ennathu entru ellamal eruppathu adutha step.. asaikalai vilakki ..vizhayathil ulla aasai thurakka veunndum..athma darisanam kittum…thiruvadikalai seyvikka prakaarathil jannal vaithu erukirarkal..koopidu thooram.koovuthal varuthal seyyathey entru padinaar.. farmer’s daughter informs Ramanujar about this koopidu thooram..asanga karma yogam.. pattru attra palanil aasai ellamal ennuthu ennum yennam ellamal nann seykireyn entru ninaikkaamal..mudalil atma darsanan.. 7th adhyayathil  paramatma adaivathai sollukiraan..atma darsanam kidaithaal thukkam attru pohum..antha kalathilaavathu karma yogathai seyya veynndum yenkiraan..yenakkaaha seyyamal samudayathukku ubayohamaaha yethai seyythaalum karma yogam thaan..vallum vallkkai than namakku kalam..saval- challenge- enntrum kachtam enntru ennamal ellarukkum nannmai seyya veynndum…karma gjana yogam seyythu atma darisanan kidaitha pinnbu atmaavai adimaiyaha konnda avanai therinthu kolla .bakti yogam 7-9 adyayathil solukiraan..erandavathu adyayam 11 slokathilurinthu ari urai thodankukirathu..arjuna soha pattu mudail sollukiraan…atma nithyam entru mudalil solli kodukiraan..38 slokathilurinthu  52 varai karma yogam solukodukiraan..pattru attra karma yogam pattri sonnan..53- nirmalamana manathal gjana yogam pannalam enkiraan..54 arjunan gjana yogathai pattri kettan..55-72 varai sollukiraan..devasarma kathai mitravaan edaiyan–santhi ullavan..durmathan kadaimai seyyamal .vesi thodarbu konndu thavaraana valkkai.. pisasu adu puli..puli thodarnthu antha adai mattum pattri..kovil vasal vanthathum.. pona janmathaal kathai sollithaam.erandavathu adyathu oli reengarithu gjanam vanthathaam….perumaikal kittum enkiraar.varaguna mangai vijayaasanar kovil..edar kadivaan ennum peyar..bogya patha ..ninntru konnu, erunthu konndu,paduthu konndu..pakkuvam baktham nilaai adainthaan enntru ..wait panni nammalwarai ethirparthu erunthaan..thezlintha pin sinthai entru paadukiraar moontru divya desathaiyum.

2-71..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

The word kamas means desires or those things which one wishes to enjoy such as taste or touch. Lord Krishna is instructing that whoever can relinquish these desires is free from craving, free from my-ness the conception that these things are mine and free from I-ness, my-ness and the conception that I am this body. Such a one not bewildered does misidentify the physical body as being the soul, rather such a one perceives the soul and attains peace.

2-72..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

Lord Krishna concludes chapter two by revealing the state of consciousness achieved by one who performs all actions unattached and equipoised based on knowledge of the eternal nature of the immortal soul. This process has for its goal the attainment of transcendent meditation. It is brahmi or that which leads to brahma the ultimate truth. Knowing the philosophy of actions are like this, one will no longer be subject to bewilderment and delusion. The results of this are one will no longer be compelled to enter samsara the endless cycle of birth and death in the mirage of material existence. If one begins this process with determination even in old age one will have the opportunity to attain cognition of the eternal soul within and brahma-nirvana final liberation from the material existence.Thus in this second chapter one who is not knowledgeable about the exact nature of the soul, or how by performing ones prescribed duties unattached can lead to liberation, or how by the misconception of identifying oneself as the physical body one will not be properly situated and how by the process of sankhya in jnana-yoga teaching the knowledge of the eternal nature of the soul as well as in karma-yoga performing all activities with unattachment leads one to the consciousness state of transcendent meditation.The following doctrine is what is summarised in chapter two: 1) That the immortal soul is eternal.2) All activities should be performed as a matter of duty devoid of desire for reward.3) One who is spiritually intelligent of illuminated consciousness understands that through either jnana-yoga or karma-yoga the goal of transcendent meditation can be attained.

These three spiritual truths have been revealed in the second chapter of the Bhagavad-Gita for curing ignorance and dispelling delusion.

Thus ends the Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya commentary to Srimad Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter Two entitled Sankhya Yoga: The Eternal Reality of the Souls Immortality by Ramanuja Acarya.

Geetha Saaram 2-42 to 2-58.

September 24, 2007

2-42 slokam..thiuvellarai pundareekaatchan..uyyak konndaar, engal alwan avatharitha edam.. soorian chandran saamaram veesa veetrintha kolam..thaayar  thaan munnamy elluwaar tholukku enianil. ..uthsavathil..sri devi eth -thiruthalam.. boomi piraati srivilli putur, neeladevi thiru naraiyoor natchiar kovil…pangaya chelvi thaayar  davam erunthu ..senthamarai kannanaha sevai sathithaan..2-43, 2-44 moontrum ..aasaikal entha ulahathukku sugathukku ..sappadu thuni veedu vanndi books stamps pala aasaikal erukalaam..mudal nilai..atma veyru entru therinthathum swargathil aasai varum..third step punyam theernthathum thirumbi varanum ..meenndu varaatha meezlaatha enbam. motsham aasai ..mudal eranndum onney thaan.. motshathil aasai vaithu karma panninaal avanathu arulaal entha ulaha enbamum kidaikkum..nell kuthuvathu  namakku vervai varathukka? arisi edukkavaa? by-product pola entha loham enbamum kidaikkum enkiraan..ethai thinna pitham thezlium yentru erukkamal..uyarntha lakshiam kidaika muantraal ellam kidaikkum pola motsham nokki karma panna veynndum enkiraan.2-43 slokam..engal alwan enntru bagavaney anubavithaar.. ramanujarum.. nadathoor aamal evar sishyar.. varada chariaar ear peyar kanchi varadan kodutha peyer..engal alwan vishnu puranathukku urai .ammal acharyan enntrum uuyakondarin peyar evarkal vamsam –enntrum thiruvellarai kovil muraikalai evarkal thaan  paarthu konndu erukiraarkal..kriyaa viseshathukku , ..nilaiaatravaikal .namm avanukku sothu..thanmaikku virotham ellathavai  seyya veynndum..alwarum ethai vida paadinaarkal..appothu thaan pori thattinaal pola namakku katacham kittum..anu sakti nallathaa? theeyathaa?namm seyyum karmakalum eranndu side..perumaalum thoon vasalil ula karkkal.– eranndum orey porulil aanathaalum..samskaaram panni aavaahanam panni perumaal aavathu pola..karma pannum pothu thazllntha palan nokki panninaal vasalil ulla kal pola..puthi yai oru nilai paduthi motsham nokki ellam avanukkukaha pannuvathey lakshiamaaha kollanum..atmavin eyarkkai motsham entru therinthu kondu karma yogam panna veynndum yenkiraan..

