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Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 4–(Phala )Paatham 3–(‘Gathi pada’)Summary-

February 20, 2021

The details of Archiradi gathi are dealt with in this pada and hence this pada is called Gathi pada.
This pada has five adhikaranas.
Gathi means journey. It also means route.
Lord Sriman Narayana has ordained twelve celestial gods called Athivahikas to conduct the liberated soul
(muktha Atma) upto the bank of viraja river which demarcates the prakrithi mandala
( lila vibhuthi in which we are living) and the nitya vibhuthi which is Sri Vaikunta pya loka.
The twelve celestial gods are,
1.The God of Fire called as Archis or Jvalana.
2.The God of day (not night) called as Aha: or Divasa
3.The God of Bright fortnight called as Apoorya mana paksha which is also called Sukla paksha ending with pournami (full moon) or Jyotsna paksha.
4.The God of the six months in which the Sun traverses from South to north called as Uttarayana or Shaddangethi masas.
5.The God of the year (12 months) called as Samvatsara or merely vatsara.
6.The God of the wind (air) called as Vayu or pavana.
7.The Sun god called as Surya, Aditya or Tapana.
8.The moon god called as chandramasa, merely chandra or praleyamsu

Each of the above gods has his own territory and the liberated soul is conducted from
one territory to the other by the respective god after a ceremonial reception to him,
his resting and enjoyment of their hospitality in each territory.

9.The God of lightning and he is also called Vidyuth purusha or amanava purusha who leads the mukthatma
upto prakrithi mandala side of the bank of viraja river.
10.The varuna god of water
11.Lord Indra who is the King of Devas.
12,Lord Prajapathi who is the four headed Brahman

The Gods Varuna, Indra and prajapathi merely accompany the amanava purusha till the end of their respective
territories who escorts the muktha atma up to viraja river as mentioned above.

Besides these twelve Athivahikas, Lord Sriman Narayana also conducts the muktha Atma to Sri Vaikumtam.
In the list of Athivahikas the God of the fire is the first and because of this only the route is called Archiradi gathi.
In the Universe there are infinite number of brahmandas and each brahmanda has fourteen lokas headed by a four headed Brahman.
Each brahmanda has its own archiradi gathi leading to Sri Vaikuntha Divya Loka.

In the Paramapada sopana Sri Swami Desikan tells that there are two views regarding twelve athivahika purushas who are celestial gods.
The first view is that they are afflicted by punya and papa karma and hence they are karma vashyas.
The second view is that these belong to Sri Vaikunta Divya loka and are a part of Nityasuries group like Anantha, Garuda, Vishvaksena.

There is also a view that Amanava purusha is different from god of lightning (vidyath purusha)
and this Amanava purusha belongs to Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka and he is being sent by
Lord Sriman Narayana to bring Muktha Atma near him.

It should be noted that every thing in Sri Vaikunta Divya Loka or Nitya vibhuthi is called aprakrutha
because it is made up of hundred percent satva guna material and hence it is called Suddha satva.

Everything in this universe or prakrithi mandala is prakrutha because it is made up of the mixture of
satvika guna, rajasa guna and thamasa guna. Now the adhikaranams in this pada are dealt with.

The first adhikarana in this pada is called as Archiradi adhikaranam.
Several upanishadic texts come up for discussion in this adhikaranam.
The upanishads which mention the Archiradi gathi are Chandogya, Koushitaki and Brihadaranyaka upanishad.

In Chandogya upanishad this archiradi gathi has been narrated at the end of the upakosala vidya
in the 14th sub pision of the fourth chapter and again at the end of the panchagni vidya in the fifth chapter.
Again there is mention of the archiradi gathi in the sixth sub pision of the eighth chapter.
In the first chapter of koushitaki upanishad the archiradi gathi has been told.
In two places of Brihadaranyaka upanishad the mention of Archiradi gathi has been made.

In the sequence and pattern of the archiradi gathi stated in the above cited upanishads there are
some variation from upanishad to upanishad. The doubt that arises here is whether the sequence and
pattern of the archiradi gathi is one and the same or whether it varies.

The opponent (poorva pakshi) contends that archiradi gathi mentioned in the various upanishads have
different sequence and pattern and hence it is not necessary for the liberated soul to choose
only one route and he can choose any route according to his option.

The variations in the sequence and pattern are briefly explained below.
The archiradi gathi mentioned at the end of the upakosala vidya and panchagnividya is identical.
In the eighth chapter of Chandogya it is said that the liberated soul goes upwards following
the solar rays as told in the rashmi adhikaranam in the preceeding pada.
In the koushitaki upanishad it is said the archiradi gathi has the following sequence and pattern.

The liberated soul comes to Devayana marga after his exit from the mortal body through brahma nadi
(Sushumna nadi or Moordanya nadi) and then enters to Agni lokam and then vayu lokam.
From vayu lokam he comes to varuna lokam and then Aditya lokam. From Aditya lokam he comes to Indra lokam
and then to Prajapathu lokam. From prajapathi lokam he finally enters in to Brahmalokam which is the Sri Vaikunta pya lokam.

The second sub division of Brihadaranyaka upanishad deals with panchagni vidya
at the end of which the archiradi gathi is narrated as follows.
God of fire, God of day, God of bright fortnight, God of Uttarayana, Devalokam
(here devalokam means vayu that is the God of wind because it is said the wind that blows are the residences of Devas),
Sun god, God of lightning Manasa purusha. This manasa purusha conducts the muktha atma to Brahman who is Lord Sriman Narayana.
This manasa purusha is one created by brahman and he is the amanava purusha.
In the seventh chapter of the same brihadaranyaka upanishad, the archiradi with a change in pattern from the previous one is stated.

According to this the upasaka who has become a liberated soul goes away from this world and then
he goes to the God of the wind. Then this god of wind makes a small opening like the hole of the wheel chariot
and the muktha atma comes out of this opening and ascends to reach the sun god.
The sun makes an opening similar to that of the hole in Adambara which is a musical instrument.
Through that hole he comes out and ascends to reach moon (Chandramas).
The moon makes an opening similar to that of a hole in a drum (Dundubi).
He comes out of this opening and ascends to reach Sri Vaikuntha para lokam.
It is said in this context that Sri Vaikuntha para lokam is not cold or not too hot.
In the upanishad it is said Ahimam (not snow). There is no sorrow. In the Vaikuntha para loka
the muktha atma lives for eternal years that is permanently and he will not come back to this world.

When the variations in the sequence and pattern are as mentioned above the poorva pakshi contends
that the liberated soul may choose any marga on his own and reach Sri Vaikuntham.

Refuting this contention of the poorva pakshi the Sutrakara who is the sage Badarayana tells in the sutra
“Archiradina thath prathithe:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Archiradi marga is the only one marga which is very famous
in upanishads and the mukthatma goes to Sri Vaikunta para loka through this route only
irrespective of the variations in the sequence and pattern as elaborated above,
adopting the maxim of Gunopasamhara pada vide the third pada in the third chapter.

The meaning of the Guna upasamhara pada is that when one brahma vidya mentioned in more than one upanishad
is established as one and the same then the gunas or attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana mentioned
in one upanishad should be added to those mentioned in the other and then meditated.
So also here when it has been established that Archiradi gathi is one and the same,
the athivahikas left out in one must be considered along with the others mentioned in the other. Upasamhara means adding.

If this is done the sequence and pattern of the Archiradi gathi comprising twelve athivahikas
will be as already mentioned in the beginning of this pada.

The second adhikarana is called as “Vayvadhikaranam”.
In this adhikaranam the sequence is decided because of the variations mentioned in chandogya and brihadaranyaka upanishads.

In Chandogyopanishad the sun god has been mentioned after the God of the year.
In brihadaranyaka the Devaloka which is vayu has been placed in between God of the yearand the Sun God.

The poorva pakshi opines that there is no hard and fast rule to fix a particular order or sequence of Athivahikas
in the Archiradi gathi because each of the above mentioned upanishads follows its own order and the
upasaka who has adopted the brahma vidya mentioned in a particular upanishad chooses the Archiradi marga mentioned in that upanishad.

Further he says that Devaloka and Vayu are different. The sutrakarar rejects the above contention of the
poorva pakshi in the sutra “Vayum Abdath Avisheshavishe shabyam”.
The meaning of this sutra is that vayu the god of the wind has to be placed above the
God of the year and below the Sun god because of two reasons.

The first reason is Avishesha which means general.
That is in other words the Deva loka in Brihadaranyaka upanishad means the loka of the Devas.
Devas are those who live in heaven (svarga loka). So this deva loka generally means vayu.
The second reason vishesha which means particular. There is a specific mention of vayu in the place of the Deva loka.
So it is clear that Deva loka means vayu.

Further the God of the year should be above God of the uttarayana. Obviously because the year
which is the longer period of time should come after uttarayana which is a shorter period of time.
In Brihadaranyaka upanishad the deva loka comes after the god of uttarayana.
Now there are two orders one as per the upanishad which is called “Patakrama” the other is the
logical order called “Arthakrama” which is according to reasoning.
So a maxim comes here according to which the logical order (artha krama) is more powerful than pata krama.
Hence vayu comes in between the God of the year and the Sun.
Patakrama means the sequence or order of the words in the statement of upanishad.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called Varuna adhikaranam.
The upanishadic text that comes up for discussion is a passage in Kaushitaki upanishad
according to which the liberated soul comes to Devayana route (marga) and enters to Agni loka.
From Agni loka loka he goes to vayu loka and then from vayu loka he goes to varuna loka from where
he goes to sun god and then to Indra loka and then prajapathi loka.
From prajapathi loka he goes to Sri Vaikunta which is called Brahma loka.

In the previous adhikarana it was established that Deva loka is vayu and he comes in between god of the year and sun god.
When the above koushitaki upanishad mentions the athivahikas varuna, Indra and prajapathi
the question arises where to place these three in the order or sequence of the archiradi gathi.

The poorva pakshi says when the god of lightning comes at the end and he is called vidyuth purusha.
This vidyuth purusha is also amanava purusha who conducts the mukta atma to brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana).
So in this order there is no gap for placing varuna and also Indra and Prajapathi.
But the upanishadic statement should not be ignored as otherwise it becomes meaningless.
In Vedas including upanishads do not have even a single syllable which is meaningless and hence it should not be ignored or rejected.

The poorva pakshi further contends that because koushitaki says varuna loka next to vayu loka
it is only proper (appropriate) to place varuna Indra and prajapathi next to vayu breaking the order already established.

This view of the poorva pakshi has been refuted by the sutrakarar in the sutra
“Thatitha: Adhi varuna: Sambandath”.
This means that varuna should be placed above the vidyuth purusha (God of lightning) because
there is close connection between varuna god of rain and lightning which occurs on account of water bearing cloud.
Thatith means lightning. When varuna is placed above “vidyuth purusha”
naturally Indra and Prajapathi are also with varuna and above him.

The fourth Adhikarana in this pada is called as Athivahikadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam is whether the twelve entities mentioned in the Archiradi marga
are places or stations in that route. That is the indicators of the route or places of enjoyment or
they are Athivahikas who conduct the muktha atma to Sri Vaikuntham. It is common that if a person asks for the route
to a particular place then the person will be told the route in which he has to go and permanent landmarks in the route.
The other view is that they may be places of enjoyment. The main objection in the above entities being the
indicators of route are the day (Ahas), bright fort night (Sukla paksha), uttarayana (Six months)
and the year are the units of time and they cannot be obviously the indicators of the route.
They can be places of enjoyment because it is said these days, nights, fortnights, twin months (Ruthava),
years are also lokas or worlds. That is why Kaushitaki upanishad says Agniloka, vayu loka etc.

So the poorva pakshi refers to the twelve entities as lokas which are places of enjoyment.

This viewpoint is not accepted by the Sytrakarar who says in the sutra “Athivahikaa: Thallingath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that these 12 entities are Athivahikas because of the reason “Thallingath”.
This word means that the liberated souls are conducted to Sri Vaikuntha para loka and athivahikas are ordained
by Lord Sriman Narayana to receive the liberated souls and conduct them upto viraja river.
With regard to the Vidyuth purusha the upanishad says “Sa Enan brahma gamayathi”
that is the Vidyuth purusha conducts the liberated soul up to the Brahman.
This word “Conducts” very well applies to other Eleven athivahikas also.

The last and fifth adhikaranam in this pada is called as Karyadhikaranam which contains some importaint points.
Till now it was established the group of Athivahikas conducts the vidwan (liberated soul)
who is either upasaka (who has done bhakthi yoga) and prapanna (who has done prapatti at the feet of
Lord Sriman Narayana through an acharya to moksha which is Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.
This adhikarana also establishes the fact that muktha atma goes to Sri Vaikuntha only.

Now a doubt arises
1. Whether the group of athivahikas conduct the vidwan to the loka of chathur muka braman is also called Hiranya garba.
(2) Whether the vidwan is conducted to Sri Vaikuntha pya loka
(3) Whether they conduct him near pratyagatma (jiva) who has meditated upon him to whom the Paramatma is the atma or soul.
The third category is known as Panchagni Vidyanishtas who meditate on their souls (jivas) considering Paramatma as their atma.

The first sutra “Karyam Badari Asya gathi uppaththe:” is poorva paksha sutra
containing the viewpoint of the poorva pakshi who in this adhikaranam is sage Badari who is one of the
disciples of the Sage Badarayana (also called as Vedavyasa).
When Badarayana composed the sutras of this adhikaranam sages Badari and Jaimini were on his side.
Badarayana out of courtesy elicits the views of others before expressing his own views in the form of siddantha sutras.

Here the word karyam means Hiranyagarbah (Four headed Brahma) because he was created by Lord Sriman Narayana in his navel.
The karanam is the creator and karyam is one who is created.

The view point of Badari is when para brahman or merely brahman is everywhere and is ever attainable or reachable
where is the need for the athivahikas to take the liberated soul to Sri Vaikuntam.
On the other hand the athivahikas conduct the vidwan to Hiranya garba loka which is also called Satya loka.
Sage badari cites another point in support of his view. He says that in the upanishadic passage
“Purusha Amanva: Ethya Brahma lokan Gamayathi”, the plural lokan refers to Hiranyagarba lokas because
there are infinite number of andas and in each anda there is one satya loka which is Hiranya garba loka.
Further in the saying of upanishad “Prajapathe: Sabham Veshma prapadye”,
meaning that the liberated soul enters in to the residence of prajapathi who is Hiranya garba only.

Then we are putting a question to Badari. The question is when the upanishad clearly states that
vidwan is taken to Brahman only how can the brahman who is the Lord Sriman Narayana be called as Hiranya garba.
For this point Badari replies that because of the proximity of Hiranya garba loka to Sri Vaikunta para loka,
Brahman can be called as Hiranya garba. Again Badari mentions another vital point in support of his contention.
He says that all those who meditate on Hiranya garba who is called as karyam or created reach
Hiranya garba loka (Satya loka) and remain there till the tenure of office of the four headed brahman (Hiranya garba) comes to an end.

It should be noted in this context that tenure of office of four-headed Brahma is 2×1017 years
which is called “Dvipararda” (two parardas). One pararda is 1×1017 years.
The longevity of Brahma (tenure of office) as per his calender is 100 years which is 2×1017 years as per our calender.
The present brahma in our Anda has crossed 50 years of his age as per his calender that is one pararda and
he is in the second pararda. Precisely telling he is in his 51st year first month, 26th day morning.
So one second of chathur muka brahma is equivalent to our 63419583 years (6 crores, 34 lakhs 19 thousand 583 years).

At the end of his term there will be deluge here and it may be noted that duration of deluge is also 2×1017 years.
That is why in every day’s sankalpa we tell “Adya brahmana: dvithiya pararde Svetha varaha kalpe etc”.
So the meditators of Hiranya garba who have gathered in his loka go to Sri Vaikuntam along with Hiranya garba.

In support of sage Badari’s view there is one sloka in Kurma purana which says that at the time of deluge
all those who have gathered in Satya loka go to Sri Vaikunta pya loka along with Hiranya garba.

So in conclusion the Badari’s argument is that the group of Athivahikas conduct the vidwan
(liberated soul) to Hiranya garba loka and not Sri Vaikuntam.

Now sage Jaimini who is also the disciple of Badarayana risesup to present his view in this regard in refutation of Badari’s view.

Badari presented his view by five sutras the summary of which was mentioned in the preceeding paragraphs.
Jaimini’s view is contained in three sutras.

The first Sutra is “Param Jaimini: mukyatvat”.
The meaning is that the word Brahma means Lord Sriman Narayana only and it does not refer to Hiranya garba
because the real interpretation of the word Brahma is the supreme being.
Even though Lord Sriman Narayana is omni present that is he is everywhere the real meaning of moksha or salvation
is that the liberated soul should (a) depart from this mortal body (b) assume a sookshma sarira (minute body not visible to anybody)
which is required for conversing with moon (c) reach this side of viraja river through archiradi marga
(d) Shed the sookshma sarira (e) Cross the viraja river by his own will (e) reach the opposite bank of the viraja
(f) go near the pine couple in Sri Vaikunta pya nagara and do eternal service to them.

So the Brahma loka means Brahman himself is the loka that is in other words the entire Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka is called Brahma loka.
The plural world “Brahma lokan” mentioned before has no relevance in this context according to a maxim in mimamsa sastra.

Jaimini further says the upanishadic passage in the 8th chapter of chandogya upanishad clearly mentions
that the individual soul (called as samprasada) who is the vidwan (liberated soul) departs from the
mortal body and attains Sriman Narayana who is called as Paramjyothi in this context and hence
there is no question of liberated soul going to Hiranya garba loka.

In addition to the above jaimini says that the upanishadic statement “Prajapathe: sabham veshma prapadye”
quoted by Badari in his argument never refers to Hiranya garba loka because the upanishadic texts
subsequent to the above refer to Sri Vaikunta pya loka only.

The further two sutras of jaimini containing his above view points are “Darsana chcha and Nacha karye pratyabhisandhi:”.

After hearing the arguments of both Badari and Jaimini the Sutrakara, sage Badarayana gives his own judgement
in two sutras rejecting the views of both Badari and Jaimini.
The Badari’s view is totally rejected and Jaimini’s view is partly rejected.
The first sutra of Badarayana is “Aprathi kalambanan nayatheethi Badarayana: Ubhyathacha doshath Thath kratusha”.
The meaning of the above sutra is as follows. The meditators of Lord Sriman Narayana are pided into following two categories.
(1) Prathikalambanas
(2) Aprathikalambanas
Prathika means organ or avayava. It also refers to any inanimate object. The prathika can be meditated upon
considering it as brahman (paramatma). This is called as drishtividhi (drishti means view) or brahma drishti upasanam.

The pratika may also be meditated without viewing it as brahman. This is called Kevala upasanam.
Those who meditate on prathika with brahmadrishti or without brahmadrishti are called pratikalambanas.
For these pratikalambanas there is no moksha phalam and they would not go to Sri Vaikunta Divya loka.
Hence Athivahikas do not conduct them to Sri Vaikunta pya loka along the archiradi route.

In the seventh chapter of Chandogyopanishad Sage Sanathkumara tells Sage Narada the pratika objects which are fifteen in number.
They are Nama (name), Vak (Speech), Mana (mind), Sankalpa (determination), Chittam (Concentration of mind on a particular object),
Dhyanam (meditation), Vignanam (Knowledge of an object perceived by senses, inference or acquired by referring to scriptures).
Balam (muscle power) that is when a person sees his guru or Acharya he suddenly gets up and prostrates at his feet).,
Annam (Food), Aapa: (water), Theja: (Fire or hot Sun), Akasa: (Sky), Smara: (memory or remembrance), Aasha (Desire), Prana: (Breath).

If persons meditate on the above fifteen objects with brahmadrishti or without the same, they get endowed with
worldly fruits and hence the above meditation is not brahma upasana and they will not attain moksha.
The persons of the above category are called as prathikalambanas.