2-42..There is no commentary for this verse.

2-43..There is no commentary for this verse.

..2-44 slokam..mannu thiruvellaraiyay.. kappidu paasuram pathigam..perialwar..varaha avathaaram. sibi chakravarthy. vellai panntri odi marainthathu -malaiku meyl yeri sattentru .markendeyar..palal abishegam seyythu ..pundareekatchanaaha katchi koduthaar.. 3700 vaishnarvaikalai konndu vanthunkovil kattinaar..oruvar eranthathum.. avaney oru vaishnavanaha vanthaanaam.. vimala thosham attra vimaanam.. pali peedam abishegam pannuvaarkal. padma varaha pushkarani unndu… ulaha aasaikalukaaha pannum karma yogiaal  atma swaroopa .nitchaya puthi manasil  ezlithaaha varaathu..vedam pala vizhayangal sollum. putra kamoshti yaagam etc..ethellam verumpoo poothaal pola palam varaatha maram pola..perumaal aaradanathukku yetra .thulasi sediyum krotans sediyum azlagukaka vaipathu ..poorva uttara baagam..eranndum uunndu.. upanishad brahmaththai mattum pesum…

..2-43,2-44  slokam…davam eruntha kinaru..poon kinaril davam ..eruntha vaalliyey..soda giri thiru vellutha malai ..aasaikal mihunthu aasaikal pala pattu janmam thaan palanaaha kidaikkum..swargathil thalai kupra thalli viduvaarkal punyam mudinthathum..eppo thalluvaarkalo entru kavalai thaan minnjum…motsham nokki karma pannanum enkiraan…shrathai ..malaiyaaha (atma) keella vanthu nell soru aahi garga..five stages ..chakram sullantru konndu erukkum..veda nool .. adalaal piravi veynndeyn entru alwar sonnathu pola..janma karma palam..karma and janmam.vidai -sedi -maram-palzam-vidai pola..piraviaal paapam punyam athanaal piravi..atma nithyam.. aanathi kaalamaay karma seythu piranthu meenndum karma panninndu erukiraan..kamathil aasai poo poothaapola pesuvathu..avan thiruvadikal thaan namakku uppayam uppeyam entru erukanum..

2-44..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The word puspitam meaning flowery, or that whose fruit is no more than the flower itself and therefore although flowery language may be pleasant to hear it is merely a superficial pleasure in the same way it is pleasant to gaze upon a flower but what is actually gained from it is negligible. Thus those of little understanding lacking spiritual intelligence discourse on that which concerns the acquisition of power and wealth.The words veda-vada-ratah defines those who are addicted to the specific sections of the Vedic scriptures which prescribe activities to receive rewards like celestial worlds with heavenly delights.The words anyad astiti vadinah defines those who contend that no higher goal exists beyond the heavenly planets.The word kamatmanah defines those whose minds are always seeking enjoyment engrossed in material sense gratification.The words svarga-parah defines those whose attention is always focused on attaining enjoyments in the heavenly worlds. The words janma-karma-phala-pradam defines that which relates to activities which would result in being born again into the material existence due to having to accept the rewards of one’s past actions.The word kriya-visesha-bahulam defines those discussions regarding the manifold rites and rituals required to be performed successfully in order to aquire opulence and power.To those then who are addicted to wealth and power. To those whose light of understanding is dimmed. To those who are captivated by the thought of obtaining opulence and power and are raptly interested in the discussion of all subjects related to acquiring opulence and power; then no determined resolve as that which is mentioned in verse 41 will be able to manifest in their minds.The word samadhi is a permanent meditative state of mind and when achieved it can be likened to the mind for the mind is where spiritual knowledge is collected, contemplated and comprehended and where consciousness of a superior nature is attained. This is indicated by the word samadhiyate a derivative of the root word samadhi. The understanding is that at no time ever does spiritual knowledge come to those whose minds are engrossed in mere desire for wealth and power. The conviction one has to obtain temporal material objects is not of the same quality as the conviction one has who is determined to free themselves from the material existence forever. All activities for them either practical or esoteric are but the means to accomplish this goal and attain salvation and hence those who have qualified in this way are very careful not to connect themselves with any kama-karmas or actions which bring rise to carnal desires so as not to cause any impediments in their spiritual progress.In this respect some may wonder why do the Vedic scriptures which emphasise the souls salvation as paramount, busy themselves with lengthy expositions concerning such rites and rituals which will produce only temporal and material results which definitely lead to rebirth as well. The answer to this will be given in the very next verse…2-45 slokam.thirumadalil seeraar thiruvengadam..vellaraiyey vehhaavey..markenteyyan guhai erukku marathin binbu..pundareekatchan purushothaman..thirukannkal alarntha thaamarai othathu..kamalak kannan yen kannin ullaan entrathu pola..arulaal geethai puriya vaikiraan..mandi paay. venkada maa malai..nammalai thaan kurangu enkiraar…paasyram..namathu swaapathai sollukiraar..sinna aasaikalai keyttu avanum koduppan adutha dadavai nalla manasu vanthu nammai keyppan yentru..pathi vilai.100, 70, 0 eranndu kettpaananai pola..agni porumyentru sollaamal eruppathu pola. nammum porum yentru manam ellamal ..bogam enbam athikamaanaal. atma gjanam ellaamal piravisulalil eruppom enkiraan....2-45 slokam.udaiyavar.eranndu udamaiyai rengan koduthu..raamaanujar thiruvellaraiyil erunthaar..rengathukku vara try panninaarkal..araiyar swami pattal yeerkka pattu atharkku kattu pattu sentraar..kaamya karmangal vedam solli erunthaalum..kannan eppo athai viddudo enkiraan..why?…vedam poyy sellumaa?..vedam mukkanathavarukum upadesakkum..nee satva gunavaanaaha erukka veynndum..mannai thinnum pillaiyai thettrum thaay pola.. anumathikiraapola vittuttu thiruthuvaal..nammbikkai vara vedam valli solli kattukirathu…motsham aasai vara siruthu siruthu payankalai koduthu...2-45 slokam..chakra theertham swastik vadivathil.nangu pakam padi thuraikal.maha kramaha ennum thirunaamam sahasranamavil unndu..ontru ontruaaha koduthu namathu nammbikkaiyai vallarkiraan..mittay koduthu kulanthaiyai palli sella pola..otta panthayam. valliyil ullavarkal adaravu theertham vangindu vettriyil kuriyaaha selluvaan pola nammum lakshim nokki sellanum..jeyikkum pothu vaalthuvaarkal thorkkum pothu ..eranndaiyum porut paduthaamal erukkanum..erattai attravanaaha erukkanum  vettri tholvi etc..erattai ellam entha loham vallvatharkkaha..samsaaraithai thaanndi erattaikalaium thaanndi erukkanum..rajo tamo gunam thavirthaal ethu easy..theendaamal erukkalaam.. sugam thukkam varuvathai thadukka mudiaathu..satva gunam valara erattaikal thaakkaathu…satva gunathai vallarthu rajo damo gunathai kuraithaal  ethy easy..lokashema atma vaaha erukkanum..atmavai thavira ethin melum aasai vaikaathey..aahaara suddhi veynndum satyam gunam vazlarka.2-45..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Here we see the word traigunya indicating the three qualities of material nature being goodness, passion and ignorance. This term refers to the three groups of living entities characterised under the influence of these three aforementioned qualities. If the Vedic scriptures did not address these three classes according to their predilections by prescribing the appropriate method for attainment of the heavenly spheres, then those living entities under the influence of passion and ignorance would be adverse to goodness unwittingly hindering their own progress. Also they would be in the dark as to how to advance themselves from their present position and being lost compounded by being full of desires they would fall into degradation falsely fancying it to lead the way to their goal; and in vain they would be ruined. Hence the Vedic scriptures contain all that the three classification of living entities possessing different qualities could desire. But ideally one should free themselves from passion and ignorance and devote oneself to increasing the quality of goodness fully. This increase should be pure without any dilution of passion and ignorance all intermixture should be fully purged. The word nirdvandvah means free from duality, devoid of any influence of material nature. Nitya-sattva-sthah is one who is ever wedded to increasing goodness without any trace of passion and ignorance. How is this to be accomplished? By being nir-yoga-ksema meaning one is completely unconcerned about acquiring any other advantage apart from the realisation of the soul and the means to effect that end. By this method one becomes atmavan or established in the soul. If one conducts oneself in this manner and remains fixed, the influence of passion and ignorance will cease and goodness will become predominant.