Those who meditate for attaining moksha are called as Apratikalambanas who are pided into two categories.
The first category comprises those who directly meditates on Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) in which
the upasaka (meditator) is the body of paramatma or Brahman.
They are called “Svatma Sariraka Paramatma upasaka:” adopting any of 30 types of brahma vidyas
detailed in the third quarter of third chapter. The 31st brahmavidya is Nyasa vidya which is prapatti or saranagathi.
These Nyasa vidya nishtas come under this category.
These attain moksha through archiradi marga conducted by the group of athivahikas as per the upanishadic text
“Esha Samprasada: asmath sarirath utthaya Parmjyothi: Upasampadya svena rupena abhinish padyathe”.

If according to Badari the above category of upasakas does not go to moksha the above upanishadic text becomes meaningless.

The second category comprises those who meditate on their inpidual souls for whom the brahman is the supreme soul.
These are called as “Brahmatma ka svatma upasaka:” or “Panchagni vidya nishtas”.

These panchagni vidya nishtas also attain moksha as per the upanishadic text
“Thath ya Eththam vidu: Ye cheme Aranye Sraddha Thapa Ithyupasathe the Archisham abhisambavanthi”.
The meaning of the above is
Thedya Eththam vidu:- Those who meditate on their inpidual souls not associated with their mortal bodies
and having Lord Sriman Narayana as their supreme soul are Panchagni vidya nishtas and
Yecheme Aranye Sradda Thapa Ethi Upasathe – Those who are “Svatma Sariraka paramatma upasana nishta:”,

Both the above Archisham abhisambavanth – Come to Archiradi marga to go to moksha (Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka).

If according to Jaimini these Panchagni Vidya nishtas do not go to moksha then the above upanishadic text becomes meaningless.

The last word in the Badarayana’s sutra is “Thathkrathusha”. Which means
the form of Paramatma and himself which an upasaka meditates he will see both of them in the same form in Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.
So it is clear the aprathikalambanas go to moksha through archiradi marga and will not come back.

Before we take up the last pada of last chapter, let us learn the following important points
about the 3rd pada in the Adhikarana Saravali of Sri Vedanta desika:.
1) In the Chinthamani commentary on the 496th sloka of Adhikarana saravali,
Sri Kumara Varadarcharya the illustrious son of Sri Vedanta Desika makes the following observation.
Though the performance of the obsequies and the other connected ceremonies in respect of the souls of vidwans
(Vidwans include those who have done Bhakthi yoga for attainment of Moksha and those who have done
prapatti or saranagathi for attainment of moksha) departing from the body and going to moksha
is not necessary still the performance of obsequies and other connected ceremonies
in respect of the above is very essential by the sons of vidwans.
(If there are no sons the other dependents or survivors of vidwans) because it is a part of their sacred duty.
If they do not perform the obsequies it would be a serious lapse on their part and they become karma bhrashtas
(deviation from doing the prescribed karmas) and incur sins.
Further the performance of the above is for the welfare of the sons and other survivors.

2) Bhishma who had the privilege of dying on his own accord or volition waited till the commencement
of uttarayana for dying. Bhishma who was one of the eight vasus in devaloka was born in this world on account of a curse.
So after death he went back to his original position of vasu and he did not go to moksha straight away.
Sri Vedanta desika says he went to moksha after doing Madhu vidya upasana
(madhu vidya is one among the 32 brahma vidyas vide slokas 498 and 502 in Adhikarana saravali).

3) The soul of Sisupala who was slain by Lord Sri Krishna entered in to the body of Lord Sri Krishna soon after his death.
He did not go through the Archiradi marga. Sisupala and Danta vaktra were Ravana and Kumbakarna in their previous birth
and they were killed by Lord Sri Rama. Again Ravana and Kumbakarna were Hiranya kasipu and Hiranyaksha in their previous birth
in which Hiranyaksha was killed by Lord Sri Varaha and Hiranya kasipu was killed by Lord Sri Nrisimha.
In these three consecutive births they became haters of Lord Sriman Narayana on account of a curse
hurled upon them by sages Sanaka, Sanandana when they were security men at the gate of a vishnu loka
also called as Karya vaikunta and they were called as Jaya and Vijaya.
They got the curse because they did not allow the above sages in side the gate where they came
to have the darshan of the Lord Sriman Narayana.
So at the end of the three consecutive births they attained moksha automatically.

4) Lord Sri Rama took all the inhabitants of Ayodhya to Santhanika loka at the time of his going to Sri Vaikuntam.
All of them had a dip in Sarayu river along with Lord Sri Rama and his brothers and then went to Santhanika loka
which is not Sri Vaikunta Divya loka in the real sense.
This Santhanika loka is within jurisdiction of Chathur muka (Four headed Brahman).
From Santhanika loka they might have gone Sri Vaikunta Divya loka after some time.
The inhabitants of Ayodhya means both animate and inanimate objects that is jivas of those objects.
Lord Sri Rama took them to the above said loka in response to the prapatti done by Sri Bharatha at the feet of Lord Sri Rama.
So the inhabitants of Ayodhya going through Archiradi gathi never arose.

5) In the case of Pundarika who was a virtuous person Lord Sriman Narayana himself
came to him in person and took him to Sri Vaikunta Divya loka.

6) In Pancharathra Samhithas it is said that there are several Vibhava lokas and Vyuha lokas within Brahmanda.

The persons who live there and do upasana (Bhakthi yoga) will go to moksha (Vaikunta loka) directly.
It is not necessary that they should go through Archiradi marga.
Vyuha lokas are called Svethadweepas which are islands in the ocean of milk.

7) Sri Vedanta Desika mentions another point regarding Archiradi gathi in parama pada Sopanam.
In dwaraka city there was a brahmin when Lord Krishna was there. The brahmin got 10 children who disappeared
suddenly after touching the ground soon after the birth. When the ninth child also disappeared
the brahmin came to meet Lord Krishna and made a representation of his above miserable plight.
At that time there was Arjuna who heard the above and told the brahmin that he would save the 10th child
and if he fails to save he would do Agni pravesa (entry in to fire). At the time of birth of 10th child
he improvised a cage with his arrows around the mother so that the child may not escape soon after its birth.
But the child disappeared soon after its birth and touching the ground.
As Arjuna could not save the child he decided to do Agni pravesa. Lord Krishna after coming to know of this
went to Sri Vaikuntha pya loka in his chariot. In the Vaikuntha para loka all the ten children were there.
In order to see Lord Krishna in his human incarnation form Lord Sriman Narayana in Sri Vaikuntham
willed for the above children to come there. Lord Krishna brought back the children and handed them over to the brahmin.
Now the question is how children could come back from Sri Vaikuntham as no body who has gone to Sri Vaikuntam can come back.
Sri Vedanta desika answers the above question by saying that the children could come back because they did not reach
Sri Vaikunta pya loka through Archiradi marga or route. So the point is a person (jiva) who has gone to Moksha
through the Archiradi gathi will not come back.

8) Chathurmukha Brahma and Indra who have done upasana will go to Moksha after their respective tenures of office
by joining the archiradi marga from their respective places.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 4–(Phala )Paatham 2–(‘utkranthi pada’)Summary-

February 19, 2021

Even in the case of the prapanna when the abhyupagatha prarabda comes to an end he also becomes
ready to leave the mortal body and reach Sri Vaikuntha para loka through the Archradi marga.
Jivatma departing from the body is called utkranti and this utkranti is preceeded by a packing process.
This packing process is dealt with in detail in this second pada which is called utkranthi pada.

The question may arise as to whether it is necessary to deal with the packing process in detail which
takes place within the body as nothing is visible from outside. The reply is that a particular passage of
Chandogyopanishad specifically mentions this and as Brahmasutras are meant for the correct interpretation
of upanishadic passages, the Sutrakara sage Badarayana decided to compose sutras for the proper sequence of packing.

This pada is very important for Visishtadvaitha as the Sutrakara himself condemns in clear terms the
jivan muktha vada (vada means Strategic statement) of Advaitins.

This pada has eleven adhikaranas.
The first adhikarana is called Vagadhikaranam.
The upanishadic passage that comes up for discussion is from Sadvidya (6th chapter) in chandogyopanishad.
The meaning of this passage is that when jiva gets ready for the exit (departure) from the body then
his speech sense organ gets in conjunction with mind.
Then mind comes in conjunction with mukhya prana or breath and then mukya prana comes in conjunction with Jiva
and then indriyas, mind, mukya prana, jiva, Join thejas and these will come in conjunction with paramatma
who is the antaryami dwelling in the heart with jiva. Here conjunction means connection or union.
Here in the upanishadic text quoted above there is the word sampaththi. This word means conjunction.

The doubt that arises here is whether the speech itself gets in conjunction with the mind or whether the speech organ.
The opponent contends that the speech alone gets in conjunction with mind because speech is controlled by the mind.

The poorva pakshi that is the opponent opines that conjunction means merger and this merger should take place
with the thing which is the cause for the thing that gets merged.
In the karana and karya theory that is cause and effect theory karya gets disappeared or dissolved in the karana
that is the effect merges in the cause. Here the mind is not the cause of the speech organ and therefore
the poorva pakshi contends that the speech organ does not merge with the mind and hence speech alone merges with the mind.

This is refuted by the sutrakarar in the sutra “Vak Manasi darsanath sabdachcha”.
The meaning of this sutra is that the word “Vak” in the sutra refers vagintriya that is speech organ that is vagindriya.
In the upanishadic passage which is in support of the above there is the word “Sampadyathe” and hence
this word has to be added in the sutra to get the full meaning.
So the full meaning is that speech organ gets in conjunction with the mind because of two reasons mentioned in the sutra itself.

The first reason is darsanath and the second reason is sabdachcha.
The meaning of these two reasons is that even if the speech organ gets in conjunction with the mind
and the person who is going to leave the mortal body becomes speechless, some mental activity in that person is visible.
Sabdachcha means the upanishadic passage which has been mentioned above in which
it was said that the speech organ comes in contact with the mind.

The second sutra in this adhikarana says that like the speech organ the other indriyas (senses) also
come and join the mind with the result all the ten indriyas are in conjunction with the mind.
The gnana indriyas (senses giving knowledge or perception) are eyes, ears, nose skin and tongue.
The karma indriyas (action oriented) are hands, legs, speech organ, genital organ and excretory organ.

The Second adhikaranam in this pada is Manodhikaranam.
In this adhikaranam it is said that after all the indriyas go and join mind,
mind along with all the indriyas join the mukya prana (breath).
The Sutra is “Tanmana prana uttarath”.
Which means that mind with all indriyas get in conjunction with prana because of the reason
“Uttarath” which means that next to the upanishadic passage
“Vaakmanasi sampadyathi” is the text Mana: prane. So uttarath means next.

There is an additional doubt which is cleared in this Adhikaranam. The doubt is that in the upanishadic text
“Annamayam hi saumya mana” it appears that the cause for the mind is food.
Water is cause for the food from the text “Tha Annam Asrujantha”.
Further the text “Apomaya prana” appears to say that water is the cause for prana.
So from these texts it is but natural to say that mind gets merged with water as
water is the ultimate cause for the mind and it was said earlier any thing gets merged or dissolved in its cause.
So the mind along with senses get merged with water. This doubt rather becomes the contention of the opponent.
This doubt is cleared or the contention of the opponent is refuted by the fact that texts
“Annamayam hi sowmya mana: and Apomaya prana” do not say Food is the cause of mind and
water is the cause of the prana but they say that food promotes satisfactory functioning of mind and
water promotes satisfactory functioning of mukya prana or breath.
So indriyas and mind join the mukya prana before the exit of the jiva from the body stands.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called Adhyakshadhi karana.
The next step in the packing process is that the indriyas, mind and mukya prana get in conjunction with the jiva.
The room for doubt in this regard is in chandogyopanishad it is said
“Prana: Thejasi, Theja: Parasyam Devathayam”.
In this passage the jiva has been left out that is there is no mention of jiva.
So the opponent contends that prana (Mukya prana) along with indriyas and mind directly get in
conjunction with thejas or in other words the five bhuthas (elements).

In refutation of the above contention of poorva pakshi the sutrakarar says in the sutra,
“Sodhyakshe thadupagama dibhya:” that the mukya pranacomes in union with jiva who is the adhyaksha or leader of the indriyas.
Upagama means contact. There is an upanishadic passage which declares that all indriyas
come in conjunction with jiva.
The word “Adi” which means etc. indicates in this context that mukya prana exits from the body
along with the jiva according to two other upanishadic statements.
So the conjunction of Indriyas, mind and mukya prana with thejas is through jiva.
This is just similar to the statement that the river yamuna joins sea. But actually yamuna joins ganges river which joins sea.

The fourth adhikarana is called Bhuthodhikarana. In this adhikarana the doubt whether Mukya prana joins
the bhutha thejas alone or all the bhuthas which are ether (Sky), air, fire, water and earth is cleared.

The poorva pakshi contends that mukya prana joins thejas alone and not all the other bhuthas because
the 6th chapter in chandogyopanishad mentions “Prana: Thejasi” which means
mukya prana joins Thejas (Fire) alone and not other bhuthas.

The Sutrakarar says in the sutra which states “Bhuteshu Tachchruthe:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that all the Indriyas, mind, mukya prana and jiva join all the
bhuthas because there is a specific upanishadic passage in brihadaranyaka upanishath which states the above.
In this passage it is said that jiva moves within the body in contact with all the bhuthas.

The opponent again raises another point that is jiva can come in to contact with every bhutha
one after the other and it is not necessary that he should come in contact with all the bhuthas
combined together simultaneously.

The sutrakarar clears this point in the second sutra which reads as
“Naikasmin Darsha Yathohi”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Each bhutha by itself cannot do any work.
It should get mixed up with the other four bhuthas for being able to do any work.
This is called pancheekarana In Pancheekarana what happens is that in every bhutha
there is 50% of that bhutha and the remaining 50% comprises of the other four bhuthas each of which contributes 12.5%.
This is the principle of panchee karana.
This is also called as Trivrith karana in chandogyopanishath as it mentions only three bhuthas that is
fire, water and earth in which each of these elements (bhuthas) will have 50% of its own
and the remaining 50% comprises of other two bhuthas at 25% each.
So every substance in this universe is a mixture of all the bhuthas as mentioned above.
So in the upanishadic text “Prana: Thejasi” the term thejas refers to the mixture of all the five bhuthas
in the proportion mentioned above (50% of Fire, 12.5% of ether (Sky), 12.5% of air, 12.5% of water and 12.5% of earth).

Therefore Indriyas, mind, mukya prana and jiva in one packing come in conjunction with all the five bhuthas.

The fifth adhikarana in this pada is called Asruthyupa kramadhikarana.
The main object of this Adhikarana is to denounce the argument of Jivan mukthi (liberation while alive in this world).
This jivan mukthivada is propounded by Advaitins. There are two categories of persons.
The first category is called Upasaka, Vidwan or meditator who has done upasana or saranagathi for attaining
moksha (liberation) in Sri Vaikunta Divya loka.
The Second category is called avidwan who does not aspire Moksha and hence has not done upasana or saranagathi.

The question that arises here is whether the packing process explained above before jiva exits
from the mortal body is same for vidwan and avidwan or whether it is different.

The poorva pakshi says the above packing process is only for avidwan (not upasaka) and
vidwan attains moksha here itself which in other words is jivan mukthi.

This argument of poorva pakshi is refuted by the sutrakarar in the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as
“Samanacha Asruthyu pakramath Amritatvam cha anuposhya”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Samana is one and the same.
That is the packing process of indriyas joining the mind and the mind joining mukya prana,
mukya prana jivatma and then the bhutha sukshmas (Sukshma means atomic size) and finally
joining paramatma is one and the same for vidwans and avidwans.

In fact this Adhikaranam should have come after the next adhikarana in which only it is going to be said
the jiva along with the other things will go and join paramatma who as the antaryami is there
in the heart of the body of the vidwan (upasaka) and similarly in the case of avidwan.
Because the Sutrakara was in a hurry to refute the Jivan mukthi veda he dealt with this adhikarana earlier.

Asruthyu pakramath means till the commencement of route to Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka.
This route is called Archiradi marga. Jiva comes to this route through his entry into the nadi
which is called Moordhanyanadi Sushumna nadi or brahma nadi. Nadi means pulse or any tubular organ within the body.
In the heart there are 101 nadies. That 101st nadi which runs from nabhi (Navel) to the head is called
moordhanya nadi as mentioned above. This nadi leads to the Artchiradi marga.
So the vidwan who is on the way to Sri Vaikuntha para loka should first enter into the moordhanya nadi
through which he exits from the mortal body and then comes to the starting point of Archiradi marga.
So the overall meaning of the word “Asruthyu pakramati” is till the entry of vidwan (Jiva) in to the moordhanyanadi.

The Avidwan whose destination is heaven or hell departs from the body through any of the 100 nadies mentioned above.

So the sum and substance of the above is that the sequence of events that take place
within the body (packing process) is one and the same to the vidwan and avidwan till the entry in to nadies.

There are three more words in the sutra which require elaboration.
The words are Amrutatvam cha Anuposhya. To explain the meaning for these words another passage
in katopanishath has to be examined. The passage is
“Yada sarve pramuchyanthe kaama:
Yesya hrudi Sritha:| Atha marthya:
Amritho bhavathi Athra brahma Samashnuthe||”.
The meaning of this passage is when an upasaka (vidwan) sheds his desires from his heart then he becomes
like a muktha (liberated soul) here itself and not muktha actually. So the real meaning of Amrutatvam is that
for the upasaka the inadvertent sins committed by him after the commencement of Bhakthi yoga will not touch
and the sins committed by him before the commencement of Bhakthi yoga get destroyed. This is one of the fruits of the upasana.

Anu pashya means that he attains the above amrutatvam before his body gets burnt which in other words
means before he dies. There are some other important points which the Sutrakarar tells in this adhikarana. They are
(a) The bondage of samsara continues till he attains paramatma in Sri Vaikuntha para loka though
the prarabda karma of the vidwan or upasaka comes to an end at the time of his exit from the mortal body.
This is just like a person getting elected to the office of the president of India being called as
president elect and not as president till he is sworn in. So the concept of Jivan muktha is totally incorrect.
(b)The vidwan after his exit from the mortal body takes a sookshma sarira (a body not visible by others
and very minute in size and it can be even said as atomic in size) for his journey up to viraja river
which demarcates between Sri Vaikunta pya loka and the universe called Prakrithi mandala.
Even though the vidwan who is a jiva with his atomic size can travel through the archiradi marga
(route to Sri Vaikunta pya loka) without sookshma sarira, he requires the same for his dialogue with moon on the way.
This dialogue is mentioned in Koushitaki upanishath.
(c) The upanishadic passage “Yada sarve pramuchyanthe” which was mentioned above does not refer to
“Amruthathvam” after death but it referes to while vidwan is alive.
(d)Sutrakara gives a reason for the vidwan leaving the mortal body with sookshma sarira.
When the jiva is still in the body the entire body will be warm. When the jiva leaves the body
only a particular part of the body will be warm and the remaining part will be chill.
So this is a clear indication of the existence of sookshma sarira.

The sixth adhikaranam in this pada is called Parasampaththi adhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is whether the packing comprising indriyas, mind, mukya prana, jiva and bhutha sookshmas
come in conjunction with the supreme being who is in the form of antaryamin (inner soul)
within the body or whether they go to different lokas or worlds according to their deeds in the form of yagas or
according to their meditation on objects other than Sriman Narayana (Supreme being).
For example a person who has done jyothishtoma yaga goes to swarga loka to enjoy the pleasures there.
Similarly if a person meditates on Nama, Vak etc as mentioned in Bhuma vidya he will go to lokas prescribed for such meditations.
The point is even those lokas are under the control of the paramatma and if a person according to his
deeds and meditation as mentioned above goes to those lokas, there also jiva and bhootha sookshmas
as mentioned above will be in conjunction of paramatma.