..2-46 slokam..vishnu chittar .chitrai rohini natchatram, nadaathoor amal ..amal acharyan thiruvamsam enntrum .. kanjiel erunthu nadathor ammal sri baashyam kattukka vanthaar.nann varadacharyar entru.. nann sethathum vaa yentraar..ahangaaram ozlinthu entraar..adiyen vanthu erukireyn yentraar..param porulukku adimai yentru erukanum..pala dadavai sonnal thaan erukkum aasai valarkkaamal eruppom..gangai pala padi thuraikal..paladara pattavarkal eranguvaarkal. mudiyum azlavu thaan thanneer paruguvaarkal…vedam nangu yuga makkalukum sollum..arjunaai motshathil kuriyaaha sandhai poda sollukiraan..thanakku veynndiathai mattum vedathilirunthu eduthu kolanum enkiraan..motshathukku virithiana aasaikal vida veynndum..

2-46.. Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..It must be understood that not everything written in the Vedic scriptures is necessary for all the three classifications of living entities. Some injunctions apply only to those possessing qualities of passion and ignorance and some apply only to those solely possessing the qualities of goodness. Lord Krishna gives the example here that just as a great reservoir of water answers the purpose of a well and when water is flowing to the brim on all sides there is only a small amount required to one thirsty to allay their thirst in the same way only that much need be taken from the Vedic scriptures as may be required. Hence it can be clearly ascertained that from all the Vedic scriptures only that which leads to the realisation of the Ultimate Truth needs to be chosen by those who are in complete knowledge. What is then necessary for one in goodness aspiring for this is revealed in the next verse

..2-47 slokam..pillai lohachariaar..othaikadai yaanai malaiadivaaram jothish kodi..1323 padaiyeduppu..malai kuhaiyai therntheduthu namm perumaalai kathu erunthaar..thiruvarasu..veda narayana perumaal sevai..48 years namm perumaalum . 47 slokam ellorukkum therintha slokam…karmanye..akarmanee..karmaavai seyvaay.payangalai ethirparrkaathey enkiraan..kadaimaiyey seyvathey unakku adikaaram.. palanukualin meyl adikaaram ellai..seyal pattin palankalukku ethir parrthu karmaa pannaathey . .seyal enmai koodaathu..kadaimaiyil erunthu vilaha koodaathu..uarntha palanaaha paramatmavai mattum kurikolaaha vaikkanum enkiraan…karmavai avan krubhaiyaal pannuvathaha ninaikanum..nann entha palanukku kaaranam yentru ninaikka koodaathu.

2-47..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna that for one who is fixed in goodness, whose sole aim is for liberation; the routine of performing daily duties, occasional duties and fruit bearing duties should be performed automatically and whatever recompense assigned to each of them should not be hankered for desiring rewards and benefits or else it becomes fruitive. The desire for reward and benefits has a binding effect keeping one bound in the material existence. But free from these impediments the same action performed as worship to the Supreme Lord becomes the veritable means to secure liberation. Therefore be devoid of motive for actions nor desire to reap the reward from actions. Though all living entities are acting their part in this world, those who are situated in goodness aspiring for liberation are considered not to be entangled as so. It can be understood that when one eats the hunger one had is appeased and the desire is satisfied as well; yet one would not consider theirself as the cause of the appeasal and satisfaction

..2-48 slokam.Uarntha laktshaiam vaithukkanum enkiraan..namm seyyum seyalkl antha elakkai adaiya nokki seyyanum..kadamai thaan ..namakku yentru vithithatha kadamaikalai seyyanum..seyalkall eallam avanukkey entru seyyanum..palanukku kaaranamaaha erukaathey enkiraan..adikaaram entrathu ennaduathu nann seyvathu entru ninaikaathathu..karanathukkum karaiathukum thodarbu..ninaivu thaan koodaathu..palanakku nam ellai yentru othunginnduerukkanum enkiraan..seyyamall erukka koodaathu..oor koodi thaan theyr ezlukka mudiyum.. paramatma jeevaatma udal pananan enthariangal etc are all responsible ..palann kidaikkathathukku namm mattravarai pazli solluvom nana nadanthaal namm credit eduthukkuvom.