So the poorva pakshi of this adhikaranam contends that the upanishadic passage
“Theja: parasyam Devathayam” refers to jiva and bhootha sukshmas along with other things like indriyas, mind, and mukya prana.

This contention of the poorva pakshi is refutted by the sutrakarar in the sutra
“Thani pare thatha hi Aha”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Thani means indriyas, mind, mukya prana, jiva and bhootha sukshmas.
Pare means paramatma. That is the above come in conjunction with paramatma as per the upanishadic text
“Theja: Parasyam Devathayam” which specifically mentions the bhootha sookshmas coming in contact
with antaryami paramatma along with jiva and others.

It is said that this conjunction or union of jiva with paramatma is for his taking rest for a while
after his strenuous experience of sufferings and pleasures according to his papa and punya respectively
during his tenure of stay in this mortal body which is the last one because after this he attains moksha.
Even for an avidwan (not upasaka) his union with paramatma is for his taking rest after strenuous experience of
sufferings and happiness in this birth and after this he goes to heaven if he has done
good deeds or he goes to hell if he has committed heinous sins.

The seventh Adhikaranam in this pada is called Avibhagadhikaranam.
The topic that is discussed in this Adhikaranam is whether jiva and other things coming in conjunction
with paramatma is their merger in paramatma or just union. In this case of the union, the jivatma and paramatma
are two distinct entities and are in separable. In the case of merger the jivatma and other things will merge
within paramatma because paramatma is the cause for all of them.

The poorva pakshi contends that
it is the merger of all the things in paramatma like the merger of effect in the cause.

The Sutrakara refutes this contention in the sutra “Avibhago vachanath”
Avibhaga means union of indriyas, mind, mukya prana, jiva and bhutha sookshmas with paramatma
that is these things come in contact with paramatma such that they become inseparable, without losing their respective identities.
vachanath means the upanishadic passage which is “Theja: parasyam Devathayam” gives the reason for the above decision of sutrakarar.

The above upanishadic passage starts by saying vangmanasi sampadyathe.
The word “Sampaththi” in the word sampadyathe means union. This word gets repeated in the next portion
of the passage which is “Mana:prane” and which clearly gets elaborated as “Mana: prane sampadyathe”
and again “Prana: Thejasi” gets elaborated as “Prana: Thejasi sampadyathe”.
So in the next portion that is “Theja parasyam devathayam” gets automatically elaborated
as Theja:parasyam devathayam sampadyathe.
So the word “Sampaththi” clearly means the inseparable union of the different distinct entities.

The eighth adhikaranam in this pada is called “Thadokodhikaranam”.
Till and inclusive of the union of the so far said entities with paramatma is common to both vidwans and avidwans.
From this adhikaranam on wards the difference between them commences.

As already said there are 101 nadies (pulses or tubular organs) inside the heart of a human being.
The 101st nadi is called Sushumna nadi, Moordhanya nadi or brahma nadi.
The vidwan (jiva) comes out of his mortal body through this nadi and comes to the starting point
of Archiradi marga which leads to Sri vaikunta pya loka.

The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam is whether there is any stipulation or condition that
the vidwan enters in to brahma nadi and avidwans enter in to other nadies or not.

The poorva pakshi says that there is no such condition because it is very difficult for the jiva to
locate the particular brahma nadi among the 101 nadies at that moment of exit from the body
because nadies are many and very minute and as such there is no condition like the above.
He further says that in the upanishadic passage
“Shatham chaika hrudayasya nadya: Thasam moordhanam abhi nissruthaika,
Thaya urdhvamayan Amrutatvamethi vishvanganya Uthkramane bhavanthi”.
The vidwan entering moordhanya nadi (brahma nadi) is purely accidental.

This view point of poorva pakshi has not been accepted by the sutrakarar in the sutra
“Thadokograjvalanam thath prakashitha dwara: vidya samarthyath thath seshagathi anusmrithi
yogachcha hardanu grihitha Shatadhikaya”.

Among the 545 brahma sutras the above sutra is the longest. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Vidyasamarthyath – Power acquired on account of deep meditation on paramatma.
Thath Shesha gathi (Anusmrithi yogachcha) – after getting pleased with the meditation in which the
archiradi marga through which vidwan goes to Sri Vaikuntha praa loka was also meditated upon as
subordinate to the main meditation done every day.
Hardena – harda is paramatma who dwells in the heart of the meditator and by him.
Anugrihitha:- The vidwan (jiva) is graced.
Oka: Agre – in the upward direction of the heart in which the jiva dwells.
Jvalanam Prakasitha dwara: Shathadhi kaya – Lighting that is paramatma illuminates the route
to the 101st nadi that is moordanya nadi to enable jiva to enter into this nadi without difficulty.

The sum and substance of this long sutra is that paramatma who is the antaryami in the vidwan’s body
becomes very much pleased with upasana or meditation in which the archiradi marga was also meditated upon
as subordinate to main meditation graces the vidwan (upasaka or meditator) and illuminates the path to 101st nadi
from the top of the heart and helps the jiva to enter into the same without any difficulty.
This is applicable to a prapanna also who has done prapatti instead of bhakthi yoga.

So this sutra clears the confusion created by the poorvapakshi and asserts that
vidwan departs from the body only through the 101st nadi.

The ninth adhikarana in this pada is called Rashmi adhikaranam.
The Vidwan (jiva) who comes out of the mortal body through 101st nadi is said to go in Archiradi marga
and come to Aditya mandala (Solar system) following the sun rays according to an upanishadic passage (Chandogyopanishath)
which reads as “Atha yatra Ethasmath sarirath uthkramathi atha Ethaireva rashmibhi: oordhvam a kramathe”.

The poorva pakshi wonders when there are no sun rays in the night how can a vidwan who has departed
from the body go along with the sun rays and so he says that there is no hard and fast rule that
he should go along the sun rays till he reaches Adithya mandalam.

This view is not accepted by the Sutrakarar who is sage Badarayana in the sutra
“Rashmi anusari” meaning that
the departed soul of the vidwan goes along the sun rays as per the upanishadic text mentioned above.
Regarding the view expressed by poorva pakshi that there are no sun rays during the night,
the Sutra karar says though not explicity in the sutra that there are sun rays during night.
On account of these sun rays only during extreme summer we experience sweltering or sweating due to heat.
During winter the effect of these sun rays is blocked just like the sun not becoming visible during cloudy or inclument weather.
So it becomes clear that vidwan (jiva) goes along with sun rays only because the above mentioned passage of chandogyopanishath.

The tenth adhikaranam in this pada is called “Nishadhikaranam”.
It was mentioned above that is in the previous Adhikaranam that if a vidwan dies in the night
he will go along with sun rays only.
Inspite of this the poorva pakshi raises another point and hence this separate adhikaranam.

It is said that the best time for death is day time, bright fortnight (Sukla paksha)
Uttarayanam (six months during which the sun travels from south to north) and
if a person dies in the time mentioned above he will go to heaven and if the time of the death is night,
dark fortnight (krishna paksham) and Dakshinayanam (six months in which the sun travels from north to south)
the person goes to hell. So the poorvapakshi contends that if a vidwan dies in the night he will not attain moksha.

This viewpoint is rejected by the Sutrakarar in the Sutra,
“Nishinethi chethna sambandasya yavath dehabhavitvath Darsayathicha”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Nishi – If the death of the vidwan occurs in the night and further if it is said
Nethi cheth – he cannot attain salvation
Na – It is not so that is the vidwan will attain moksha.
Yavath dehabhavitvat – The prarabda karma is there till the body is there which means the end of the
praarabda karma and the fall of the body always coincide. As this is the last birth of the vidwan
who has done upasana or even saranagathi, the end of this janma or birth coincides with the end of the praarabda karma.

In this context Sri Swami Bhashyakarar (Sage Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja) explains that in the case of upasaka
the punya papa karma other than praarabda accumulated up to the time of commencement of upasana
(Bhakthi yoga meaning meditation) which may force the upasaka to go to hell or heaven got destroyed
as per the will of the paramatma. The inadvertent “punya-papa” committed after the commencement of upasana
will have no effect on the upasaka as they do not touch him. During upasana the Prarabdha karma alone remains
and no body except paramatma knows when it comes to an end. Even if it comes to an end during the night
the vidwan does not go to hell as the sins committed by him which make him to go to hell get destroyed as mentioned above.

For a Prappanna who has done saranagathi or prapatti through an acharya all the punya papa karma
other than abhyupagatha prarabdha gets destroyed at the time of doing saranagathi that is at the time
of uttering dvaya mantra by the Acharya during the course of doing prapatti for an inpidual.

Abhyupagatha which remains for experience of suffering and happiness in this birth or janma.
No body except paramatma knows when this Abhyupagatha prarabdha comes to an end and the mortal body
falls with the death of the prapanna who is also a vidwan.

Darshayathicha – The above fact has been clearly indicated in the statement of Chandogyopanishath which says
“Thasya thavadevachiram yavathna vimukshye atha sampathsye”.
The meaning of this is that delay in attaining moksha is due to the non ending of prarabdha karma
and as soon as it ends the vidwan goes to moksha (eternal bliss).

So the vidwan attains moksha even if he dies in the night.

The last adhikaranam in this pada (11th) is called “Dakshina yandhikaranam”.
Even though the above maxim of attaining moksha if the death of a vidwan occurs in the night holds good
for a vidwan who dies in Dakshnayana still there is an additional doubt created by a passage in the last anuvaka
of taittariya upanishath which is cleared in this adhikaranam.

That passage is “Athaya : Dakshina pramiyathe pithrunam eva mahimanam gatva chandra masa: Sayujyam gachchathi”.
The meaning of this passage is the vidwan who dies in Dakshnayana goes to pithru loka and then attains moon.
It is also said in another passage the person who attains moon will be born again in this world and he will not go to moksha.
The poorvapakshi contends that because of the above only Bhishma grandfather of Kauravas and Pandavas
who had the power to decide the timing of his death waited till the commencement of uttarayana for his death.

The above argument is rejected by the sutrakarar in the sutra “Athasha Ayanepi Dakshine”.
The meaning of this sutra is very simple which is as follows.

For the same reason as explained in the previous adhikaranam, the vidwan will attain moksha even if he dies in Dakshinayana.
Taking re birth in this world is applicable to those who have not done any upasana or saranagathi.
The above passage of Taittariya upanishath clearly spells out as “Thasmath Brahmano mahimanam Apnothi”.
This means that vidwan who dies in Dakshnayana who goes to moon ultimately attains brahman (moksha).
His attaining moon is only for a short while and that is only for taking rest.
Bhishma who waited for uttarayana did not go to moksha. He was a “Vasu” in deva loka (heaven) from where
he took birth here on account of a curse. As soon as he died he went back to his original position that is vasu in deva loka.
He waited for uttarayana just to indicate that Uttarayana is a good time for death.

Again another doubt arises on account of a statement in the 8th chapter of Bhagavad Githa in which
Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that if a vidwan dies in day time, Sukla paksha and Uttarayana he goes to Moksha
and if one dies in night, Krishna paksha and Dakshinayana he comes here again to take another birth.

This doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar in the sutra “Yogina: Prathi smaryathe smarthecha Ethe”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Lord Krishna did not indicate the timing of the death
but mentioned to Arjuna the existence of two routes one called Dhoo madi marga or Pithru yana marga
leading to heaven and the other Archiradimarga or Devayana marga leading to Sri Vaikuntha pya loka.

So the person going to heaven through dhoomadi marga comes back here to take another birth
after enjoying the pleasures in the svarga loka.

The vidwan who goes to Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka through Archiradi marga will not come back here
and he will do eternal service to the pine couple and enjoys eternal bliss there.

As already mentioned this last chapter is called Phala Adhyaya which deals with the fruits being enjoyed
by the upasaka both during upasana (intensive meditation or Bhakthi yoga) and after reaching the Vaikuntha Divya loka.

The upasaka (meditator) and prapanna (one who has done saranagathi at the lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana
after doing Purushakara prapaththi at the Lotus feet of Goddess Mahalakshmi through an Acharya) reach
Sri Vaikunta Divya Lokam through Archiradi marga also known as Archiradi gathi.
This Archiradi gathi is also known as Devayana marga.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 4–(‘ Anga pada’)Summary-

February 19, 2021

In the background of the above and picking up the thread from the previous Guna upasamhara pada
the last pada of this chapter commences.
This pada is known as Anga pada that is dealing with ancillaries required for Bhakthi yoga.
In this pada there are 15 adhikaranas.
The first Adhikarana is called Purushartha Adhikarana which has 20 sutras.
Among 156 Adhikaranas in Sri Bhashya this adhikarana has largest number of sutras that is 20.
No other adhikarana in Sri Bhashya has this number of sutras.

Purushartha means supreme goal or Moksha.
The discussion in this adhikarana is whether karma is the means for attaining purushartha or
Brahma vidya is the means for purushartha.
Sage Badarayana who is the author or composer of Brahma sutras commences this adhikarana With
the Siddhantha sutra which reads as purushartha Atha: Sabdaditi Badarayana.
The meaning of this sutra is that purushartha or the supreme goal is achieved by Brahma vidya
which can be either Bhakthi yoga or prapatti.

Here comes sage Jaimini who is the opponent or poorva pakshi to this adhikarana Jaimini is said to be disciple of sage Badarayana.
There is a view that Jaimini is an athiest and does not believe in the existence of god and other celestial gods.
This view is strongly refuted and then established that the sage Jaimini is a strong believer in God
as his name has been quoted by Badarayana in several places of Brahma sutras
where sage Jaimini supports the views of Badarayana on Brahman.

Here Jaimini in six sutras tells that Brahmavidya is ancillary/subordinate to karma and
karma is not ancillary to vidya. Here karma means daily rituals and yagas.
The reasons advanced by jaimini are
i) King Asvapathi and emperor Janaka were famous karmanishtas even though they were Brahmanishtas.
Brahmanishta is the one who practices Brahma vidya and karmanishta is the one who practices Karma yoga.
ii) In the Udgeetha vidya it has been said that a person who does yaga which is karma along with
practicing of Udgeetha vidya attains better and more potential or powerful fruits. So vidya is ancillary to Karma.
iii) It is said that vidya and karma always go together and by logical reasoning vidya should be ancillary to karma.
iv)In the last passage of Chandogyopanishad it is said that a person who practices brahma vidya should do karma.
So Vidya appears to be ancillary to karma.
v) In Ishavasya upanishad it has been said that a person should live in this world for 100 years by doing karma only.
So the supreme goal cannot be attained by vidya. So vidya is ancillary to karma.

Now the Sutrakara sage Badarayana begins to refute the above points and establish that karma is ancillary to vidya
and the salvation is attained by brahma vidya only. The points of refutation are as follows.
i) Paramatma is superior to jivatma in all aspects and unless jiva meditates on paramatma adopting
any of the Brahma vidyas he will not be attain salvation. Brahma vidya can be practiced only if
karma yoga is done as per the procedure prescribed in Bhagavad githa.
ii) The Karma done by Brahma vith is multi purpose and karma need not be always ancillary to Brahma vidya.
It is said in some upanishads that sages like Kavasheyas say for what purpose we are learning Vedas
and for what purpose we are doing karma. This hints that karma is not an essential ancillary of Brahmavidya.
iii) Further it is said that doing karma without expecting its fruits is ancillary to Brahma vidya and that
karma has to be done. Karma done expecting its fruits is opposed to Brahma vidya whose fruit is Moksha (eternal bliuss).
Hence Brahma vidya cannot be ancillary to karma.
iv) The Upanishadic statement that udgeetha vidya is ancillary to karma cannot be applied to Brahma vidya.
Udgeetha vidya is not a Brahma vidya.
v) The Upanishadic statement that Vidya and Karma always go together does not specifically say that
vidya is an anga to karma. Anga means ancillary, auxillary or subordinate.
Brahma vidya is for its own fruit of moksha while karma is for its own fruit.
Jyothishtoma yaga is for attaining svarga loka. Puthra kameshtiyaga is for be getting a son. Kareerieeshthi is for getting rains.

In this adhikarana the sutrakarar says even asceties or saffron robed sanyasies who do not have
any access to any karma like yagas, are also eligible to resort to Bhakthi yoga or practice Brahma vidya.
So the conclusion is that Brahma vidya can never be an anga to karma.

The second adhikarana in this pada is called “Stutimatra Adhikarana”.
This adhikarana and the next adhikarana are out of context and not directly connected with the theme of this pada.
The theme of this pada is to consider the essential auxiliaries to the Brahma vidya.

The link of this Adhikarana with the previous Adhikarana may be spelt as follows.
In the previous Adhikarana it was said that as per Chandogyopanishad Brahma samstha who is otherwise called
Brahmanishta would attain moksha. Brahmanishta means one who practices Brahma vidya or Bhakthi yoga.
The above statement was in praise of Brahmanishta and this was done to recall the fact that persons
who will be in four ashramas namely Brahmachari (Bachelor), Grihastha (married),
Vanaprastha (One who resides in the forest after giving up household status) and saffron robed ascetic are eligible
to to Bhakthi yoga or prapatti in its place. Mentioning the ashramas was for praising Brahman.

Similarly in Udgeetha vidya it is said that pranava has to be praised to be essence among essences.
The doubt arises whether this is merely the praise of the pranava or whether pranava is to be meditated upon
considering the above aspect that is essence among essences. As the upanishadic scripture always says
some new or innovative thing which is not established either by Pratyaksha or Anumana pramana
the Sutrakara gives the judgement that pranava has to be meditated upon with the above aspect.
This Adhikaranam has two sutras.

The third Adhikarana is named Pariplavarthadhikarana,.
As mentioned earlier thins is also out of context. Pariplavam means flattery or praise.

In Upanishads there is always a story invariably attached to a Brahma vidya.
In Prathardana vidya which was preached by Indra to Prathardana, there is a story that Prathardana,
a human being goes to heaven to meet Indra there. Indra as a reciprocal gesture of having received help from him
asks Prathardana to seek a boon from him.
Similarly in Sadvidya a story of Svethakethu is narrated. The question arises whether these stories attached to
Brahma vidyas have merely the story value or whether they are integral part of the Brahma vidyas
and are meant for praising those who practice Brahma vidyas.
In Ashvamedha sacrifice it has been said that every day the king who performs has to be flattered by reciting some vedic mantras.

The Sutrakara in this context clearly spells out that these stories are in praise of Brahma vidyas
and they motivate persons to resort to these Brahma vidyas to attain moksha.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called “Agnindhanadhikaranam”.
This has direct link with the first adhikarana.

In the first adhikaranam it was said that the asceties with saffron robes who belong to fourth ashrama
are also eligible to do upasana or Bhakthi yoga for attaining moksha.

The doubt that arises here is when an ascetic or sanyasi is not eligible to do any karma associated
with Agni or fire and when doing karma is a direct and continuous prerequisite for doing Bhakthi yoga
how can a sanyasi become eligible to do Bhakthi yoga to attain Moksha.

Sutrakara says that when the upanishad clearly says that Sanyasies are eligible to do upasana or Bhakthi yoga
in their cases that karma associated with Agni is not applicable to them and it is applicable only in the case of Grihasthas.
So Sanyasis can do Bhakthi yoga without doing karma associated with Agni.

Incidentally it should be noted in this context that sanyasies are not completely free from doing karma.
In our Vishishtadvaitha Sampradaya (Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja darsana) the sanyasies have the
sacred thread (Yajgno pavitha), tuft (Sikha), Urdhvapundra, Pundra is a mark on the forehead.
If it is in the upward direction it is called urthvapundra (urdhva means upwards).
This urthva pundra should be in the form of vishnu pada (feet of Lord Sriman Narayana).
So Urdhva pundra comprises of two outer upward marks in white colour using Thiruman (holy earth)
and in between there is an yellow or red mark upwards called Sri Choornam.
Sri Vaishnavite sanyasins have three sticks called Thridanda. This is directly in contrast with the advaithi sanyasies.
They do not have sacred thread and tuft,
They wear Bhasma (ashes) and they have only one stick that is Ekadanda. Sri Vaishnavite sanyasins do Sandhyavandanam
regularly thrice a day and Ashtakshara japam. They perform the worship of Lord Sriman Narayana who is in the archa form or Salagrama.
Advaithi sanyasins do not do Sandhyavandanam. So Sanyasins can also practice Brahma vidya after doing karma prescribed for them.