..2-48 Slokam..Jothishkudi.thiruvarasu..jeeyar kavi veshti uduthi konndu erukiraarkal.. pilai lohacharyar vall nall muzlthum bramachary yaha erunthaar.. vettri tholvi samamaaha vaippavar yogi..malaiyin uruthi pola manam erukanum..siddi asiddi samaa puthiyaha yogathil nalaiyahaerukkanum enkiraan..thanthaiyar heart attack namm kavalai pathatam.. nanban pathattam ellamal pannuvathu pola.. pattru attru erunthaal ninthanam varum..bero saavi thedum kathai.. cricket captan individual performance affect avaathu pattruthalaal silavar  kuraiyum.. azlnthu poha koodaathu..judge neethikkaha eruppathaal..samathvam thaan yogam..

2-48..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Established in yoga and renouncing attachment to all accompanying results one should engage in actions as a matter of duty to the best of one’s ability completely unconcerned with success and failure. This equipoised condition of the mind keeps it peaceful and steady in the face of all adversity and balanced and calm in the fulfilment of any actions.

..2-49 slokam..vimaanam namm perumaal kaatchi kodukiraar..jothishkudi..rammanujar pillai lohachariarum vimanathil sevai saathikiraarkal..karmavai ritualaaha seyyamal  munbu sonna puthiyodu seyyanum..palankalukku aasai padubavarkal thartharkal..samsaarathil meendum azlunthuvaarkal..uyarntha  putthiel puhalidam kollanum..aaypaadiel vallarnthu vanthaan..piranthathu  vada maduraiyil..peyttrinai konndathu..maalai pozluthu  pasi..rishikal yaagam homam panninndu erunthaarkal..kodukka mudiaathu entraarkal..rishikalin manaivimaarkalidam poyy keytka sonnan..yaar aarathikka padukirran entra puddhi ellai rishikalukku entraarkal..nangal koduppom entru koduthaarkal..veyrthu opasithu ..nedu nokku kollum bakta vilosan..ethennu paarthu erunthu ..paasuram.. avarkalukku ellorukum motsham udaney..

2-49..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Actions performed with fruitive motivations are far inferior to actions performed as a matter of duty. The mind of those whose actions are performed as a matter of duty are not disturbed or unbalanced by delusions of rewards gained or lost. The activities performed in spiritual intelligence removes all suffering in the world and leads to liberation from the material existence. Contrarily activities performed for the acquisition of rewards assuredly results in suffering and affliction in the material existence. Phala-hetavah are those who sole motivation is dictated be the prospects of reward. It should be understood that such living entities are krpanah or pitiable due to the fact but acting in this way they are imprisoned in the material existence unable to attain their spiritual nature.

..2-50 slokam..thiruvarasu samproshanam..viruthuombal  enna konndu vantheerkal entru ?..yuddam ennum kadamaiyai seyyanum.. nann paarthu motsham koduppeyn enkiraan…gjana thodu seyyum karma avanukku preethi yerpaduthum ennum ninaivodey pannanum..avanaaha koduthaal aasaiyodey moovulahamum enbam koduppaan..anishtam tholaiyum yentru 50 slokathaalum 51 eshtam kittum yentru solukiraan..perumaalin thiruvadi aasaiyaha erukkanum. perumaalukku aaradanama seyyanum yenkira puddhi yoda-.yogathil -muyartchi edukkanum..thaay paal sirakka entha puddi thaan kaaranam..thaazlntha palanil aasai vaikaamal, naam seyyukirom enkira ennam ellaamal avanathu aaradanamaaha seyyanum enkira puddhiyoda karma yogam panninaal papam punyam eppothey tholaiyum.. antha puthi yerpada muyartchi pannanum enkiraan..preethi thaan punyam. perumaalukku thiru ullathil thunbam namakku ppapam..thahappanukku yerpadum enbamum thunbam pola..

..2-50 slokam… 18 paandiya nadu .thiru moohoor..kalameha perumaal mohana valli thaayaar..chakrath alwar.. shreeabdi nathanaha sevai saathikiraar..parrkadal sayanitha thiru kolam.. pirpaadu kalameha perumaal..amudam mohini roopam eduthu..10-1 kamaroopam kondu ..brahma mazlai pola karunai vadivaaha erukka veynndi konndaar..kulasthia maharishi prarthanai panninaar..9 vimanamkal uunndu..easwara preethi kobam thaan punnyam paapam..koorath alwarum soli erukiraar..amrutham vanga kadal kadaintha maadavan.. einthiran yaana etc.. devas sahaa varam petraarkal amudam konndu..mahinthaan..swarga loham thaan petrarkal..avaney amudam avanai keyttkaamal sathaarana amudam thaan keyttaarkal..sadaarana enbam thaan pattaan avan..athanaal thaan punyamum tholaiyanum enkiraan..avanidam sentru avanai keyttaal rommba aanantham.. avanidam sentru veda ethaiyavathu keyttaal koduppaan. niranthara enbam ellai.. avanai keytkaa villai ennum nerudalodu koodina preethi koodaathu..

2-50..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Those whose activities are inherently protected under the secure guidance of spiritual intelligence are released from the bondage of continuous rebirth in the material existence. Hence one should undeviatingly remain steadfast in spiritual intelligence. Although cultivating spiritual intelligence indeed takes enormous effort to achieve, once attained is not difficult to maintain. All actions performed from the platform of spiritual intelligence are not binding and the mind is preserved in a perfectly equipoised state which can be compared to a state of a blissful a genius sometimes experiences which is very wonderful.