The fifth Adhikarana is called Sarvapekshadhikarana.
When it was said in the previous adhikarana That karma associated with Agni is not required to be performed by
sanyasies for doing Bhakthi yoga, the question arises whether the above is necessary at all for a
grihastha (house holder) that is whether he should perform karma like Agnihothra and yagas etc.

The Brihadaranyaka upanishad clearly says that Brahmins (Brahmins include Kshatriyas and vysyas that is Trivarnikas)
get a desire to know Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) and then meditate upon him when they recite Vedas, do sacrifices,
make offerings to the deserved, doing religious austerities and fasting.
These things purify the minds of meditators which is necessary to attain concentration required for meditation.
So the above are means to acquire the knowledge of meditation.
So doing karmas in the form of sacrifices is essential to grihasthas for resorting to Bhakthi yoga.

So the Sutrakara based on the above upanishadic statement reiterates the above fact and
gives a beautiful example for the above. Though the horse is a means for travelling by a person riding on it
still it requires some extra fittings or arrangements. For applying a brake and make it gallop.
So also here Bhakthi yoga is a means for moksha and it requires extra ancillary or anga which is karma for acquiring Bhakthi yoga.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja clearly states in this context that the knowledge of the upanishadic statement Tatvamasi
which is called vakyartha gnana cannot be the means for moksha and the knowledge of the meditation
which is called Upasanatmaka gnana is done which is the means for attaining moksha. Even prapatti is in the form of a knowledge.

The Sixth adhikarana in this pada is called Shamadamadhi Adhikarana.
Shama means controlling external senses or indriyas like eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue, genital organ, speech etc.
Dama means controlling of mind.
In some other contexts, Dama means control of external senses and Shama means control of mind.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is whether the controlling of senses is essential for practicing Bhakthi yoga,
while the controlling of senses is easily possible by sanyasies because they do not have much karma to do
apart from sandhya vandanas and the worship of the Lord, it is difficult in the case of Grihasthas because
their senses are engaged in doing karma like sacrifices etc.

The Brihadaranyaka upanishad says “Therefore one who has acquired knowledge as above, who has controlled his mind,
who has controlled his external senses, free from all desires (free from doing things which are prohibited),
tolerant or patient, with a composed or peaceful mind, sees the paramatma or
the inner soul (Antaryami) of his own self (jivatma). This seeing is meditation.”

The Sutrakara’s contention in this adhikarana is that a person should be able to control his senses
including mind at the time of doing upasana (meditation) though of course his senses are engaged
during the performance of the karma. So the conclusion is shama and dama are the
angas (auxiliaries or ancillaries or ingredients) of Bhakthi yoga.

The seventh adhikarana in this pada is Sarvanna anumathi adhikaranam.
Here Anna means food. This adhikarana imposes restrictions on the food to be taken by
a Brahmanishta who practices Brahma vidya or Bhakthi yoga.

Chandogyopanishad says “If the food is pure and free from defects, then the satva guna increases.
If the satva guna increases then there will be Dhruvanu Smrithi. This Dhruvanu smrithi is the Bhakthi yoga”.
In Bhagavad githa, Lord Krishna tells arjuna that the food a person eats is of three categories namely satvika, rajasa and thamasa.
The Sattvika food is as follows. The food that promotes longevity, intelligence, vigourous health,
happiness and cheerfulness and which is sweet, bland, sustaining, naturally agreeable, edibles.

In the sloka which Lord Krishna addresses Arjuna, there are the following technical terms.
Rasya:, Snigdha:, Sthira:, Hridya:
(a) Milk, Sugar and other substances having a sweet flavour come under the category of Rasya:
(b)Butter, Oils extracted from Satvic substances and other fatty products come under the category of Snigdha:
(c) Foods which sustain the body for a long time and give strength are called sthirah:
(d Foods which are not made of foul or impure fall in to the category of “Hrudya:”

Edibles are of four kinds
(a) Bhakshya – Those which are to be chewed before they are swallowed.
(b)Bhojya – Those which are directly swallowed.
(c)Lehya – Those which are Licked
(d)Chosya – Those which are sucked.

(e)Githacharya (Lord Krishna) says that he as Antaryami for the Jatharangani (bail juice) arranges
the digestion of the food in four different ways.

The details of Rajasa food are as follows..
Foods which are bitter, acid, salty, over hot, pungent, dry and burning causing suffering, grief and sickness

The details of Tamasa food are as follows..
Foods which are half cooked, which have lost taste, putrid, stale, polluted and impure.

A Brahmanishta should take only satvika food and not either Rajasa or Tamasa.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja says in the Laghu siddhantha of Sri Bhashya that the food we take should be free from
three defects which are jathi dushta, Ashraya dushta and nimiththadushta.
Jathidushta means certain varieties of grains, vegetables and fruits should not be eaten.
For example Ragi, Onion, potato, Maize, bottle gourd, Cabbage, drum stick, tomato, Meat of animals and birds.
These things should not be eaten.
Ashraya dushtam means food in possession or belonging to persons of inferior castes.
Nimitta dushtam means food having connection with hair, food eaten by others etc.
A complete list of items which are to be eaten and which should not be eaten as beautifully narrated by
Sri Vedanta Desika in the famous deiva tamil of Ahara niyamam is given below for the information of the readers.
As there is no time to translate this in to English the summary of the pasurams in this prabandha in Tamil is given below.
This acts as a very useful guide to all.

In this Adhikarana the main point for discussion is whether a prana vidya nishta
( The person who meditates on Mukhya prana that is breath is called Prana vidyanishta)
can eat anything and every thing or whether there is any restriction in the same that is
whether any thing or everything can be eaten only in the case of critical situation.

The poorvapakshi or the opponent says that in the chandogyopanishad it is said that prana vidyanishtan
can eat any thing as there is a blanket sanction for the same.
The critical situation is a person on account of extreme starvation or hunger by not getting
proper and pure food comes to a state of facing the death.

The Sutrakara says when the sage Ushasthi a bramanishta did not get any food because of extreme famine condition
in Kurudesha and came to a village with his wife in which people were riding on elephants.
As he was suffering from deep hunger the situation became critical. He approached a person who was a mahout
and begged to give him the cooked inferior variety of black gram which he was eating and spitting
on the uneaten mass of the above as he had nothing else. Ushasthi ate it to save his life.
But when the above person asked ushasthi to drink water given by him. Ushasthi refused to take water
because it is the remaining portion of water which that mahout had already drunk.
When that mahout asked ushasthi how he accepted the above, the ushasthi replied that if he had not eaten, he would have died.
The same critical situation arose next day also and he ate whet his wife had preserved uneaten portion of the previous day.
This story is narrated in Chandogyopanishad. The Sutrakara concludes that when ushasthi a brahmanishta
who is much superior to a prana vidyanishta ate the thing which he should not have eaten,
at the time of critical situation, pranavidyanishta cannot eat anything and every thing.

So eating anything at the time of critical situation alone is permitted and in the normal times,
there is absolute restriction in the food as explained above elaborately.

The eighth adhikarana in this pada is called Vihitatvadhikaranam.
In this adhikarana the doubt that arises is whether a plain ashrami that is one who has not resorted to
bhakthi yoga should do sandhyavandana and other rituals including yagas when these have been said as
subordinate, auxiliary or ancillary to Bhakthi yoga. It is said If these are to be performed by a plain ashrami
there is a defect called Nitya anitya samyoga virodha arises.

The meaning of this is If the above karmas are for the sake of ashramam they have to be done forever till death.
Then it becomes “Nityam” (for ever). If they are done for the sake of the vidya aspiring the fruit of Moksha
then it becomes anitya because if the inpidual does not aspire the fruit of moksha then he need not do this karma.
So the same karma becomes nitya for one category of persons and anitya for another category of persons.
So the same karma has two diametrically opposite aspects which are nitya and anitya and
this is called Nitya Anitya samyoga which is a defect.

So the poorvapakshi says to over come this defect the above karmas need not be performed by
kevala ashrami (plain ashrami who has not resorted to any brahmavidya or Bhakthi yoga).

The Sutrakara says in the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as
“Vihitatvachcha Ashrama Karmapi” which means
whether a person resorts to Brahma vidya or not he has to perform the above karmas which are an integral part of his ashrama.
There are four stages in the Ashrama which are Brahmacharya (remaining Bachelor) observing strict celibacy,
Grihastha (householder after getting married, vana prastha (residing in the forest).
Sanyasi or a scetic wearing saffron robes. In every stage of the ashrama, scriptures prescribe
compulsorily certain karmas which have to be performed. These prescribed karmas of each ashramam are called Ashramakarma.
So the same set of karmas become integral part of Brahma vidya for a brahma vidyanishta.
So there is what is called “Viniyoga prithakthvam”. Viniyogam means use or application.
Viniyoga prithakthvam means exclusively different which in other words mean the same set of karmas
for the sake of Ashramam in the case of Ashrami and is for the sake of Brahma vidya in the case of Brahma vidya nishta.

But a person cannot become a brahma vidyanishta without being in an ashramam.

The Sutrakara further says that if an ashrami is also a brahma vidyanishta the same set of karmas
will suffice for both and he need not repeat it again. These nitya naimittika karmas will
wash off sins and renders purity of mind which is very much essential for doing meditation.

The Ninth adhikaranam in this pada is called “Vidhuradhikaranam”.
Vidhura means widower. That is one whose wife is dead. Because he has lost his wife
he cannot be called grihastha ashrami as he is not eligible to do yagas and other sacrifices.
In any case he has to do sandhya vandhana and other nithya naimittika karmas.
Besides sandhyavandanam to be done three times, the other nitya karmas are
Snananga tharpanam, Devarshi Kandarshi Tarpanam, worship of the Lord Sriman Narayana (Thiruvaradhanam).

Naimittika karmas are annual ceremonies of mother and father, Amavasya tarpana, Sankramana tarpana, Mahalaya tarpana,
Ekadasi upavasam, Dwadasi paranam, observance of Sri jayanthi, Sri Ramanavami, Sri Nrisimha jayanthi,
observance of birthdays of Acharyas, Krittika deepotsava, Upakarma and Gayathri japa, Ashtaka and Anvashtaka Tarpanas.
Vidhuras (widowers) are not eligible to do Vaisvadeva and Panchamaha yajnaoupasano. These are anashrami.
Similarly one who has given up Brahmacharya ashrama, but could not take up Grihastha ashrama because
he was not able to get a bride to marry is an anashrami. Likewise Those who have left Grihastha Ashrama
and could not take up Vanaprastha ashrama for various reasons are also anashramies.

In Kaliyuga those in Vanaprashta ashrama are very rare and infact nil. Those who decided to take up the
sanyasa ashramam and left the house but could not take up sanyasa ashramam are also anashramies.

Now the question in this Adhikarana is whether the above mentioned categories of anashramies are eligible
to do Bhakthi yoga. The reason for this doubt is when the anashramies are not eligible to do karmas
prescribed for any ashramam they cannot be considered fit for doing Bhakthi yoga.

The Sutrakara says in the sutra “Anthara cha Apithu that drushte:”,
that anashramies are also eligible to practice brahma vidya and attain moksha.
Anthara means in between. Those who are in between two ashramams are anashramies
and they are also eligible for doing meditation. But the doubt still remains when these anashramies
are not eligible to do karmas how can they wash off the sins and attain purity of mind
which is an essential prerequisite for doing upasanam.

Sutrakarar replies to the above point saying these anashamis can do Gayathri manthra japa,
Ashtakshara manthra japa, etc and attain purify of mind which become a prelude for doing upasana.

Sutrakara makes an observation in this context that it is not prudent or fair to remain anasrami
for a long time and it is better he tries utmost to become an ashrami as early as possible.

The Tenth adhikarana in this pada is called “Thath bhuthadhikaranam”.
There is another category of persons which is called “Ashrama brashta”.
A person is called “Ashrama brashta” if he has slipped or deviated from his ashramam.

There can be three sub categories of “Ashrama bhrashtas”. The first category comprises of persons
who have slipped from Brahmacharya ashramam. That is a person vows to remain a brahmachari throughout his life.
He is called Naishthika brahmachari. If after some time he develops a desire to marry
and enters in to a marriage he is an “ashrama brashta”.

A Grihastha vowing and going to forest as a Vana prastha. If after some time he comes back to his home
he becomes an “ashrama brashta”, similarly if a sanyasi with saffron robes comes back to
Grihastha ashrama he is also an ‘ashrama brashta’.

Now the question in this adhikarana is whether the above three categories of ashrama brashtas are eligible
to do Brahmopasana (Bhakthi yoga).

The poorvapakshi says that these ashrama brashtas are eligible to do upasana because
they can make danas (offerings) and become eligible to do upasana.

The Sutrakara says in the first sutra of this adhikarana that ashrama brashtas are not eligible to do
upasana because scriptures do not specify any atonement prayashitta for them to get purified.
They are called Atmahas which means to say they have spoiled their souls beyond redemption.

A doubt arises in this context whether they are eligible to do prapatti through an Acharya to attain Moksha.
This is a debatable point. Some hold the view that when Prapatti can be done by one and all
without any discrimination the ashrama brashtas are also eligible to do Prapatti.

The eleventh adhikarana in this pada is called “Swami Adhikaranam”.
This adhikaranam is out of context. In the previous two adhikaranas it was discussed who are all eligible
to do upasana and who are all not eligible to do upasana.
In this context the sutrakarar thought if fit to decide as to who should do udgeetha vidya upasana
and who should not do udgeetha upasana. Udgeetha upasana is the meditation on pranava
and it is done as a subordinate to yaga for getting better and quicker fruits.

In a Yaga there is Yajamana or the promoter of yaga for getting the desired fruits.
He does yaga with the help of rithviks who are proficient in Vedas and in actually performing yagas.
Hotha, Adhvaryu, Udgatha, Prasthotha, Prathihartha, Brahma are the names of
rithviks who are assigened to perform various specific jobs in the yaga.

The Yajamana pays money to rithviks as remuneration for the various jobs done by them.
This money is paid to them on a contract basis based on earlier understanding between the yajamana and the rithviks.
This udgeetha vidya has to be performed by udgatha.

Now the question in this adhikarana is as to who should do udgeetha upasana that is whether
yajamana or rithvik particularly udgatha.

The sage Athreya who is the disciple of Sage Badarayana opines that Yajamana should do Udgeetha vidya upasana
because he is going to be the enjoyer of the fruit of the yaga. The reasoning for this is that in Brahma vidya upasanas
like Dahara vidya etc the person who aspires for moksha phala should do the upasana as he is going to attain Moksha.
So also on the same anology yajamana who aspires for the fruit of the yaga should do Udgeetha vidya.

This contention of the sage Athreya is contained in the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as
“Swamyna: Phala sruthe: Ethi Athreya:”.
Swami means yajamana. Sage Audulomi another disciple of the Sutrakara says he does not agree with the
view point of Athreya and further says that Udgatha who is the rithvik has to do udgeetha upasana
on behalf of the yajamana because he is paid for this specific purpose.
The argument that Brahmopasana is done by the person himself who aspires Moksha phala is not correct as
no where in the scriptures it has been said that another person can do brahma vidya for the sake of the other.

The Sutrakara is in agreement with the viewpoint expressed by Aududomi and it is the Siddhantha.

The twelth adhikarana in this pada is called “Sahakari Antharavidhi Adhikarana”
Sahakari means aid or angam.

In Brihadaranyaka upanishad it is said that a person who resorts to Brahmopasana should be an erudite scholar (Panditha)
and should not expose or exhibit his deep scholarship and should conduct himself like an young boy and then
should think on Lord Sriman Narayana that is Thinking of his extra ordinary beautiful form which is otherwise
called Divya Mangala vigraha. This thinking on the Divya Mangala vigraha is called Mauna which means
manana seelathvam:. So this Mauna is yet another Anga for Bhakthi yoga.

The Thirteenth Adhikarana in this pada is called Anavishkaradhikarana.
In the fifth chapter of Brihadaranyaka upanishad it is said that the person who practices Brahma vidya
should first obtain deep erudition in the scripture and conduct himself like an young boy.
This means that he should not expose, exhibit or display his deep scholarship and he should mingle freely with other people.
The doubt that arises here is whether a Brahmanishta who has to behave like an young boy can be playful
without seriousness and eat anything which he comes across or confine himself in not exposing his greatness.

Though the purva pakshi contends that he can be playful and eat anything,
the Sutrakara says that the Brahmavith should confine himself to not exposing his greatness
and avoid ostentation scrupulously.

The fourteenth adhikarana in this pada is “Aihikadhikaranam”.
In this adhikarana and in the adhikarana next to this timing of getting the fruit of the upasana is discussed.
An important point to be noted in this context is that Brahmopasana is of two types.
One for attaining Moksha and the other for getting wordly pleasures. The latter is Aihika phala.
In Bhagavad geetha Lord Githacharya says that there are four categories of persons who meditate on him. They are
(1) Those who are in deep distress caused by the losing their belongings and aspire to regain them back.
(2) Those who want to acquire new material benefits which they have not enjoyed before.
(3) Those who want to enjoy their own atma or soul.
(4) Those who want to attain Moksha.
Brahmopasana is prescribed for getting all the above desires fulfilled.
When this Brahmopasana is for the first three it is called upasana for Eihika phala.

Now the topic for discussion is as to when the person is going to get the fruit for his upasana to get Eihika pala.
There are three views in this regard.
(1) Soon after the completion of the upasana.
(2) In this janma or birth itself
(3)In the next birth

So the Poorvapakshi says that the person should get the fruit soon after the completion of upasana.

The Sutrakara says that Aihika phala will be attained by the person who does Brahmopasana for the above.
Soon after the completion of upasana provided no other strong karma that is papa karma of his blocks the same.
If there is a block the person gets the Aihika phala after the block is cleared.

The Sutrakara says that the existence of the block is an accepted one because in a yaga if the udgeetha vidya is done,
it will remove the block and makes the person to get the fruit without delay.

The last adhikarana in this pada is called Mukthi phaladhikaranam.
The timing of a person getting moksha phala who does the Brahmopasana for moksha is discussed in this adhikarana.

In this adhikarana it is concluded that even getting Moksha phala may get delayed or blocked
on account of strong “papa” committed by him. The strong papa is “Brahmavid apachara” which means that
the person who does upasana might be disrespectful towards Brahma vith and this Brahma vidapachara is so powerful
and it can even cancel the moksha phala. So persons who resort to Bhakthi yoga and prapatti for attaining moksha
should avoid Brahmavidapachara which has disastrous consequences.

The word in the sutra which is Tadavastha dhruthe: is repeated twice to indicate that this third chapter comes to an end.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 3–(‘Gunopasamhara pada’)Summary-

February 19, 2021

Gunopasamhara pada which is the third quarter in the third chapter.

In the light of the above Bhakthi yoga and Nyasavidya (Prapatti yoga) this pada will be dealt with now.
In this pada along with Brahma vidyas mentioned earlier prana vidya and udgeetha vidya are also considered.
Prana Vidya is the meditation on Mukhya prana or the air we breathe.
Udgeetha is Pranava which is meditated upon in several ways.
As these two vidyas are mentioned in the upanishads only and no where else the Sutrakarar thought it fit
to deal with them in Brahma sutras which are only the interpretation of upanishads.

Upasamhara means unifying or combining the attributes.
That is if a particular Brahma Vidya is mentioned in more than one upanishads like
Vaisvanara vidya, Dahara vidya and if it is established that a vidya with the same name appears in
two or three upanishads for the same moksha phalam then the Kalyana gunas mentioned in one and
not mentioned in the other are to be added to the kalyana gunas mentioned in the other and
they are to be jointly meditated upon.

This pada has the largest number of adhikaranas which is 26.
It is enough if the conclusion arrived in each adhikara is known in a nutshell.
Now the adhikaranas can be considered one by one.

1) The first adhikaranam is Sarva vedantha pratyaya adhikaranam.
In this first adhikarana the topic for discussion is whether vysvanara vidya mentioned in many upanishads is one and the same.

The poorva pakshi says when the above vidya has been retold completely in another context
in other upanishads they should be different.

The Sutrakarar in the first sutra “Sarvavedanta pratyayam chodanadi aviseshath” says the above vidya is one and the same.
The meaning of the sutra is,
Sarva vedantha pratyam – A vidya mentioned in several upanishads is one and the same because
Chodanadi Avisheshath – Avisheshath means one and same
chodanadi means motivation, fruit, nature of the object of meditation and name.

In every vidya there should be a command or motivation for doing Bhakthi yoga or meditation.
The fruit or Moksha phala should be one and the same. The nature and attributes of the object of meditation
that is Lord Sriman Narayana should be one and the same. The name of the vidya should also be one and the same.
When a particular vidya mentioned in several upanishads is one and the same, then the upasamhara that is the
adding of attributes of the object of meditation mentioned in the upanishads arises.
The reason of retelling the vidya of the opponent for proving the vidya is different is countered by saying
when the student learning the vidya is different naturally the same vidya has to be repeated.
This is something similar to that the same subject of mathematics is taught to different batches of students
at different points of time at different places.
Even the Daharadikarana mentioned in Chandogya, Taittariya and Brihadaranyaka is one and the same.

2) The second adhikarana is called Anyathathvadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is udgeetha vidya. As already pointed out the udgeetha vidya and prana vidya
which are mentioned in the upanishads are to be discussed and interpreted here only.
This Udgeetha vidya has been mentioned in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka upanishads.
The doubt is whether this udgeetha vidya told in the above upanishads is one and the same.

In Chandogya, the object of meditation is an organ of udgeetha which has to be considered as mukya prana
(the air that we breathe) and meditated where as
in Brihadaranyaka the meditation is on the entire udgeetha considering it as Mukhya prana.

As there is difference in the objects of meditation the conclusion is the udgeetha vidya in chandogya is
different from that in Brihadaranya.

3) The third adhikaranam is Sarva abedhadhikaranam.
In this Adhikarana the Prana Vidya is discussed.
The prana vidya is told in Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka and Kaushithaki upanishads.
While in Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya the Prana vidya is identical and there is a slight difference in Kaushitaki upanishad.
So the doubt whether prana vidya in koushtaki is same as in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka or not.

The poorva pakshi says it is not because the gunas or attributes of mukya prana mentioned in koushitaki
are different from that in the other two.

The siddhantha is that prana vidya mentioned in all the three is one and the same as gunas mentioned in koushitaki
are not contradictory to these mentioned in the other two.

The sutra is sarva abhedath Anyatra Ime.
Which means that because of Abheda that is no difference in the gunas the prana vidya is one and the same
and the gunas mentioned in koushitaki are to be added (Upasamhara) to that in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka and meditated.

Here the upanishad narrates a story. The pranas or indriyas wanted to know who among them is superior.
They sent their spokes men to the Lord Brahma (Four headed brahma) to know the above.
The Brahma asked them to leave the body one by one stay outside for one year and watch the functioning of the body.
First the vagindriya that is speech left the body for one year and the person became dumb.
The other faculties of the body functioned normally.

Then the eyes left the body and the person became blind and otherwise the functioning of the body was normal
and all the parameters functioned normally except vision. Then the eyes returned back.
Then ears left and the person became deaf and the other parameters functioned normally.
Then the ears returned. Then mind left and the same thing happened.

But the question may arise as to how body could function without mind. The reply is that children do not do anything
with mental concentration as they are always playful. Likewise the body functioned. The mind came back.
When the Mukhya prana that is the air we breathe left the body it made all the other senses also to leave the body along with it.
The breath came to a stop and the body began to decompose.

Then all the Indriyas and Mukhya prana came back and all indriyas accepted the Mukya prana as their Chief or Leader.
Then Vagindriya told the Mukhya prana that just because it is vasishta the mukya prana is also vasishta.
The eyes told the mukya prana as prathishta, Ears told that it is sampath. Mind told that it is Ayathanam.

The gunas to be meditated in prana vidya
Jyeshtathavam – Elderliness
Shreshatvam – Superiority
Vasishtatvam – Superiority attained on account of Eloquence or oratorical skill.
Prathishtatvam – Even minded ness
Sampaththavam – becoming learned
Ayatanatvam – Body through which all pleasures are enjoyed.

The above story is called prana samvada in upanishads.
Udgeetha and prana vidyas are not Brahma vidyas and hence there is moksha palam for these two vidyas.

4) The next adhikaranam is Anandadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is the kalyana gunas to be meditated upon compulsorily in each Brahma Vidya.
These Kalyana gunas are called Svarupa nirupaka dharma:.

The poorva pakshi says when these kalyana gunas are not attached to any brahma vidya there is no need to meditate upon them.

Sutrakara says when Lord Sriman Narayana is the upasya (the object of meditation) in every brahma vidya
and when his intrinsic nature cannot be realised without thinking of some gunas, these gunas are to be
essentially meditated upon in every brahma vidya. These kalyana gunas are therefore called Svarupa nirupaka gunas or dharmas.
They are six in number which are, Satyatva, Jnanatva, Anantatva, Anandatva, Amalatva and Sriya:Pathitva.
Amalatva will be dealt with in another Adhikarana. Though Sriya:pathitva is not explicitly mentioned here it is implied.

5) The next adhikarana is called Karyakhyanadhikaranam.
This is in continuation of sarvabhedhadhikaranam in which the Prana vidya was dealt with.
When Indriyas accepted the Mukhya prana as their chief, Mukhya prana asks them what is my clothing.
They replied that water is its clothing and that is why people while taking food do achamanam
before taking food and after taking food. So those who practice Prana vidya should consider the achamanam they do
before food and after food as the clothing of Mukhya prana. This prana vidya is not in any way connected with Brahma vidyas.

6) The sixth adhikarana is called Samanadhikaranam.
This deals with sandilya vidya which is mentioned in Agni rahasya. This is again mentioned in Brihadaranyaka upanishad.
In the Kalyana gunas mentioned in these two upanishads vary to some extent. So the doubt arises whether
this Sandilya vidya in the above two upanishads is one and the same.

The opponent says it is different because the very structure of this vidya in one is different from the other.

The Sutrakara says in his judgement that this Sandilya vidya is one and the same in both.

7) The next adhikarana is called Sambandhadhikaranam.
In Brihadaranyaka the upasana (meditation) of the Lord Sriman Narayana in solar system (Aditya mandala)
and also right eye has been mentioned. This Brahman or Paramatma has been mentioned as vyahruthi sariraka
(having of vyahruthies which are Bhu, Bhuva, Suva, Mahr, Jana, tapa and satya lokas as his bodies)
and also he has been named as satya.

The doubt is whether meditation of Lord in Aditya is different from the meditation of the Lord in Right eye are one and the same.

There is purvapaksha sutra “Sambandadevam Anyatrapic which says that they are one and the same

while the siddanta sutra “Nava visheshath”, says there are different because the very characteristic (rupa) is different in both.

8)The next adhikarana is Sambruthi Adhikaranam.
In Ranayani sakha and in some khila sruthies the upasana is mentioned.
Khila sruthi is that portion of upanishad in which its preceding portion and succeeding portions are missing and not traceable.
It is said here that Brahman (Paramatma ) is superior and is known for his valour and he is supporting the entire universe.
This superior Brahman is encompassing the entire svargaloka (heaven also called as Dyuloka)

The doubt here is whether the above aspects (attributes) of Brahman are to be meditated in every Vidya.
The purva pakshi says that they are to be meditated because they are not attached to any particular Brahma vidya.

The Sutrakara in his judgement contained in the sutra “Sambruthidhyu vyapthicha atha” says that the above gunas or
attributes need not be meditated in vidyas called Alpasthaniya vidyas in which the
paramatma is meditated as Antaryami of upasaka (meditator). The antaryami dwells in a very small place in the heart
where as the above mentioned aspect or attribute is that paramatma encompasses the entire svarga loka or it may be even said as Akasa.
These two aspects are contrary to each other. The Alpasthana vidyas are sandilya vidya, Dahara vidya etc.
So in these vidyas the above aspect of dhyu vyapthi (encompassing of heaven ) should not be meditated.

9) The next adhikarana is Purusha vidyadhikarana which has been mentioned in Taittiriya upanishad and Chandogyopanishad.
The Purusha vidya in Taittiriya Upanishad is subordinate to Nyasa vidya and the Phalam is Moksha.
The Purusha vidya in Chandogya is for extending the longevity of the meditator.

The Purva pakshi says that just because the vidya in both the above upanishads bears the same name they should be one and the same.

The Sutrakara gives his judgement in the sutra “Purusha vidyayam Apicha itaresham Anamnanth”
and says that the above purusha vidya in Taittariya Upanishad is different from
the purusha vidya in chandogya because the phalas are different.

10) Next adhikaranam is Vedhadhyadhikarana.
At the commencement of the recitation of a particular branch of Veda, a Shanthi Pata which is an integral part
of that branch has to be recited according to a practice from time immemorial.
This shanti pata is very near the brahma vidya mentioned in those branches.
This Shanthi pata varies from branch to branch.
The doubt is whether the Shanthi pata of any particular sakha or branch is an ancillary or Anga of the Brahma vidya or not.

The poorvapakshi contends that the shanthi pata is a part and parcel or ancillary of Brahma vidya.
He further says that while some of the shanthi patas are used for other purposes, the mantras like
sanno mitra sam viruna; and sahanava vathu have no other use and hence they should be part of the vidya.

The sutrakara’s contention which is siddhantha says in his sutra
”Vedhadhi Artha bedath” that these shanthi patas are not ancillary (Anga) to Brahma vidyas.

11) The next adhikarana is Hani Adhikaranam”
In this adhikarana the final disposal of ‘punya’ and ‘papa karma’ of a Bhakthi yoga nishta or Prapanna
just before he leaves this mortal body and then goes to Moksha is discussed. There are several upanishadic texts in this regard.

(a)The Chandogya says that a person (Bhakthi yoga nishtha or Prapanna) sheds his karma or sins
(sins include punyas also because they also block the attainment of moksha) like a horse sheds its hairs
and he comes out of his mortal body just like chandra comes out of the clutches of Rahu after the eclipse
and them enters the vaikunta pya loka which is called Akritham (not created).
For the vaikunta para loka which is called nitya vibhuthi of Lord Sriman Narayana there is no creation or destruction.
The universe comprising of the worlds which constitute one brahmanda in which we are living is called Lila Vibhuthi
and this Vibhuthi subject to creation and destruction by the Lord Sriman Narayana.
Vibhuthi means wealth or aishwarya. Lord Sriman Narayana is called Ubhaya Vibhuthi Natha.

(b) In Mundaka upanishad it is said the vidwan who may be Bhakthi nishta or prapanna after shedding
punya, papa attains equality with paramatma after reaching Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

(c) The Satyayani branch of Vedas says the sons of a vidwan (Bhakthi nishta or prapannas) inherits the property of
their father and punya portion of his karma gets transferred to the friends of the vidwan and the papa portion
gets transferred to foes or enemies of the vidwan.

(d)The Kaushitaki upanishad says the vidwan sheds sukrutha (punya) and Dushkrutha (papa) and
while his friendly relatives get the punya his relatives who are his enemies get the papa.

Here shedding punya and papa is called hani and the transfer of the same to his friends and foes is called upayana.

While doing Bhakthi yoga by adopting any brahma vidya given in the list mentioned before,
this hani and upayana has to be thought while doing meditation.
This thinking forms an integral part of upasana or meditation in all brahma vidyas except nyasa vidya.
This thinking is an ancillary of Bhakthi yoga.

As narrated above some upanishadic texts mentioned only hani that is shedding of punya papa karma and
some other upanishads mentioned only upayana that is transfer of punya and papa to the friends and foes respectively
while some upanishads mentioned both hani and upayana.

The doubt that arises here is whether it is enough if hani alone is thought, or if
upayana alone is thought or whether both are to be thought during meditation.
Either hani or upayana is called vikalpa and both is called Samuchchaya.
The poorvapakshi says it can be vikalpa or samuccaya as per the dictates of the upanishad.

The Sutrakara gives the judgement stating that it is samuchchaya only and not vikalpa because
hani is always subject to upayana or sub ordinate to upayana.

The Sutra is “hanouthu upayana sabda seshatvath kusha chchanda, stuti upaganavath thaduktham”
The Sutrakara cites four maxims of purva mimamsa in this sutra the details of which are not required.

12) The next adhikarana is Samparayadhikaranam.
Here the topic for discussion is whether the bhakthi nishta or prapanna who goes to Moksha sheds the punya papa karma
at the time of departure from the mortal body or on the banks of viraja river which demarcates between
the prakrithi manlda and Sri Vaikuntha para loka. This doubt arose on account of a statement in kaushitaki upanishad,
where it is said that jiva who is going to become muktha comes near viraja where he sheds the punya and papa karma.
In another text it is said that at the time of death.

The Sutrakara says in the sutra which reads as “Samparaye Thartavya bhavath thathahi Anye”.

Samparaye means at the time of departure from the mortal body. So the conclusion that vidwan who is going to
become mukthatma sheds the karma at the time of death only because there is nothing for him to enjoy out of
punya papa karma after the death. What ever happens after death that is his going to Sri Vaikuntha
through the route of Archiradi marga by assuming a Sooshma sarira (miniature body not visible to any body) is
on account of the efficacy of bhakthi yoga or prapatti which he has done.
The Sookshma sarira is required for the vidwan for conversing with moon on the way to Moksha.

13) The next adhikarana is Aniyamadhikaranam.
In this adhikarana the topic for discussion is whether all the vidwans who have done either Bhakthi yoga or prapatti
go to Moksha through the same route of Archiradi marga or only those who have done Bhakthi yoga according to
Upakosala vidya or Panchagni vidya alone go to Moksha through the Archiradi marga.

This doubt arises on account of the fact that only in the case of upakosala vidya and panchagni vidya,
the Archiraadi maarga has been mentioned.

The Sutrakara clears this doubt by saying that all the Brahma vidya nishtas that is those who have done Bhakthi yoga
or done prapatti go to the Moksha through the Archiradi marga only as there is no other route for going to Moksha.
There is no rebirth if the vidwan goes to Moksha through Archiradi gathi only.

The Sutra is “Aniyama: Sarvesham, Avirodha: Sabda Anumanabhyam”.
This means that there is no rule that only those who have done Bhakthi yoga adopting
upakosala vidya or panchagni vidya should go through Archiradi marga.

14) The next adhikarana is Aksharadhya dhikarana.
In this adhikarana the svarupa nirupaka kalyana guna that is Amala is prescribed to be meditated upon in all the Brahma vidyas.
Amala means blemishless ness or Heya prathi bhadathvam. Heya means blemish.
This guna is the essence of the upanishadic text in Brihadaranyaka upanishad in which
the sage Yagnavalkya replies to Gargi a woman for her question.
One of the replies is as follows.
The brahmins who have understood or realised paramatma who is called Akshara in this context say or declare
that the intrinsic nature of paramatma which is called Divyatma swarupa is as follows.
Asthulam – Not massive or big in size
Ananu – Not atomic in size
Ahrasvam – Not short
Adirgham – Not long
Alohitham – Not reddish
Asneham – Not oily
Achchayam – Not shadow
Athama – Not darkness
Avayuh – Not air
Anakasam – Not ether
Asangam – Without attachment
Arasam – Without taste
Agandham – Without smell
Achakshusham – without eyes
Asrotram – without ears
Avak – without the organ of speech
Amanah – without mind
Athejaskam – without light
Apranam – without breath
Amukham – without mouth
Anantharam – not interior (not inside)
Abahyam – Not outside
That nakinchana asnathi – does not eat anything
Nathat ashnathaa kaschana – nor can anybody eat it.

The sum and substance of the above narration is that there is no blemish in pyatma svarupa.

The sutra is “Aksharadhiyam thu Avarodha Samanya that bhavabhyam oupasadavath thadukthi”.
Akshara dhiyam is the above which is to be meditated in all vidyas.

15) The next adhikarana is Antharatvadhikarana.
The topic for discussion is a passage in Brihadaranyaka upanishad in which the sage Ushastha puts a question
to sage yagnavalkya and sage Kohola puts an identical question and sage ygana valkya replies.
The question by ushasti is as follows. Please tell me who is the direct and perceivable brahman
and who is the inner soul in all beings?.
Similarly Kahola puts the same question. But the yajnavalkya’s replies were different.
There are two brahma vidyas in this context. One is that of Ushadstha and the other of Kahola.
The question whether these two vidyas are one and same or they are different.

Poorva pakshi says that these two vidyas are different as the replies are different.

The sutrakarar says that these two vidyas are one and the same, because both the replies refer to the same paramatma.

16) The next adhikarana is Kamadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is Dahara vidya which has been mentioned both in Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka.
The doubt is whether this Dahara vidya is different in these upanishads or it is one and the same in both.

Poorva pakshi says it is different because in chandogya the paramatma who is called akasa is associated with
eight kalyana gunas where as in Brihadaranyaka it is said paramatma is sleeping on Akasa
and is associated with the kalyana guna vashistva. Vasitva means controlled.

The Sutrakara delivers the judgement saying that Dahara vidya is one and the same in both the upanishads.
So the attributes like vashitva have to be added to 8 attributes mentioned in chandogya and then meditated.

17) The next adhikaranam is Thannirdhanadhikarana.
This deals with udgeetha vidya. This vidya is meditation on pranava. This vidya is adopted as an ancillary of yoga
to get exalted or superior fruits and to remove the impediments for getting quick fruits.
The doubt that arises here is whether doing udgeetha vidya is compulsory or optional.

There are two maxims in Poorva Mimamsa. The first is called “Godhanena pasukama: pranayeth”.
In this maxim it is said that if a person likes to be gifted with cows, he should prepare what is called
purodasha which is a paste of rice flour or wheat flour which is offered to sacrificial fire
and the paste is prepared by pouring water on the flour from the vessel used for milking.
Pouring water to flour and preparing the paste is called pranayanam.
This maxim is mentioned in the context of doing a thing which is optional.

There is another maxim called “Parnamayee juhuu”. Juhu is a spoon like thing with a long hand
which is used to offer ghee to the sacrificial fire in a yaga.
This is made up of a particular type of wood. This is compulsory and not optional.

The conclusion in this adhikarana is that doing udgeetha vidya as an ancillary or adjunct of a yaga
is optional like Godohana nyaya or maxim.

18) The next adhikarana is called Pradana adhikaranam.
In Dahara vidya it is said that besides meditating on Lord Sriman Narayana with the
svarupa nirupaka gunas or dharmas, his eight gunas are also to be meditated.
The eight gunas are,
Apahatha papma – The paramatma is without any sin or blemish.
Vijara – There is no oldage to him.
Vimrutyu – No death to him.
Vishoka – No sorrow or grief to him.
Vijigitsa – No hunger to him.
Apipasa – No thirst to him
Satyakama – capable of attaining or acquiring any thing which he desires.
Satyasankalpa – capable of doing any thing which he wills.

The doubt that arises here whether it is enough to meditate merely on the above 8 gunas after meditating
on the Lord and is it necessary to think of him again associated with these 8 gunas.

The Purva pakshi says it is enough to think of 8 gunas only.

The Sutrakara in his siddhantha says that paramatma should be meditated again associated with the above 8 gunas.