..2-51 slokam…thozu nangu udai.paasuram ..thiru mohoor aathaan thirunamam. mohiniyoor mohiyoor thiru mohoor. yentru maruvi vanthathu…kamanai payantha kaalai avan.. manmathanai thorkadipavan…anamayam.. viyaathikal attra paramapadam..puddhiudan seyyum karmaavaal  kidaikkum..janba bandam vinir muktaa.. thirumbi varaatha viduthalai enkiraan..vishnor padam..motsham adaikiraan..vuarntha sthnaam kidaikum..avan thiru vadikalai pattrinaal janmangalirunthu viduvithu parama padam koduthu peraantham kodukiraan..aara avamudahan. appothukku appothu  arra amudhan..puraadanaha erunthaalum nitham puthiavanaha kaatukiraan..archaraathi maargam..karunaiyaal papam punyam tholainthu..kanakkill adangaa piravikalin karma vaasanaikalai vetti aruthu.. thanthai kaalil vilangu aruthathu pola..brahma ratnam..thuvaaram.. meyl nokki pohiraan..vilaku vellitchathukku than thiru meyni kaattukiraan. 101 sushmna naadi..kaattukiraan..ninnya sareeram kodukiraan. sooshma sareeram. oli archi. kazla moha perumaal vazli kattukiraan..aathan vazli katti..meham thaneer thezlithu karunai ennum thanner kuzlu kuzlu entru erukka..varaaha saramaslokam..thaazla.kaazla meham…maamuni paasuram..

2-51..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Those who are factually situated in spiritual intelligence perform activities as a matter of duty free from conceptions of gain and loss, unconcerned about the resultant rewards. They are assuredly delivered from the bondage of birth and death in the material existence and are liberated to the spiritual realms. This information is well documented in the Vedic scriptures.

..2-52slokam..chakrath alwar.kalangia manathai thezlivikiraan..tejas namathu agjyanam ennum eruttai pokkum..16 kaikal..16 aayudam..154 ezluthukkal.juala kesam. moontru kankal. sullantru varum thiruvadi..karma yogathin kadaisi slokam..ethethaiyo pattru vaithomey entru nonthu kolla pohiraay..moham kalakkathilirunthu vanthathum..aiyo vidavendathai vida villai -pattra veyndathai pattra villai -entru neeyey unnai nonthu kolluvaay enkiraan..pattrilen eeasanum-muttraum ninnilan.. avan muttril adangey.. paasuram 1-2 ..saranam yentrathum vashtalahan mitra baava maha vanthaalum ennumaa pola..manasil azlukku erunthaal kalakkam varum ..pahuthu arivu viveha gjanam ethu thaan ethu pattranum ethai vidanum yentra arivu..

2-52..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Performing actions as prescribed in the previous verses and therefore purged of all dross the realisation one attains will extricate them from the perplexities of worldliness arising from identification with actions and the reward of actions. From that point on all that one has hitherto heard regarding the wisdom of renouncing the rewards of action as the cause of motivation for action as well as what one would subsequently hear regarding the fruitiveness of actions will by one’s own free will be regarded with complete indifference. What has thus far been given is in the next verse to be described. It is known as yoga which is the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness by actions performed with the light of spiritual intelligence based on bonafide knowledge of the immortal soul.

..2-53 slokam..38-52 varai karma yogam pattri sonnaan..atma pattri muthirntha arvu kann munney atmaavai paarkkum arivu. atma sashtkaaram.. adipadi mudalil atma gjanam veynndum..edai vidamal dyaanam pannanum..athukku kalakkam ela manasu theyvai.. pahutharivu veynndum kalakkam poha..sinthanai. thezlivaana manasu. papam punyam tholaiyanum. karma yogam panni ethai tholaikkanum.avanai arivatha bakti yogam 7,8,9 adyaayathil solla pohiraan.. nammai namm therinthu kolla eppo..2ad  adyathil 12-37 adipadi atma patri sonnaan. pinbu 52 varai karma yogam sonnan…second padi kattu ethu varai thaanndi vittom…nirmalamaana manasil kalakkam theerntha manasil asaikka mudiaatha arivu erppadum..azlukkatra kannadiyl nammai paarpathu pola atmavai pallitchu yentru kaattum..thezlivaana manasil gjana yogam pirakkum..gjana yogam mudira atmavai pattri muzluvathaha arivom..atmavin ella perumaikalum therinthu kolvom..ella atmavum samam ella atmavilum paramatma erukiraan entra poorna arivu…orupadi pattu erukku arivu yaaraalum kallakka mudiaatha atma sashtakaaram peruvom..

..2-53 ,2-54 slokam..pulangalai adakki pallakathil ellai..pazlaha pazlaha enikkum..purinchu kolla try pannanum..bagavatha aaradana roopamaaha pannanum.. namm seyvathil avanukku pidikkathathai vidanum..namakku yerppatta karmathai pattru attru seyyanum..laktshiam thaan mukiyam.. avanathu aananthamey mukkiyam..pulangalai adaikki atmavai pattri edai vidaamal edaieroouu ellaamal gjana yogam pannanum.. atma pattri thyaanam panni atma sashtagaram peruvom..uriaathana puddhi padaithavan eppadi eruppan? yena pesukiran yenna ninaikiraan yenna seyykiraan ..

2-53..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna begins this verse with the word sruti. Sruti refers to Vedanta which implies sravanam or hearing from them. For it is by the hearing of transcendental instructions that the mind is evolved as it begins to reflect and contemplate on the immortal, incomparable and exceedingly subtle nature of the eternal soul. When this consciousness which is by its very nature is steadfast and stable is firmly rooted within a mind purified of all dross and selfish actions, then at that time one shall achieve yoga and realise enlightenment. The understanding is that by practice in performing activities in the selfless parameters of karma-yoga with knowledge of the eternal soul as revealed in the Vedic scriptures develops an illumination in consciousness called sthita-prajnata and that by sustained effort of this consciousness one is gradually achieves self-realisation. Hearing this Arjuna next desires to understand the components of this unique consciousness. Is it achieved by willpower, by yoga, by knowledge of the soul, by detachment or is it a combination of all of the above? This Arjuna will question in the next verse.

..2-55 slokam..undo  vaikasi visakathuku oppu oru naal.undo sadagoparukku oppu oruvar undo thiruvaay mozllikku oppu  undo then kurughaikku undo oppu …alwar thirunagari..sthitha prgnjan eppadi yentru solla arambikiraan..gjani thalaivar nammalwar..nammudaiya alwar yentru rengan sonnathu..urangaa puli  5200years old..kali yugam arambam 5108 years kaliyugam erukku..senai mudaliaarai sada gopanahaum adi seseshanai puliamaramaahaum.. .garudanai madurakavi alwaraha anuppinaan..paradatvam, rama ,kannan  evarkalai anubavippar sadagopan..perummaley entru solluvaar. elakuman balaraman thiru puli alwar ….38 divya desam paadi erukiraar..nangu slokathil sollukiraan..nanku nilaikalai sollukiraan..55,56, 57, 58 ..slokam mudalil sollukiraan.. muyartchi edukkum nilai..aasaiyai   adakkuvathu mudal padi..viruppu veruppukalaiyum  .pulangalai azlika aasai vidum nilai..manasu adakku vathu.. pisukku pokkuvathu…kadaisiyil seeyakkaay vaithu vassekaram panuvathu..kari udaya nangaiyaar..thirukurungudi nambi vadivazlahiya nambi kitta kulanthai baaghyam unnai poll veynndum entraarkal..naney thaan pirakkanum yennai poll oruvarum ellai yentru..thiru kurugoor nambi yaaha..16 years dyaanam.. 16-32 years paasuram paadinaar..