19) The next adhikarana is called Lingabhuyasthavath Adhikarana.
In this adhikarana only after a long suspense the sutrakarar tells who is the supreme being to be meditated upon.
The upanishadic passage that comes up for discussion is the Narayana Anuvaka in Taittariya Upanishad.
This anuvaka appears in the upanishad immediately after the narration of Dahara vidya.

The purva pakshi contends that this Narayana Anuvaka is subordinate to Dahara vidya and
therefore Sriman Narayana is to be meditated upon in Dahara vidya only.

The Sutrakarar gives his decision in the sutra “Linga Bhuyastvat thath hi badliyas thadapi”.
Linga means indication or symbol.
In this Anuvaka there are words like Akshara, Sambhu, Indra, Brahma, etc are mentioned and
they are said to be Sriman Narayana. This means Lord Sriman Narayana is the antaryami to all like
Indra, Siva and four-headed Brahman and others.
Certain words like Akasha, Parajyothi directly refer to Sriman Narayana.

So the Sutrakara says that in all brahma vidyas Lord Sriman Narayana alone has to be meditated upon.

20) The next adhikaranam is Purva vikalpadhikarana.
This adhikaranam is out of context.
However the Sutrakara discusses a passage in Agnirahasya which is not of much importance and
relevance to the theme of this Gunopasamhara pada. So the details of this adhikarana may be skipped.

21) The next adhikaranam is Sarire Bhavadhikarana.
In every Brahma vidya the following three things are to compulsorily known.
(a) The nature of upasya that is that of Lord Sriman Narayana
(b) The nature of upasana or Brahma vidya
(c) The nature of upasaka or the nature of person (Jiva) who does upasana.

This is as per a sutra in Anumanikadhikaranam as “Thrayanam Evacha upanyasah prasna:cha”.
Thrayanam means three points as mentioned above.
Also the nature of the individual soul has to be known as it is said the Lord is soul of the jiva who is his body.
There are two sets of characteristics of jiva one set while he is still in samsara and another set while he is in vaikunta pya loka.
The set of characteristics while he is in still in this world or samsara are (a) Knowing (b) Doing (c) Enjoying.
While in moksha the characteristics are eight gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana which blossom soon after
he climbs Divya parryanka or Simhasana in which the pine couple are seated.
The eight gunas are Apahathapapma, Vijara, Vimrutyu, Visoka:, Vijigitsa, apipasa, satya kama and satya sankalpa.

Now the doubt arises whether during upasana or meditation the meditator should think of himself as
knower, doer and enjoyer or he should think of himself as possessor of the above eight gunas.

While the poorva pakshi says that jiva is to be thought with the first set of characteristics

the sutrakarar tells in the sutra “Vyathireka: Thadbhava bhavitvat Nathu Upalabdhivath”.
Vyathireka means different which again means that jiva is to be thought with a different set of characteristics
from the one in which he is during the meditation.
So it is clear that he is to be thought with eight gunas only which blossom in Moksha.

22) The next adhikaranam is Angavabaddhadhikarana.
This again relates to Udgeetha vidya and not directly connected with Brahma vidya.
So the details of this adhikarana could be skipped.

23) The next adhikarana is Bhumajyayasthvadhikarana.
This refers to Vaisvanara vidya. There are two types of upasanas in vaisvanara vidya.
(1) Upasana of each organ of vaisvanara purusha which is called vyastha upasana.
(2) Upasana of the entire vaisvanara purusha which is called Samasthopasana.

The doubt arises here whether vyastha upasanam is to be done or samasthop asanam only.

The purva pakshi opines that vyastho pasanam has to be done.

Sutrakara says that samastha pasanam has to be done which is much better than Vyastha upasanam.
In fact the fruits of vyastha upasanam are very dangerous to the souls of the upasakas and
the fruit of moksha or eternal bliss can never be attained by them.

24) The next adhikaranam is called Sabdadbhedadhi karanam.
Here the doubt arises whether the 32 brahma vidyas listed earlier are one and the same or they are different.

The purva pakshi contends all the vidyas are one and the same because of the object of meditation
who is Lord Sriman Narayana is one and the same.

The Sutrakara’s decision is all the vidyas are different because the attributes or kalyana gunas
to be meditated vary from vidya to vidya.

25) The next adhikarana is called Vikalpa dhikaranam.
The doubt arises here whether a person who aspires to attain Moksha should do upasana or meditation
adopting all the 32 brahma vidyas or is it enough if he does upasana adopting any one of the vidyas.

The Sutrakarar delivers the judgement in the Sutra “Vikalpa: A Visishta phalath vath”
that it is enough if the upasaka adopts any one vidya for meditation because the fruit of moksha or
eternal bliss is one and the same in each brahma vidya.
There is no special attainment in case all the vidyas are adopted for upasana and on the other hand
it is practically impossible to a person to do upasana adopting all the vidyas.

26) The last adhikarana in this pada is called Yathasrayabhavadhikarana.
This adhikarana is practically a repeat of the Thannirdhana niyamadhikarana 17th in this pada
in which it was said the performance of udgeetha vidya in a yaga is optional according to the maxim of godohana nyaya.
The repetition became inevitable because of the fact the purva pakshi raised some more points in his favour
to emphasize that Udgeetha vidya is to be performed compulsorily in every yaga.

The Sutrakara gives fitting replies to all the points and confirms the judgement delivered earlier.

The 3rd chapter is called Sadhana Adhyaya which in other words means chapter dealing with means for attaining Moksha.
It was established in the 3rd quarter of this chapter that means of attaining moksha is Bhakthi yoga
which is intense meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana which is an eight staged exercise called Ashtanga yoga.
This Bhakthi yoga which is also called Brahma vidya which in upanishads is said to be of 32 different forms.
Out of 32 forms of Brahma vidya 31 brahma vidyas are directly related to Bhakthi yoga which is otherwise called Ashtanga yoga.
The 32nd Brahma vidya is called Nyasavidya which is otherwise called Prapatti or Saranagathi which has five ancillaries or angas.

Even among 31 Brahma vidyas there is one Brahma vidya which is called Panchagni vidya.
In Panchagni vidya the object of meditation is his own self who is to be meditated as having
Brahman (Sriman Narayana) as his soul. This is called Brahmatmaka Svatma upasanam.
This means that Paramatma is the soul or atma and jivatma is his body.
In the other 30 Brahma vidyas, the object of meditation is Lord Sriman Narayana
having the meditator or individual soul as his body. This is called Svatma Sariraka paramatma upasanam.
So it is clear from the above that there is a difference in the mode of meditation between
the Panchagni vidya and the other 30 brahma vidyas.
There is no meditation in the Nyasavidya or prapatti in which the soul is surrendered at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana
and this prapatti comprises of three samarpanas which are Svarupa samarpanam, Bhara samarpanam , Phala samarpanam.
Offering the basic and intrinsic nature of his own self to paramatma is called Svarupa samarpanam.
The Bhara samarpanam is entrusting the responsibility of protecting his own soul by liberating him
from the bondage of samsara at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana.
Phala samarpanam is the offering of the fruit to Lord Sriman Narayana.
After attaining moksha the liberated soul or Mukthatma does eternal service to the divine couple in Sri Vaikunta para Nagara.
The divine couple become pleased with this service and they become the fruit enjoyers of the individual soul attaining moksha.
Mukthatma also enjoys this eternal bliss by doing service. The intrinsic and natural characteristics of the individual soul are
(a) Knowing (b) Doing (c) enjoying (d) Self luminous (e) Knowing his own self without any aid
(f) being atomic in size (g) being eternal (h) inpisible (I) different from the body (j) different from the senses.

In the background of the above and picking up the thread from the previous Guna upasamhara pada
the last pada of this chapter commences.
This pada is known as Anga pada that is dealing with ancillaries required for Bhakthi yoga.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 2–(‘Ubhaya linga pada’)Summary-

February 19, 2021

The 3rd chapter is called “Sadhana Adhyaya” and this second pada is known as Ubhayalinga pada.
As already explained Ubhaya linga refers to two basic characteristics of Lord Sriman Narayana which are
(1) Blemishlessness (2) Repository of infinite number of auspicious attributes.
The blemishless ness is known as “Heya pratyanikatvam” and
the second characteristic is known as “Asankyeya kalyana guna mahodadhi” and
unless the above two characteristics are proved the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana over other Gods
like four headed Brahma, Siva, Indra cannot be established.
These other gods are called Devathantharas and Lord Sriman Narayana is called Para devatha.

It is said that four headed Brahma, Siva and Indra so on are afflicted by punya and papa karma like us
and they are all inauspicious lords or amangala devathas. Thirumazhisai Alwar declares or even swears that
the above inauspicious lords or devathas are Echchil devargal and Thiru illa devargal.
The meaning of Echchil devargal is that Lord Sriman Narayana who is the creator, protector and destroyer
of the universe at the time of deluge of this universe swallowed it and kept it safe in his stomach.
At the time of creation he spitted the universe from his mouth during which the devathantharas like
four headed Brahma, Siva and Indra etc appeared in this world. Hence they became Echchil devargal.
Lord Sriman Narayana alone has goddess Mahalakshmi who is called Thiru in Tamil and “Shri” in sanskrit as his consort.
The other lords cannot have Mahalakshmi as their consort and hence they are called Thiru illa devargal.

So it is said decisively that those who aspire for moksha should not have any kind of devotion towards
these devathanthras because the fruits granted by them are very limited and ending. They should not be saluted.
The fruit of moksha granted by Lord Sriman Narayana is infinite and never ending eternal bliss which in other words
means doing service or Kainkaryam to Goddess Mahalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka for ever,
everywhere and in all their phases. The phraseology for this kainkaryam in Sanskrit is
Sarva desha, Sarva kala, Sarva Avastha uchitha sarva vidha kainkarya.
So for the sake of the above the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana is to be established.
The main purpose of this pada is only the above.

As mentioned earlier the defects of an unliberated individual soul or samsari jiva in his phases of seeing dreams,
sound sleep and the coma stage are dealt with in this pada and at the same time the auspicious tributes of
Lord Sriman Narayana who helps the jiva in the above three phases are also inferred and proved.
The defects in the state of awakening were dealt with in the previous pada called Vairagya pada.

The first adhikaranam in this pada is called “Sandhyadhikaranam”
which deals with Svapna-avastha or the state (phase) of seeing dreams.
Sandhya means Svapna sthanam that is state of seeing dreams.
This is a state between the state of awakening and state of sound sleep.
The topic for discussion is a passage in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in which the sage
Yajnavalkya discusses the nature of Svapna avastha.

Here the sage Yajnavalkya says that in the state of dreams there are no chariots, there are no horses, there are no roads.
Then the chariots, horses and roads are created. Similarly there are no joys, delights and happiness
but there are joys, delights and happiness which are created.
Further Yajnavalkya says that there are no ponds, lotus ponds or rivers but they are created.
He is the creator. Here the doubt arises whether that “he” or Sa: in the upanishadic text is jiva or paramatma.
Similarly there is a statement in Kathopanishad which says that during sleep that is in the state of dreams,
whatever things are desired they are created.
The same doubt arises here also whether the creator of the objects in the dreams is jiva or paramatma.

The view of the opponent is that jiva is the creator of the objects which he enjoys in the dreams.
This view point of opposition is contained in the first two sutras of this adhikarana.
The sutras are
Sandhye Srishtir Ahahi
and Nirmataram cha Eke putradaya sha.

The meaning of the first two sutras is as follows.
In the state of seeing dreams which is called Sandhya the objects seen in the dreams are created by the
jiva or individual soul who sees the dreams. The view point is further strengthened in the second sutra
the meaning of which is that in the state of dreams
the jiva creates the objects like sons etc as per a statement in katopanishad.

In the remaining four sutras of this adhikarana which are called Siddhantha sutras,
the sutrakarar refutes the above view point of the opponent and states that
Lord Sriman Narayana is the creator of the objects in the dreams according to the
Punya papa karma of the seer of the dreams that is Jiva.

The first siddhantha sutra is “Mayamatram Thu kartsnyena Anabhivyaktha svarupatvath”.
This means the viewpoint of the opponent is rejected.
Mayamatram means that the entire creation of the objects in the dreams is really wonderful.
Karsnyena Anabhivyakthi means that the inpidual soul or jiva is totally incapable of creating the objects
in the dreams because event hough he is satya sankalpa (capable of willing and creating) this particular
attribute does not blossom or shine when he is in samsara.
So the objects in the dreams are created by parama purusha or paramatma.
Even the saying in Kathopanishad referred to above does not refer to jiva but it refers to paramatma only.
The word Sa: in the portion of Brihadaranyaka upanishad pertaining to the state of dreams refers to Paramatma only and not jiva.

The next question arises that when the attribute satya sankalpatva is inherent in the intrinsic nature
of jiva or jiva swarupa, Why the attribute satya sankalpatva did not blossom and remained dormant.

The reply to the above question that paramatma willed that the above attribute should remain dormant
in an unliberated soul because of his punya papa karma. So a jiva remains in samsara on account of his
punya papa karma the fruits of which he enjoys are granted by paramatma and the jiva gets liberated
from samsara by the will of the parama purusha only who grants the fruit of the Moksha to jiva
when he resorts to the means of Bhakthi yoga (Meditation) or Prapatti yoga which is Saranagathi or Surrender.

In this context Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja quotes a few quotations from Taittariya upanishad.
The dormance of the attribute of Satya sankalpa in the jiva takes place by his entering in to a mortal body
at the time of creation and by his contact with a non sentient being which will be in atomic (sukshma) form at the time of deluge.
The sutra which gives the above meaning reads as “Dehayogadva sopi”.

In the 4th Siddhantha sutra in this adhikarana,
the Sutrakara says that an individual sees both bad dreams and good dreams. These bad dreams are an indication of
bad omen and the good dreams are indication of good omen. Good omen leads to happy events in the life of the
individual who sees good dreams. Bad omen leads to unhappy events. So the objects of Good and bad dreams
are created by parama purusha Sriman Narayana which are the fruits of ‘punya’ and ‘papa karma’ respectively
of the person who sees the dreams.

In this context, it should be noted that the fruits of the ‘punya’, ‘papa’ karma of a jiva are enjoyed in the following ways.
(a)Fruits of a portion of punya and papa karma are enjoyed during the state of awakening of a jiva.
(b)Fruits of a second portion are enjoyed in the state of dreams.
(c)Fruits of the third portion are enjoyed in heaven or Svarga loka. Fruits of exclusively punya karma
are enjoyed in svargaloka. Fruits of exclusively papa karma are suffered in hell or naraka.
(d)The remaining punya and papa karma help the jiva to take rebirth in this world and assume a mortal body
and again enjoy the fruits of punya and papa by his continued existence in this world and again
do punya and papa in the life time and this cycle gets repeated until the jiva resorts to the means of attaining moksha.

The second adhikarana in this pada is called “Thadabhavadhikaranam.”
In this adhikaranam the state of the sound sleep of the jiva is discussed. This has two sutras.
There are three upanishadic texts that come up for discussion. These three texts pertain to the state of sound sleep.

The first text is from the 8th chapter of chandogyopanishad which says that the individual soul will have
sound sleep on the nadies (pulses or tubular organs in the heart).
The second text is from the 4th chapter of Brihadaranyaka upanishad which says that jiva sleeps on purithatha
(a red coloured piece of flesh in the heart) and there are 72000 nadies which are called “Hitha” and they go to-wards the purithatha.
The third text is from 6th chapter of Chandogyopanishad which says that jiva goes asleep on Paramatma
who is called “Sath” in this chapter of Chandogyopanishad.

From the above upanishadic sayings the doubt arises whether jiva sleeps on any of the above that is Nadis,
Purithatha or Paramatma arbitrarily as per his convenience or on all the above.
The first is called Vikalpa (on any of the above three) and the second is called Samuchchaya (on all the above three).

The opponent or poorva pakshi tells that it only vikalpa and not Samuchchaya.
The basis for his argument is that in the above three places where it is said that jiva can sleep,
one is independent of the other and the jiva cannot sleep on all the three simultaneously.
The Sutrakarar refutes the above view point of the opponent in the first sutra of this adhikarana
which reads as “Thad abhava Nadeeshu thath Sruthe: Atnanicha”.

The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Thad abhava:- In the absence of svapna or dreams that is in the state of sound sleep.
Nadeeshu Atmanicha – The state of sound sleep of jiva takes place on Nadis, Purithatha and Paramatma.
Here cha denotes purithatha because,
Thath Sruthe:- all the above three places of sleep have been mentioned in the above mentioned sruthies or upanishads.

Here Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja mentions of a maxim called Prasada, Khatvanga, Paryanka Nyaya.
Prasada means palace. Khatvanga means cot. Paryanka means bed.
Here Nadies are in the place of prasada. Purithatham is in the place of Khatvanga. Paramatma is in the place of bed.
Finally it is said the individual soul enjoys sound sleep on paramatma himself who is the bed
and paramatma is on puri thatha which is cot and and this cot is on the floor of the palace which is said to be nadies.

The exact reason for the rejection of the argument of the poorva pakshi (that is the opponent) is just like
there is difference in the functions of palace, cot and bed so also there is difference in the functions of
Nadis, Purithatha and paramatma and on account of this one should be above the other only.
So the vikalpa (alternative) that is either nadis or purithatha or paramatma as the place of sleep and
each place having the position over the other is most correct. There are several defects in vikalpa argument
and hence samuchchaya argument alone is correct. Vikalpa means either or (alternative) and samuchchaya means combined (all to-gether).

The second sutra in this Adhikarana says that
jiva after enjoying sound sleep on paramatma is woken up by paramatma only.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called Karmanusmrithi adhikaranam.
The doubt that arises here is whether the same person who slept on paramatma the previous night wakes up
in the next morning or another person wakes up and appears. Though this doubt is silly or foolish still
the poorva pakshi raises a valid point to justify the above doubt. His valid point is that Moksha or salvation
is the union of jiva with paramatma. When this union has taken place at the time of the sound sleep
he asks where is the question of that person coming back again and so another person alone should wake up and appear.

In reply to the above argument the Sutrakarar refutes his view point in the Sutra.
“Sa Eva, Karma, Anusmrithi sabala vidhibhya:” –
The meaning of this sutra is the person who woke up in the morning is the same person who went to bed the previous night.
This is the meaning of words sa Eva in the sutra.

The Sutrakarar cites four reasons for the same which are as follows.
(1) First is karma. Here karma means punya papa karma. The fruits of the balance of punya papa karma
have to be enjoyed by the same person who went to bed the previous night after getting up in the morning.
Here in Sri Bhasya Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja uses a word “Tatvagnanath Prak thenaiva Bhokthavyam”.
This means the person who slept in the previous night and gets up in the morning
he alone has to enjoy the fruits of the balance of punya papa karma committed by him before acquiring
the knowledge of Brahman or Paramatma till he resorts to Bhakthi yoga or does Prapatti.
At the moment of the person starting the Bhakthi yoga or doing Prapatti, the Lord Sriman Narayana wills that
the fruits of the Punya papa karma not enjoyed by the inpidual at the above moment be freezed and
the person need not enjoy its fruits. Subsequent to the commencement of Bhakthi yoga or doing prapatti
he will not commit sins knowingly or deliberately. Committing of sins in advertently will not affect him
in any manner and Paramatma pardons automatically.
(2) Anusmrithi – This Anusmrithi means re collection or recounting. The person who went asleep
the previous night recounts that he got up in the next morning.
(3) Sabda – Sabda means upanishadic saying. The Sutrakarar says that there is upanishadic saying
in support of his above contention.
In Chandogyopanishad there is a saying that the tiger, lion, a jackal or pig insect bird, fly or mosquito
which sleeps gets up in the same form. So the same jiva who slept gets up.
(4) Vidhibhya:- Vidhi means a command or order. If the person who slept on paramatma goes to mkosha or
attains salvation then all the upanishadic texts which prescribe bhakthi yoga or prapatti
as means for salvation become meaning less or purpose less.

This person who sleeps on paramatma is not yet liberated from the bondage of samsara and therefore
his going to moksha by his mere sleeping on paramatma is absurd or meaningless.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called Mugdhadhikarana
in which the unconscious state or coma state of a jiva is discussed.
The doubt that arises here is whether coma state is another form of state of sound sleep or
whether it is completely a different or separate avastha or state.

The poorva pakshi says that this coma state is another form of sushupthi avastha (state of sound sleep)
as there is the usual practice of calling Moorchavastha (Coma state) as another form of sushupthi avastha.

The Sutrakarar clears the above doubt in the sutra which reads as “Mugdhe Ardha sampatti:: Parisheshath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Mugdhe means in a person who is in coma state.
Ardha sampatti: – Half the death. Because
Parisheshath – As there is no sensual perception it is not the state of awakening.
As there is no mental activity it is not the state of the dreams.
As the person cannot be woken up, it is not the state of sound sleep.
As the breathing has not come to a stop it is not death. As the breathing is there, it is half the death.
So the conclusion is that coma state is half death.

So in the above four adhikaranas the states of seeing dreams, sound sleep and unconsciousness of a jiva
in samsara were dealt with to generate vairagya or a sense of detachment for adopting means to attain moksha or eternal bliss.

In the above three auspicious attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana (Kalyana gunas) were also established
which are creating of objects in the dreams of every person, allowing each jiva to sleep on his own
during the state of sound sleep and preventing the departing of the jiva or soul from the body
in the coma state as there is a chance for the survival.
The defects in the state of awakening were already discussed in the previous pada called Vairagya pada.
So a person after knowing the defects in all his four states will develop a sense of complete detachment
from the worldly pleasure becomes well poised for adopting Bhakthi yoga which is the means prescribed in upanishads for attaining moksha.

This complete detachment is an essential prerequisite for doing Bhakthi yogam.
The other essential prerequisite is unshakeable and intense desire to attain lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana
in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka and do eternal service to the pine couple there. This is infact called Moksha, Salvation or eternal bliss.

In this context a doubt may arise. Whether for a person who resorts to prapatti which is also called saranagathi
is it necessary to develop a complete sense of detachment for doing prapatti.
The essential prerequisites for doing prapatti are realisation of his utter and complete inability to do Bhakthi yoga
in other words upayantara sunyatva (upaya is prapatti. upayantara is Bhakthi yoga.
Sunyatva is the utter in ablity to do Bhakthiyoga) and prapyantara sunyatva that is realisation that
there is no object to be attained other than lotus feet of Sriman Narayana in Srivaikunta para loka.

The eight ancillaries of Bhakthi yoga and five ancillaries of Prapatti will be dealt with later.

Before resorting to the means of attainment of moksha, a person has to come to a definite conclusion that
the object he is going to attain after departing from this world should be superior to him in all aspects.
This superior object in all aspects is the supreme being who is Lord Sriman Narayana always associated
with his consort Goddess Maha lakshmi. In our Sri Vaishnava sampradaya, Lord Sriman Narayana together with
Goddess Mahalakshmi which is called “Mithunam” (always together) is a single entity called Divine couple.
It should be remembered always wherever there is a mention of Lord Sriman Narayana in any context or occasion,
he is associated with Mahalakshmi.

On account of the above eternal conjunction of Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi, the four-headed Brahma, Siva, Indra
and other celestial gods get automatically ruled out or eliminated from the status of being supreme being.
The above celestial gods are also like us enjoying the fruits of punya and papa.
Hence they are karma vasyas meaning being afflicted by punya and papa. So in the entire universe comprising
several crores of Brahmandas all living beings are karma vasyas except Lord Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi.
It should be noted that one single Brahmanda comprises of 14 lokas (worlds) right from Satyaloka upto Patala loka.
In every Brahmanda there are separate Four-headed Brahma, Siva, Indra and other Celestial Gods.

Now coming to the subject proper, there are two characteristics of supreme being
(Lord Sriman Narayana associated with Mahalakshmi) which are called Ubhaya linga.
Ubhaya means two and linga means characteristic.
The two characteristics are (1) Blemishlessness (2) Being the repository of innumerable auspicious attributes.
In Sanskrit they are known as Heyapratyanikatva and Kalyana Gunaa Karatva. So a Supreme being is identified by these two characteristics.

It is in this context that the fifth adhikarana in this pada which is called
Ubhaya Lingadhikaranam acquires relevence.
This Ubhaya Lingadhikaranam has 15 sutras.

The poorva pakshi contends that when the para brahman Who is Lord Sriman Narayana is antaryami (inner soul)
in every living being or even in inanimate object, he cannot escape from the suffering and enjoyment of
happiness just like jiva who also undergoes the same.
Even though in some of the previous adhikaranas, it has been said that paramatma is Apahatapapma which means
blemishless ness, still the punya papa karma of jiva confers a body to him and
Paramatma becomes antaryami controlling both jiva and body.
When jiva undergoes the sufferings as a result of his papa karma similarly Paramatma who is always with jiva
is also subject to the above. In the body there are nasty substances like pus, Blood, Urine, Stools etc
and Paramatma who is in contact with these is definitely feels bad about it and this itself is a blemish to him.
For example even if a person falls in to a gutter carrying sewage or dirty water knowingly or unknowingly,
he feels very bad about it and cleans the body afterwatrds. So also in the case of paramatma.
So the contention of purva pakshi is Paramatma is not blemishless. So Ubhaya lingatvam as explained above is not applicable to Paramatma.

In reply to the above or in refutation of the above the Sutrakara says in the first Sutra which reads as
“Na sthanathopi Parasya ubhayalingam Sarvatra hi”.
The meaning of this sutra is that paramatma always possesses ubhaya lingam irrespective of the place
where he is and his contact with nasty substances mentioned above does not cause any blemish to him.
He is always apahata papma. His ubhaya lingatvam which are being blemish lessness and
being repository of all auspicious tributes or in other words “Heya paratyaneekatvam” and “Kalyana gunakaratvam”
is always maintained everywhere without any change.

The Upanishadic authority and other scriptural authority on the basis of which
the Sutrakara has coined the above sutra are as follows.
(1) In the 8th chapter of Chandogyopanishad it is said that Paramatma is
Apahatapapma (being blemishless, or free from every type of defect and drawbacks),
Vijara (being from the defects of old age), Vi mrutyu (being free from death), Vishoka (being free from sorrow),
Viji ghatsa (being free from hunger) , Api pasa (being free from thirst).
Satyakama (capable of getting all his desires fulfilled) and Satya sankalpa (capable of carrying out anything which he wills).
Among the above the first six indicate that Paramatma is flawless (blemishless)
that is in other words heyapratyanika and the last two indicate that he is repository of all auspicious tributes.

(2)In Sri Vishnu purana sage Parasara says that Lord Sriman Narayana or paramatma is repository of all
auspicious tributes and he created this universe by exercising an infinitesimal quantum of his infinite strength or power.
Paramatma is the treasure house or mine of all kalyana gunas and he does not have any sorrow and other sufferings of jivas.
The supreme abode is free from all defects or flaws and the paramatma should also be free from all the above.

In the remaining 14 sutras the sutrakarar mentions
several interesting points which are worthy of knowing and they are as follows.

(a)To a query from poorva pakshi that when it is said that jiva also possesses the 8 attributes mentioned above
starting from Apahata papma in the same 8th chapter of chandogyopanishad in which the four headed Brahman
called Prajapathi preaches Brahma vidya to Indra and he is subject to sufferings when he is in the body
why not paramatma also subject to the above when he is antaryami,

the Sutrakara replies that in Antaryami Brahmanam of Brihadarayaka upanishad, Sage Yajnavalkya
identifies 21 objects in which paramatma is antaryami and says in every object the Paramatma is Antaryami and Amritha.
This word Amritha means that he controls all actions and functions of jivas and his bodies
and is free from the defects of the bodies and jivas.
In the case of jiva the above 8 attributes are dormant till he gets liberated from the bondage of samsara.
Again another objection is raised in this context.

Even though Paramatma does every thing on his own will, still he cannot escape from his contact with
nasty substances in the body. This objection is overruled by Sutrakara though not explicitely in the sutra,
But Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja gives a beautiful explanation to the above point citing several quotations from Sri Vishnu purana.
The explanation is that one substance or object is liked by one and disliked by the other.
For example a sweet is liked by a few where as the same sweet is not liked by a different set of persons.
The reason for this is that the fault is not in the object but it lies in the individual person
who likes or dislikes it. Liking or disliking of an object depends on the karma of the person.

The punya papa karma of a person may makes him to like sweet.
The ‘punya papa karma’ of another person which is different makes him to develop dislike to sweet.
Similarly for the same person the sweet may be liked by him at one moment and the same may be disliked by him at an another moment.
This is also according to the vagaries of his punya papa karma. As paramatma is free from karma
there is no question of a substance being liked by him or disliked by him.
Hence the nasty substances in the body do not affect his ubhaya lingatvam.

(b) In Mundaka and Svetashvatara upanishads, it has been said that paramatma and jivatma are two birds
in the same branch of a tree (here body is the tree, heart is the branch) in which jivatma enjoys
the fruits of his punya and papa karma and paramatma shines without the enjoyment of fruits of punya papa karma.
Hence paramatma is ubhaya lingam.

(c) Here again the Sutrakara raises a doubt and clears the same.
It is said in chandogyopanishad that Lord Sriman Narayana who is the atma to jiva (Inpidual soul is the body of paramatma)
enters in to the body along with jiva and does both nama rupa vyakarana meaning allotment of body or form and also the name.
There are four types of bodies which a jiva can assume acording to his punya papa karma.
They are celestial body (Called Deva), human body ( Manushya), animal body (Called Thiryak) and inanimate object (Called Sthavara).
So paramatma who is the inner soul or supreme soul cannot escape from the vidhi nishedha sastra which is also applicable to him.
Vidhi nishedha sastra means scripture mandating the jiva do this (Vidhi sastra), do not do that (Nishedha sastra).
So the doubt is when paramatma is subject to vidhi nishedha sastra how can he be ubhaya linga.

The reply to this doubt is even though the paramatma dwells within a body along with jiva he is without a form
which in other words means that the four types of the bodies assumed by jiva according to his punya papa karma
are not directly that of paramatma who is free from karma. Further it is said that paramatma is the doer of
nama rupa vyakarana and when this unique feature is there he must be ubhaya linga even though he is antaryami.

(d) Here the opponent contends that paramatma is without any attribute and so
nirivishesha (Vishesha means attribute or virtuous quality) according to the upanishadic text
Satyam, Jnanam, Anantham Brahma.
According to them Satyatvam means not a satyam, Jnanam means not innocent or ignorant. Anantham means not limited.
So these three are not attributes and they are in the intrinsic nature or swarupa of Brahman.
Another text says that nethi nethi ( no, no) for the Paramatma and so the attributes which are
omniscient, possessor of the will which cannot be changed, the cause of the universe, antaryami in every object,
and fulfiller of all his desires should be false and when it is so how can he be ubhaya lingam.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by saying the text satyam, jnanam and anantham brahma
does not say that Paramatma is nirvisesha (without attribute) and on the other hand
it means that paramatma shines with the qualities of satyatva, gnanatva and ananthatva.
Satyatva means there is no transformation in his svarupa or intrinsic nature and hence he is different from
the non sentient body and from the un liberated soul within the body ( Non sentient body under goes continuous transformation).
Gnanatva means the consciousness or Dharma bhutha gnana which helps the perception is ever unlimited or infinite.
So he is different from Mukthatma or a liberated soul because his dharma bhutha gnana was limited
when he was in the un liberated state or samsara.
Ananthatva means paramatma is unlimited with regard to space, time and object. So he is different from Nityasuris.
Paramatma is unlimited with regard to space means he is everywhere. He is unlimited in respect of time means he is there always.
He is unlimited in respect of object means that he is the antaryami in both sentient and non sentient beings
and every thing is a body to him. In the same manner the other qualities like omniscience etc narrated above are also there.
So paramatma is ubhaya lingam. The meaning of the words Nethi, Nethi is different and it will be dealt with later.

(e)There are scores of upanishadic texts, texts in Bhagavad geetha and puranas that paramatma is ubhaya lingam.

(f) The illustrations of sun (Surya) and Akasha are mentioned by Sutrakara here to establish the fact that
paramatma is blemishless even though he dwells in every being or object as antaryami.
Akasa is in contact with every object because it is above every object and flawless.
The images of the sun are seen in every layer of water and images of objects are seen in mirrors.
The sun is free from flaws and so also Brahmam or paramatma is flawless and ubhaya lingam.

(g) In this context the opponent raises the point that the images are all illusory where as
the existence of paramatma is true in every being and so the above illustration does not hold good.
The sutrakarar replies to the above point as follows.
The Akasha or sky though in contact with every object is not subject to vagaries in the size of the object.
One object may be big and the other object is small.
Similarly even though sun whose image is seen in water is not actually there.
But the point is that the image of the sun is not subject to the size of container of water.
For example,. the image may be in water contained in a small vessel or a big tank or lake.
So also paramatma dwelling in all objects both sentient and non sentient beings is blemishless and
repository of auspicious attributes.

(h)The Purva pakshi raises another point which is replied by the Sage Badarayana (Veda vyasa Bhagavan)
who is the composer of Brahma sutras. The point is as follows.
In Brihadaranyaka upanishad (4th chapter 3rd sub pision) it is said that Brahman or paramatma has two forms or bodies.
One perceivable called Moortham and the other non-perceivable called Amoortham. Moortham means hard and Amoortham means soft.

The elements Earth, Water and fire constitute the moortham;
They are hard, perishable not pervading and they are perceived by our senses.
The Solar disc which is also called Surya mandalam is the essence of these three elements.
This solar disc can be seen by our eyes and it has to be meditated in the manner explained above.

The elements sky and air constitute amoortham which are soft , not perishable.
The essence of these two elements is in the purusha or paramatma who is at the centre of the solar disc.
He is to be meditated as such. This purusha wears yellow coloured dhothi, blanket having colour
similar to a red coloured insect, and his body is like a red coloured lotus flower (red colour similar to the flame of a fire)
and several lightnings taking place simultaneously. One who meditates on the above purusha
in solar disc or surya mandala also becomes shining like several lightnings that take place simultaneously.

Further to the above the upanishad says after preaching the above regarding the Brahman or Sriman Narayana
who is at the centre of the solar disc that the greatness of Brahman is not only that much explained above.
In fact his greatness is unlimited and there is no object or being superior to the above.
He is different from prakriti which is a non sentient being and jiva who is a sentient being in all aspects.

But the upanishad while telling the above uses the words “Nethi nethi”.
The poorva pakshi who may be an advaitin exploited the words Nethi Nethi (meaning No, No) in his favour
and said the above upanishad explained the greatness of Brahman after which it suddenly said
no-no meaning that Brahman is nirguna or Nirvishesha without any auspicious tribute.

The Sutrakara in this context refuted the above argument of the poorva pakshi in the sutra
“Prakrutha Eta vath vam Prathi shedathi thatho braveethicha bhuya:”.
The meaning is that the upanishad negated the limit of the greatness of Brahman and further said that
there is no object superior to the above Brahman in its nature and attributes.
So Sriman Narayana alone is the supreme being and ubhaya lingam.

(i)Brahman cannot be perceived by any other authority like pratyaksha and anumana.
(Pratyaksha is sensual perception and Anumana is inference) and he is to be perceived by scriptures only.
He can be perceived by intense meditation on him which is called Bhakthi yoga.
Sage Vamadeva by virtue of his doing Bhakthi yoga perceived the paramatma in his physical form.
Finally the Sutrakara concludes that Paramatma is Ubhaya Lingam only for the reasons explained above
and he is repository of all infinite auspicious attributes or kalyana gunas.

The sixth Adhikarana in this pada is called Ahikundaladhikaranam.
This has four sutras out of which
the first two are purvapaksha sutras
and the latter two are siddhantha sutras.

In this adhikarana the exact relationship between the Brahman and the non sentient being gets established.
It was proved before that Brahman (Sriman Narayana) who is antaryami and atma to both sentient and non sentient beings
in the atomic form (Sukshma form) which are his bodies. He wills to become upadana karana and nimitta karana
to the universe (Upadana karana is material cause and Nimitta karana is operational cause) and then
transforms to become the antaryami or Atma to sentient beings and non sentient beings.
Here it should be noted that though jiva a sentient being is of the size of an atom.
His body may be in the form of deva sarira (celestial) manushya sarira (human body),
Thiryaksarira (animal body) or sthavara (inanimate) according to his punya papa karma.
Even in human being it may be a male body or a female body.

There are certain upanishadic texts which say everything is Brahman, every thing is atma.
Here atma is paramatma. These two texts opine that Brahman himself is a sentient being and a non sentient being.
This is called Abheda sruti telling that Brahman himself is chethana (sentient) and achethana (non sentient)
and there is no difference. In the Chandogyopanishad it is said that Brahman or paramatma enters in to
every body along with jiva that is having jiva as his body to do nama rupa vyakarana by giving
name and form to every object in the universe and in this text, it is clear that Brahman is different from
jiva and jiva is different from his body which is inanimate. It is in this back ground,
the Sutrakarar in the first sutra which is a purva paksha sutra in this adhikarana which reads as
“ubhaya vyapadeshath Ahikundalavath”.

The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Brahman or paramatma is one single entity before creation
it assumes the forms of two entities which are sentient being and non sentient being at the time of creation.
This is said as Eka (one) before creation and Nana (many) at the time of creation.
The poorvapakshi contends that paramatma may be Eka (one) or Nana (many like chethana and achethana)
like a serpant assuming two different forms one Rujubhavam (real form or straight form)
and the other kundala bhavam (coiled form).
In the real form or straight form it is Eka (one) and in the coiled form it is nana (many).

So according to this Sutra Brahman himself assumes different forms of inanimate objects.

In the second purva paksha sutra it is contended that Brahman and non sentient being (Achethana or in animate)
belong to the same category like burning lamp and the light it emits. Lamp is different from light.
This is in contrast of the previous view that Brahman himself assumes two different forms.

In the third sutra which reads as “Poorva vadva” both the previous two different contentions are rejected
by stating that non sentient being is also a body of paramatma just like jiva is also a body
which was established in the Amsadhikaranam, the last adhikarana in the 3rd pada of the 2nd chapter.
Poorvavath means like before and “va” means the rejection or refutation of the views mentioned in the previous two sutras.

In the last sutra which reads as “Prathishedhachcha”.
It is said citing two upanishadic texts that Brahman is not subject to blemishes or defects of non sentient beings
which are old age for bodies and decaying for the other inanimate objects.
So Brahman can only be atma or soul to the inanimate objects which are his bodies.
The body and soul form is also known as visheshanaya. This is also termed as Amsamsibhava
(Amsa is visheshana or body and Amsi is visheshya or soul) and prakara prakari bhava (prakara is body and prakari is soul).
So this adhikarana further reinforces or strengthens the ubhaya lingam of paramatma
and his being material and operational cause of the universe.

The Seventh adhikarana in this pada is called “Paradhikaranam”.
In this adhikarana the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana is eatablished beyond any doubt and
further to prove that he is siddhopaya (ready means) and he is the object of attainment in Sri Vaikuntha para loka.
In other words prapya (object of attainment) and prapaka are one and the same.
Prapaka is also known as upaya and prapya is known as upeya.
Lord Sriman Narayana who is siddhopaya grants moksha after becoming pleased by the performance of sadhyopaya
which may be Bhakthiyoga or Prapattiyoga (Saranagathi) by a person.

The argument of Lord Sriman Narayana granting moksha by simply remaining siddhopaya without the performance of
Bhakthi or prapatti which is sadhyopaya is not correct. So the theory of “Nirhelutka kripa” means
less grace is completely ruled out.
This adhikarana has seven sutras out of which
one is poorva paksha sutra
and the remaining six sutras are siddhantha sutras.