2-54..Ramanujar’s commentary..

..What is it that which defines the sthita-prajnah or the adept fixed with spiritual intelligence who is immersed in transcendent consciousness? What are the characteristics to be recognised by such a one so situated in this state of mind? How does he speak and how does he act? This will be answered next.

2-55..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna explains that when the particular activities of the adept of spiritual intelligence are described then the characteristics are recognised. Because one with spiritual intelligence focus their mind to be fully immersed solely in the soul, they are known as being soul satisfied. When such a one is so absorbed in the soul that all other desires abiding therein are completely banished then such a one is known as sthita-prajnah situated in transcendent consciousness. This is the paramount platform of spiritual intelligence in the mind. After this the next lower intermediate stage will be defined.

2-56..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..To be free from an agitated mind is not to become aggrieved when situations arise of impending affliction and difficulty or bereavement for something cherished and lost. To not be elated in happiness is to remain in an unattached and passive state even when joyous events occur. Desire is the longing for things not obtained. One must learn to be free from this. Fear is worrying for prospective sorrow which may be caused by bereavement of what is cherished and the projection of the coming of unwanted things. One must learn to be free from this. Anger is that disturbed state of mind and irritated feelings produced of pain from others causing separation from what is cherished or giving the experience of things not cherished. One must learn to be free from this. Such a being is a muni or one of profound contemplation on the soul. This being is known as sthita-prajna situated in perfect knowledge of transcendental consciousness. Lord Krishna describes the next lower stage in the next verse.

2-57.. Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Forming no attachments in any situation means to be indifferent, unconcerned in an aloof state or attitude. Auspicious is a situation that is pleasing and inauspicious is a situation that is displeasing. Lord Krishna is instructing not to be overjoyed by the pleasing nor despondent over the unpleasant. One who can successfully engage themselves thus is sthita-prajna situated in the perfect knowledge of transcendental consciousness. The next lower stage is given in the next verse.

2-58..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Lord Krishna gives the analogy of a turtle which withdraws its limbs inside. Similarly when one is able to keep their senses from pursuing sensual objects of mundane pleasure by withdrawing the senses inside and who also consciously reflects upon the soul within, such a one is sthita-prajna situated in the perfect knowledge of transcendent meditation. There are four stages in developing to this platform each of which develops backwards from its preceding stage. The difficulty in following this is revealed by Lord Krishna in the next verse.

Geetha Saaram 2-21 to 2-41

September 24, 2007

2-21..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..So possessing spiritual intelligence, knowing the soul to be eternal, understanding it to be birthless and deathless being of an inexhaustible nature how is it possible for anyone to commit any act of destruction against the immortal soul which dwells in trillions of various and diverse living entities among the 8 million 400 thousand species of life throughout the billions of material universes. Whom can anyone destroy? How can anyone destroy anyone? Who can cause anyone to be destroyed? No one can! Thus it can be seen that ignorance of the eternal nature of the soul is the cause of all grief by not understanding that the soul is immortal and thinking that the eternal soul perishes when the physical body perishes. Comprehending that what happens to the immortal soul when the physical body ceases to function is factually the withdrawal from an old physical body to enter into a new physical body. So it can be understood that those who have deep regret for the loss of the physical body, serving as it does as the facility for securing and enjoying material pleasures; these living entities should reflect on the futility and temporal nature of material existence rather than trying to eternally exploit their senses. This will be further expounded in the next verse.

2-22..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..We learn from the Vedic scriptures that those who lose their physical bodies fighting for righteousness receive superior physical bodies in heavenly spheres of blessedness. Such a transition can be compared to discarding old, used, worn out clothes and attiring oneself in fresh, new raiment. So from another angle of vision it is being confirmed that the eternal soul is indestructible changing its embodied form for another when the physical body perishes. Now in the next verse some examples are emphasised to give a more developed and comprehensive understanding of this indestructibility in the next verse.

2-23..There is no commentary for this verse.

2-24..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Weapons are powerless to inflict any injury by cutting or piercing, fire is powerless to burn, water is powerless to wet and air is powerless to dry the eternal soul. The soul having the propensity of pervading everything being capable by its nature of interpenetrating all substances. It is subtler than any substance and no substance can penetrate it. The effects of cutting, burning, soaking, drying and others which takes place by weapons, fire, water, air and the rest penetrate the object which is the focus of their direction; but due to its impregnable nature the soul is uninfluenced being beyond the scope of the material substratum. Hence the eternal soul is unchangeable, immovable and everlasting.

2-25..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The word avyaktah means invisible or imperceivable this is because the eternal soul being totally transcendental to the material existence cannot be practically examined as can objects which possess qualities of a physical nature.The word acintyah means inconceivable because the eternal soul is impossible to perceive by the mind and the senses being in every way transcendental to the material substratum which is what the consciousness of the living entities base their understanding on. The eternal soul differs from all other existences and levels of existence is in transcendence. Therefore it is avikaryah unchangeable and immutable. The Supreme Lord Krishna instructs that by knowing the eternal soul to be immortal there is no cause for grief.

2-26..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Here the Supreme Lord Krishna gives Arjuna another reason not to lament for He states that even if one considers the eternal soul to be the same as the physical body which is subject to incessant births and deaths and not a separate and distinct reality; then still there is no need for grief because from birth the ageing of the physical body due to the passage of time leads to death and birth and death is a law of nature in the material existence and unavoidable.

2-27..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..It is evident that death of the physical body is inevitable to whatever is born and that there is no way to escape from this physical termination of the body. Similarly rebirth is unavoidable once one’s physical body has died. How can something which has been lost become again? It is conceivable that something which has already been to become again; but it is inconceivable for that which has never been to become. Therefore there is nothing that can come that has not been. What is known as birth and death is but just different modifications of an ever existing condition. Yarn and other materials exist but when they are woven into a fabric that is a particular arrangement of the yarn itself, it receives the name cloth in its modified state. Even the asat-karya-vadis who follow the fallacious hypothesis that existence comes from non-existence should admit the ever existing state, for what we know as cloth to them is a new creation but is factually the same old yarn only in a new form which has been created. It is not sagacious or well thought out to assume that a new substance has come into being simply because of a modified condition.Thus coming into existence and disappearing from existence are modified states of an ever existing reality. One of the conditions of this modified state is its appearance called birth and another condition being its diametric opposite is known as death which by disappearing this ever existing reality passes into. For a substance which is intrinsically metamorphic the process of modification is essential. As in the case of a clod of earth, transformed into clay, transformed into a pot, transformed into dust and transformed back to earth again. The manifestation of a subsequent condition is but a modification of a previous condition and that same subsequent condition becomes a prior condition of another subsequent condition. Reasoning in this way it can be understood that it is natural that successive modifications take place in regards to creation and destruction of physical bodies which cannot be avoided and there is no reason to lament due to this. If there is some slight grief which may be apparent by the passing from a prior modified state to a subsequent modified state even this grief need not arise in the case of living entities such as human beings because… and the next verse 28 clarifies why.

2-28..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Living entities like human beings though eternally existing due to the auspices of each one’s eternal soul have an unknown origin before birth, a manifest condition from birth to death and proceed again to an unknown existence at the termination of the physical body. Such alternations constitute material existence and are a natural law. This then gives no cause to grieve. Having just shown that even if one erroneously was under the misapprehension that the physical body itself and the eternal soul are the same; there is still no reason to grieve as in the next verse 29 it is declared that very rarely is a person found who would see, hear, converse, or who could be convinced about the wonderful nature of the eternal soul which is factually distinct from the physical body.

2-29..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Among innumerable living entities rarely is one to be found who determinedly absolved themselves of all sinful reactions and has accumulated sufficient merit as to become self-realised enabling one to perceive the separate nature and the distinct aspect of the eternal soul within. Such a realised soul may attempt to give this understanding to another similarly disposed or one may make an attempt to understand it by hearing about it and so forth as examples in this verse. But only one who has acquired enough merit to realise the eternal soul within can possess the true understanding of the eternal soul and no other. The conjunctive particle ca used at the end of the verse denotes that even among the philosophers, speakers and seekers of knowledge about the eternal soul; the transference of bonafide information given and received concerning factual knowledge of what the eternal soul actually is, is very rare.

2-30..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The eternal soul embodied within the physical body regardless whether it is a human earthly body or the physical bodies possessed by the demigods in the heavenly spheres; the immortal soul is eternally invulnerable even though the body perishes. Hence understanding this principle as fundamental whatever diversity and varieagatedness in the forms of bodies born from the womb of a female who was also conceived in the womb of a female that exists from the demigods down through the human species as well as to the animal species and the fish species and even including the immovable plants and trees it should be clearly understood that equanimity prevails regarding the essential nature of the immortal soul abiding therein whatever the bodily form and is eternal. Whereas the physical body is transient. So Arjuna is being instructed that factually according to this proper understanding regarding all living entities, he has no basis to lament for any being.

2-31..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The virtuous war the Supreme Lord Krishna is instructing Arjuna about would be recorded in the Mahabharata as the Battle of Kuruksetra. Because it involves such great sacrifices of life it should be regarded as within the sphere of a ksatriya’s legitimate duties the same as a Agnisomiyam which is the performance of sacrifice to Agni and Soma. Understanding that it is to his merit as a ksatriya to fight this battle Arjuna can have no cause for regret. According to the ksatriya code of ethics no infringement has been enacted by Arjuna or his brothers the Pandava’s and so dharma or righteousness is with them. There is no action more meritorious for a ksatriya then to fight for righteousness. The qualities to be found in a ksatriya are heroism, exuberance, determination, resourcefulness, bravery in battle, generosity and leadership. That those slain in battle obtain illustrious heavenly

2-32..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The impending war is happening by itself, on its own, without any solicitation on the part of Arjuna. Thus when it happens he and his brothers will be fighting on the side of righteousness which constitutes the means for acquiring heavenly happiness without obstacles. Such a war can only be fought by the most fortunate of ksatriyas and Arjuna should understand his good fortune.

2-33..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..If through injudicious sentiment or bewildered ignorance Arjuna should fail to perform his prescribed duty as a ksatriya by fighting for the sake of righteousness; he would lose a most excellent opportunity of attaining the heavenly spheres, he would lose his reputation as a hero and he would have to accept great sinful reaction.

2-34..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Not only will happiness and fame elude him if he disregards his duty as a ksatriya but the world opinion of those competent to judge and those incompetent as well will chastise him and speak of his act of disgrace public and privately. They will say Arjuna was a coward for when the battle was about to begin he gave only excuses and retreated hastily from the battlefield. The Supreme Lord Krishna is telling him that forever history will brand him for cowardice. If Arjuna was to reply that what the public think is of no consequence to him, the Supreme Lord neutralises that by stating that for a person of honour possessing the qualities of heroism, determination, puissance, courage etc. which are all contrary to cowardice to have to accept infamy is worse than death. If he was to acquire disgrace of this kind death for him would certainly be much better. If reasoning further one was to present the question of how ignominy could attach itself to one who is already a renowned hero and whose resignation from the battle field is prompted only by motives of respect for elders and compassion to friends and relatives then the next verse 35 neutralises that argument

2-35..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Whereas Arjuna had been know as a mighty warrior and renown hero, a worthy opponent for any of the valiant warriors of the Kauravas such as Karna, Duryodhana etc. If Arjuna were to retire from the fight on the eve of battle they would all consider him a coward and they immediately would assume that Arjuna had abstained from battle due to feeling dread at their prowess. For Arjuna to think that he would be vindicated by his abstention from battle by motives of fraternity and familial ties would be wrong for these sentiments are not considered sanctions for heroes towards belligerents.

2-36..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Those antagonists, those belligerent Kauravas will be deriding Arjuna to no end declaring how could Arjuna even think he had the courage to fight against the might of such warriors as we? Others would declare that Arjunas boasts are not to be heard in their presence and other such deprecations like this. He would be the butt of coarse jokes from young and old. Thus would they be freely referring to him in a most degrading and insultingly and abusing manner too much for a ksatriya hero to be able to endure. What pain could be greater than this for him? Surely even death in battle is better than having ones noble reputation detracted. Hence the next verse instructs that for a hero, either course is beneficent: to slay ones enemies fighting bravely in battle or be slain by ones enemies fighting bravely in battle.

2-37..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..If in fighting for righteousness Arjuna is slain in the battle then he will attain superior bliss in the heavenly spheres; but if he is victorious in battle by the slaying the miscreants then he will find himself in the position of unrivalled enjoyment and rulership of earthly royalty. Dividing and conquering, defending and ruling are the natural duties of ksatriya royalty. Discharging these duties with no anticipation for the fruits of the results will be the means by which Arjuna attains unparalleled bliss. So Arjuna should properly prepare his mind for war by fortifying himself with the firm conviction that embarking on the course of a righteous war is the guaranteed means for him to achieve moksa or final salvation which means precisely the embodied soul becoming eternally liberated from the fetters of material existence and which is without a doubt the great hurdle to be overcome in human existence. Arjuna is called here Kaunteya to remind him that such conduct is indeed representative as a son of the great devotee Queen Kunti. Next will be revealed the apropos mentality of a living entity aspiring for salvation.

2-38..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..Knowing the immortal eternal soul to be that which is distinct and independent from the physical body, uncontaminated with the qualities pertaining to the material existence but connected to those qualities which are spiritual in nature and eternal; maintaining an equipoised mind in the various conditions of pleasure and pain, loss and gain, victory or defeat being devoid of any fruitive desire or hankering for any reward or remuneration, such as going to the heavenly worlds, fight this righteous battle as a matter of duty which needs to be discharged. One who is situated in wisdom with their mind properly composed in this manner while executing their prescribed duties will incur no sinful reactions and thus will be eligible for salvation from material existence. Sinful reactions is the root of all suffering and the cause of perpetual bondage in the cycle of birth and death in the material existence. After thus imparting to Arjuna the real nature of the eternal soul, the Supreme Lord Krishna begins his instructions for achieving salvation by karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions.

2-39..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The use of the word sankhya determines the proper understanding. Sankhyam is of the eternal soul category which is apprehensible through the understanding by the rational faculty of the mind. The immortal soul as an eternal principle must be understood. That understanding by which to comprehend it has already been given to Arjuna so he would know it in the previous verses in this chapter being verse 12 never at all was that I and verse 30 therefore thou has no cause to grieve for any creature. As for the use of the word yoga meaning karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without desiring fruitive results. It is to be understood that the spiritual intelligence acquired by following this yoga of actions when based on sankhyam or knowledge of the soul is the path which leads to salvation. This precise understanding is what is declared further in this chapter in verse 49; but in the next verse learn just what spiritual knowledge is to be gained by this karma yoga. Imbibing the wisdom from it, cut asunder the bonds of karmic reactions from all actions. The virtue of actions performed in this way will subsequently be given in verse 40.

2-40..Ramanuja’s Commentary..

..The Supreme Lord Krishna now reveals that even the slightest, most minuscule effort made regarding this karma yoga of performing actions without desiring fruitive results is never in vain. The word abhikrama is derived from arambha meaning any beginning as in any effort. The word nasa means destruction as in loss of, thus the effort itself is the means to a guaranteed result. Not even is failure accrued when a righteous action is begun but is unable to be completed due to circumstances and absolutely no negative effect will accrue even when a righteous action is interrupted at its very commencement. Even a the most minute righteous action performed without desiring fruitive results saves one with spiritual knowledge from the great fear of the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence. This same view is further elaborated later in chapter six, verse 40 describing that in this world or the next there is no loss or dimunition for the aspirant. There are others actions both laukik secular and vaidik scriptural which when interrupted become abortive and moreover are accompanied by dire consequences. In the next verse the difference between performing fruitive actions for desired results and the wisdom of performing actions without desiring fruitive results will be given.2-41..Raamanujar’sCommentary....The Supreme Lord Krishna is reaffirming that the science of yoga rather than the various methods of action prescribed in the Vedic scriptures is the one path that has guaranteed certainty. The word vyavasaya derived from nischaya means certainty. The unshakeable conviction one has of such a decisive nature is that which the aspirant of salvation possesses and which can be understood by the actions they perform. The strength of this unshakeable conviction is directly connected to one’s understanding of the eternal reality of the soul’s immortality. Fragmented and not evolved is that mind which entertains ideas of performing actions for the reaping of results. People of this type vaguely know that the soul exists, although mistakenly attributing it as being part of the body and no more knowledge is required in their case as their material wishes for wealth and fame and even heaven can be obtained without having accurate, precise knowledge of the actual transcendental position of the eternal soul.

But on the other hand the conviction of certainty is unique in its singleness of purpose and focused aim. All actions executed by such a living entity has for its sole objective salvation and the means is yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness. This is the essence of the Vedic scriptures which lead to this conclusion and such being the case there can arise only one unshakeable conviction to one possessing spiritual insight.

For the fulfilment of one single attainment being salvation all actions are dedicated by one fixed in the firm resolve for salvation. Hence as the primary objective of the Vedic scriptures is one, the firm resolve as regarding the purpose of all actions can be but one as in the case for example of the six different kinds of rituals called Darsa-purnamasa. Three rituals are to be performed on the new moon and three are to be performed on the full moon. In their performance they all differ in regards to execution yet they may be said to constitute a single aim for when all are directed to obtaining a single fruit all there seperate differences may be understood as part of a whole.

Whereas in the case of those with fragmented and unfocused minds who engage in various activities each intended to acquire some result such as heaven, wealth, fame, power and so forth and so on the schemes are endless as the desires are endless. Even the results are diverse as in the case again of the Darsa-purnamasa, for although the rituals are directed to be performed for the obtainment of a specific goal, yet they confer minor benefits as well such as good health, vigor and long life. Thus it is stated that the mentality of those not evolved is endless and ramifying.

The conclusion of this verse is that all nitya or daily rites and all naimittika or occasional rites for specific times prescribed in the Vedic scriptures shall be performed with the sole aim of ultimate salvation as the purpose. Although each rite individually is capable of giving its own temporary, material reward; but all such rewards are to be ignored while holding focus solely on salvation.

As for fruitive rites and rituals desiring some material benediction, these shall be performed in the manner prescribed for the four varnas or classes of cultured life being brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, and sudra in the four asramas or stages of cultured life being brahmacarya or celibate life, grihasta or married life, vanaprastha or renunounced life and sannyasa or dedication and focus solely on the Supreme Lord. Accordingly they should also resign the acquired results of their efforts in favor of salvation.

In the next three verses will be seen that those who engage solely in fruitive activities are condemned.


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