The first sutra reads as “Paramatha: Sethu-unmana, Sambandha-bheda vyapadesebhya:”
In this sutra it is contended that there is an entity which is superior to Lord Sriman Narayana
on account of the following four reasons.
(1) Sethu – This means Bridge. There are two upanishadic texts which say that paramatma is the bridge
to cross the ocean of samsara. The term Bridge generally refers to means for going from one bank to opposite bank.
So it means that object attained after reaching the opposite bank should be different from the bridge
which takes him from one bank to the other. When paramatma is the bridge, it leads to the view that
there should be some one superior to paramatma after reaching the opposite shore.
Sethu is prapaka and the entity on the other shore is prapya.
(2)Unmana – This means limited size. It is said in chandogyopanishad that paramatma has four legs and sixteen organs.
Pada in the upanishad is called leg and kala is said to be organ. When the supreme being is said to be of infinite size,
it leads to the view that there should be a different supreme being other than paramatma having a limited size as mentioned above.
(3)Sambandha – This means relationship. When there is a relation ship between prapya and prapaka
they should be different which in other words means prapya is different from prapaka.
(4)Bheda – This means different. In mundaka upanishad it is said that jiva attains an object which is superior to supreme.
In taittariya upanishad it is mentioned that which is superior to supreme is bigger than big.
This contends that supreme is Lord Sriman Narayana and there is some body else superior to or bigger than him.

Further in Svetashvatara Upanishad it is said that purusha who is Lord Sriman Narayana has pervaded
the entire universe and that there is an object which is superior (Uttarataram) to Sriman Narayana which is blemishless.
So the conclusion that on account of the above four reasons there is some one superior to Lord Sriman Narayana.

The Sutrakara in the six sutras that follows the above sutra gives satisfactory and convincing replies
to the points mentioned above and affirms that Lord Sriman Narayana is supreme being and no body else is above him.
(a)To the point that Paramatma is sethu or bridge and there is some one above him on the opposite shore
the Sutrakara in the sutra “Samanyaththu” says that the word sethu is not used to give the meaning that
there is some body else to be attained. The word sethu actually means that Lord Sriman Narayana has
in him the entire universe comprising both sentient and non sentient beings. Without any mixing or linking between them.
The word sethu arises out of the word “Sinothi” which means binding or tying together.
Further sethu which generally means crossing means attaining in this context.

Without any mixing or linking actually means that the characteristics of sentient beings
which are jivas are exclusively different or separate from those of non sentient beings.
Even though the sentient beings which are jivas dwell within non sentient beings which are mortal bodies,
there is no question of mixing or linking of their exclusive and intrinsic characteristics.
The exclusive characteristics of jiva are
i) of micro atomic size (Anuthva)
ii) realising his own self without any external aid. This is called pratyaktva. Being conscious in his intrinsic nature or swarupa.
iii) possessing Dharmabhutha jnana through which the objects are perceived
(iv) doer of virtuous and sinful deeds (v) These deeds subject to overall control of paramatma.
(vi) doing prapatti at the lotus feet of Sriman Narayana through an Acharya and attaining Moksha.
These characteristics are not there in the non sentient beings.

b) Regarding the limited size of paramatma the sutrakarar says that
it has been mentioned so in upanishads for the sake of meditation. This does not however affect
the characteristic of paramatma in being infinite in his svarupa (intrinsic nature) and in his kalyana gunas.
c) To the query that how an infinite Paramatma could be finite for the sake of meditation it is said that
Paramatma becomes finite to occupy a limited space available. This is just like an infinite sky
occupying a limited space when viewed through a window. The limited space occupied is called upadhi.
d)Regarding the point that the object of attainment which is called Amritha in the relevent upanishadic text is
different from the or superior to paramatma who is called sethu or bridge in the same upanishadic text
the sutrakarar in the sutra which reads as “Upapaththesha” says that
it is only appropriate that the object of attainment is called prapya and which is referred to as sethu in this context.
So as already mentioned in the beginning of this adhikarana Lord Sriman Narayana along with his
consert Mahalakshmi is Siddhopaya (ready means) or prapaka and he himself with Mahalakshmi is upeya or prapya.
Moksha or eternal bliss is granted by both (Divine couple) after they become pleased with the person or inpidual
doing prapatti (Saranagathi) at their lotus feet. In the moksha or in Sri vaikunta pya loka, both are to be attained
and eternal service has to be done to both (Divine couple).
So in our Swami Desika Sampradaya the Siddhopayatvam being means for moksha lies in both and upeyatvam also lies in the both.

The Saranagathi done at the lotus feet of the consort Mahalakshmi is called “Purushakara” prapatti.
Purushakara means recommender (mediator) unless goddess Mahalakshmi recommends to Lord Sriman Narayana
to accept the prapatti done at his lotus feet by a person (jiva or inpidual).
Lord Sriman Narayana does not grant moksha because he is the holder of the stick (Dandadhara – Danda is stick)
for punishing the person for his committing sins. So the aspect of danda dharatva in the Lord is changed
on account of the consort Mahalakshmi being purushakara.

So Lord Sriman Narayana has three aspects which are Danda dharatva, Upayatva and Upeyatva and the consort
Mahalakshmi has also three aspects which are purushakaratva, upayatva and upeyatva. This is called “Akarathraya”

This is why it is said about consort Mahalakshmi as
Akara traya sampannam Aravindanivasinim Asshesha jagath Ishatram vande varada vallabham”.
Incidentally though out of context it is said that Goddess Mahalakshmi pervades the entire universe
by her svarupa itself like Sriman Narayana and this is said on sage parasara’s sloka in Sri Vishnu purana which reads as
“Yatha sarvagatho vishnu: thathaiva eyam dvijothathema”.
So Mahalakshmi is also vibhu or omni present that is she is every where along with Sriman Narayana.
She is not of atomic size or anu as opined by a few.

(e) Regarding the point mentioned that there is someone superior or supreme to Lord Sriman Narayana
based on a text in Svetasvathara upanishad (Thatha: Yaduththara tharam) the Sutrakara says in the sutra
“Thatha Anya prathishedhath” that there are several upanishadic texts which proclaim that
Lord Sriman Narayana is the supreme being and there is none else who is supreme to him.

This adhikarana gets concluded with the sutrakarar saying in the sutra
“Anena sarvagathatvam Ayama sabdadibhya:”. Which means that Lord Sriman Narayana is all pervading
and omni present according to several quotations in the upanishads and hence he is the supreme most being.

The last adhikarana in this pada is called “Phaladhikarana”.
In this it is eatablished that Lord Sriman Narayana alone grants fruits for all the karmas done by
persons (jivas) including moksha. In this world people can be divided in to three categories.
I)Aisvaryarathi – One who has desire in attaining worldly pleasures like be getting children,
acquiring wealth and higher positions in the professional career etc., and also attaining pleasures in the svarga loka.
In Vedas several means are prescribed for acquiring worldly pleasures and heavenly pleasures.
Some of these are listed below.
(a) Putrakameshti yaga – For be getting children
(b) Vayavya ishti – For acquiring wealth
(c) Rajasuya yaga – For becoming king or monarch
(d) Kareeri ishti – for getting good rains which is called suvrishti and not under rains called
Alpavrishti and not over rains called Athi vrishti.
(e)Jyothishtoma yaga and other yagas – For acquiring heavenly pleasures
(f) One hundred Ashwamedha yagas – To become Indra or Thrilokadhipathi
And so on.

II) Kaivalyarthi – A desire to enjoy his own soul or atma.
This is possible by meditation of his own self subject to the grace of paramatma.

III)Moksharthi – A desire to attain moksha (gets liberated from the bondage of samsara) that is reaching
Sri vaikunta pya loka through Archiradi marga ascending the throne there (Divya paryanka)
where the pine couple are seated and do eternal service there. This can be attained by doing Bhakthi yoga or prapatti.

The point for discussion in this adhikarana is as who is to grant fruits for various means explained above.
This adhikarana has four sutras in which
the first two are siddhantha sutras,
the third one is poorva paksha sutra and
the 4th one is siddhantha sutra in reply to the argument of the poorva pakshi.
In this adhikarana sage Jaimnin is the purva pakshi who is the composer of sutras for poorva mimamsa or karma kanda.

It is reminded in this context that mimamsa satra which is one of the universally accepted
fourteen branches of learning is a single sastra having three portions.
It should also be remembered that Mimamsa sastra is basically meant for proper interpretation of vedic texts and deciding their meanings.

The first portion of Vedas is called karmakanda comprising of Vedic texts dealing with the performance of yagas
and other karmas which are in the form of worship of Lord Sriman Narayana and please him to grant fruits.
Sage Jaimini who is the disciple of Sri Vedavyasa Bhagavan who is also called Sage Badarayana directed jaimini
to compose sutras for the proper interpretation of vedic texts of karma kanda.
Accordingly he composed sutras grouped in to 12 chapters, 60 padas and 907 adhikaranas.
These are called Karmakanda sutras or poorva mimamsa sutras.

The second portion of Vedas is the devatha kanda dealing with the nature and form of various celestial gods
like Prajapathi (four-headed Brahma) Pasupathi (Rudra or siva), shachi pathi (Indra), Surya, Soma (moon),
Vayu, Agni, Varuna and others. For the interpretation of these vedic texts sage Badarayana directed
his disciple the sage Kasakritsna to compose sutras. These sutras are again grouped in to 4 chapters.
There is some doubt in the authorship of these sutras and one school of thought says that
the author is Jaimini and the other school of thought says the author is Kasakritsna.
Sri Swami Desikan says in Sri Adhikarana saravali that if Jaimini has been the author then
kasakristna would have composed vritti. If Kasakritsna is the author than Jaimini would have composed vritti.

The third portion is upanishads which constitutes Brahmakanda.
This is head portion or last portion of Vedas and hence called Sruthi siras, Vedantha, Thrayyantha Nigamantha.
It is needless to repeat here that Sage Badarayana is the composer of Brahma sutras numbering 545 and
grouped in to 4 chapters and these Brahma sutras are being dealt with now.
Sage Bhodhayana wrote an elaborate vritti for these Brahma sutras.
Vritti is a work which explains the meanings of the sutras concisely or elaborately.
Now in the first sutra of this adhikarana, the sutrakarar that is sage Badarayana says that
the fruit for any karma (yagas) and upasana (Bhakthi or meditation) is granted by Lord Sriman Narayana
who was proved beyond doubt as the supreme most being in the previous adhikarana.

The first sutra is “Phalamatha: uppaththe:”
Phalam is fruit,
Atha means from Sriman Narayana
upapaththe: means that Lord Sriman Narayana alone is omniscient, and omni potent and very liberal
and hence it is only appropriate that he grants fruits for yagas, danas, homas and upasanas.

In the second sutra upanishadic texts are quoted to establish the above.

In the third sutra which is the poorva paksha sutra
sage Jaimini says that Karmas and not upasanas directly grant fruits.
Jaimini says that there is an imaginary Apoorva which confers fruits for yagas.

It should be noted that virtuous acts or punya karmas are classified as yagas, danas and homas.
Yagas are sacrifices in which an animal (goat) is sacrificied and juice of soma latha (latha means creeper) is drunk.
In yagas the words uttered for offerings various things to the sacrificial fires which are three
in number named as Dakshnagi, Ahavaniya agni and Garhapatya agni are he Yaja, he Yajamahe, Asthu vonshat, Ashravaya and voushat.

Danas are offerings given to the needy. Homas are those offerings made to Agni without animal sacrifice.

In the last sutra which reads as Poorvanthu Badarayana hethu vyapadeshath,
the sutrakarar refutes the argument of sage jaimini and establishes the fact that
Sriman Narayana grants fruits to karmas done in the form of yagas.
He grants moksha to the person who has done prapatti instead of upasana or Bhakthi yoga.
Sri Vedanta desika says and upasanas.
All the upanishads say in one voice that Bhakthi yoga is the means for attaining Moksha.
Bhakthi basically means devotion towards elders.
Intense meditation with single minded devotion on Lord Sriman Narayana is Bhakthi yoga.

Before dealing with the eight ingredients of Bhakthi yoga its ancillaries are to be clearly under stood.

The two basic ancillaries are (1) Karma yoga and (2) Jnana yoga.
The nature of Karma yoga and Jnana yoga have been dealt with in detail in Sri Bhagavad gita.
This karma yoga is basically meant for the purification of mind which helps concentration of mind
on Lord Sriman Narayana which is an essential prerequisite for deep meditation which is called Samadhi.

In the chapter 9 of Srimath Rahasyatrayasara, Sri Vedanta Desika (reverentially known as Sri Swami Desikan)
explains the nature of Karma and Gnana yoga as follows in precise terms without much dilation or elaboration.

Karmayoga:- After acquiring the knowledge of the true nature of the individual soul that is
jiva (one’s own self) and supreme soul who is paramatma one has to resort to any of the karma yoga
which is possible for doing by him (Jiva). This karma yoga has to be done without expecting any fruit out of it.
The various classifications of karma yoga are
(a)Devarchana Rupa – Worship of Lord Sriman Narayana utilising money earned by righteous means.
(b) Doing yaga or sacrifice like Jyothishtoma yaga, Vajapeya yaga etc in which animals like goats are sacrificed.
(c) Controlling our senses by perting from the objects of sensual pleasures like sabda, sparsha, Rupa, Rasa
and Gandha and directing them to-wards Lord Paramatma.
(d) Controlling our breathing by doing pranayama
(e) Offering of the alms to the needy.
(f) Doing the daily rituals of oupasina, Agnihotra and Panchamaha yagnas.
(g) Doing tapas. Tapas means penance.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in Sri Geetha Bhasya explains Tapas as krichchra, Chandrayana etc.
The activity which is done with difficulty and with a vow is called Krichchra. It includes fasting.
Anything which is done with a vow is called vrata.
In the chandrayana vrata, taking of food is to be regulated. One mouthful of food is grasa.
The regulation of taking food is as follows.

From the beginning of Sukla paksha ( a fortnight that gets concluded with full moon or poornima)
up to the day of full moon, the quantum of food has to be increased by one grasa every day and on
the full moon day there will be full square meals.
From the beginning of krishna paksha that gets concluded on the new moon day, the quantum of food
has to be reduced by grasa every day such that it becomes virtually nil on the new moon day (Amavasya)
and the fasting has to be done on that day.
The above is called Tapas.

h) Taking holy dip in sacred waters is also a form of Karma yoga.
i) Learning Vedas
j) Knowing the meaning of Vedic texts

The above all are the difficult forms of karma yoga and a person can adopt any one of them.
By doing this karma yoga, the mind gets purified for realising one’s own self.
It should be remembered that this karma yoga is besides doing daily rituals of sandhya vandana
three times and other allied karmas which are called as Nitya Naimittika karmas.

Jnanayoga:- After getting the mind purified by doing karma yoga as explained above and
after winning over the mind, the inpidual soul that is jiva who is different from the body and
after realising that jiva is supported and controlled by paramatma and is subordinate to him.
The person should meditate on his own self always without break.
When the person realises his own self by karma yoga and gnana yoga and if the person is not caught
in the pleasure of the enjoyment of his own self, then he gets down to Bhakthi yoga which is the direct means
for the attainment of supreme goal of enjoyment of paramatma in Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

Sri Swamy Desikan cites a beautiful example. There is a jewel and jewel box containing jewel.
To see the jewel inside the jewel box, first jewel box has to be seen.
So also here paramatma who is the antaryami or inner soul in every being is the jewel and
the inpidual soul that is jivatma is the jewel box. After seeing jewel box that is after realising
his own self which is called Atma avalokanam, it is but natural or obvious or even sequential to get a desire
to see the antaryami who is the supreme soul and jivatma is the body to him.
So this atma avalokanam confers the basic eligibility on a person who wants to resort to Bhakthi yoga to attain eternal bliss or Moksha.
The details of Bhakthi yoga will be dealt with later.

In practicing Karma yoga and Jnana yoga the following seven ingredients also form an integral part.
These seven ingredients are called Sadhana sapthaka which Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja mentions
in the Laghu siddhantha in the beginning of Sri Bhasya.
The sadhana saptaka or the seven ingredients are as follows.
In this context the Bhakthi yoga is called Dhruva smrthi or Dhruva anusmrithi.
Smrthi or Anusmrithi is meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami or the inner soul of the meditator.
Dhruva means deep concentration of the mind that is in other words not allowing any other thought to come
in between during meditation. This state of mind is possible only by sadhana sapthaka which has been referred to above.

The details of Sadhana Sapthaka are as follows.
1)Viveka – The food we take should be free from three defects.
The three defects are Jathidushtam, Ashraya dushtam and Nimiththa dushtam.
Jathidushtam – defects arising out of the prohibited categories to which they belong like onion, potato, cabbage, drumstick, etc.
Ashraya dushtam – defects arising out of the connection of the food with some unholy substances like hair etc.
Tender coconut in a brass or bronze vessel, Honey kept in a copper vessel, Ghee and milk served by using an iron vessel.
Nimiththa dushtam – Under some special or peculiar circumstances the prepared food should not be taken.
These circumstances are known as Nimiththam.
Food touched by people belonging to inferior castes.
Milk sold by brahmins, Food touched by dogs, crows, cock, rats, cats and young children.
Food smelt by human beings and cattle. The balance of water in the vessel after washing of our feet etc.
It is said in the chandogyopanishad that if the food we take is pure then the satva guna in our mind
will increase which helps the meditation in Bhakthi yoga.

2) Vimoka – Free from desires especially sexual. Meditation has to be done with a peaceful mind.
There should not be any desire in the mind to enjoy the objects like sound, touch, beauty, taste and smell.
If the desire is not fulfilled it leads to anger. If the anger is there there will be no peace of mind.

3) Abhyasa – This means repetition. In other words the mind should meditate on an auspicious form of Lord Sriman Narayana.
This also means choosing suitable place and time for meditation, so that concentration becomes possible.

4)Kriya – Kriya means performance of daily rituals to the extent possible especially,
Pancha maha yagnas like Devayagna, Pithru yagna, Bhutha yagna, Monushya yagna and Brahma yagna.
It is said that those who perform the daily rituals including the above pancha maha yagna are the best among
brahma viths. Brahma vith means person having complete knowledge of Brahman that is Lord Sriman Narayana.

5) Kalyana – Possession of virtuous qualities that is satya, Arjava, Daya, Dana, Ahimsa and Anabhidhyaah.
Satyam means compassion towards living beings, Arjavam means complete synchronisation of mind, speech and action
that is what we think that should be spoken and what we speak should be put into action.
Daya means mercy or compassion which in other words means a sincere desire to remove the distress
of others without expecting any return or reward out of it.
Ahimsa means complete nonviolence that is not causing suffering to others in mind, speech and action.
Danam means without being greedy or avaricious. This also means offering of any thing to the
deserving and needy person which he has acquired by righteous means.
Anabhidhya means not aspiring to possess another man’s property and wealth.
It also means not thinking of harming the others. There should be no intention to cheat others.
It also means possession of qualities told by the Lord Krishna in the 13th chapter of Bhagavad gita
and also eight qualities of the inpidual soul mentioned in the Gauthama dharma sutra.

6) Avavasada – Avasada means distress, sorrow or grief. Anavasada means just opposite of it that is being
without distress. A person who resorts to Bhakthi yoga should be without any mental grief.

7)Anudhdharsha – Udhdharsha means excessive happiness or pleasure. Anudhdharsa means just opposite of it
that is being without too much of happiness. This also should not be there for a person to do bhakthi yoga.

The above sadhana sapthaka (Seven point means) should be there along with karma yoga or along with both
karma yoga and gnana yoga as explained above and these are essential prerequisites for a person to do Bhakthi yoga.

Bhakthi yoga:- Again Sri Vedantha Desika in the Upaya Vibhaga Adhikara of Srimad Rahasyatraya sara
explains beautifully the nature of Bhakthi yoga which is as follows.
Bhakthi yoga is deep meditation with excessive devotion on Lord Sriman Narayana who is the supporter of meditator,
who is not under the control of any body else and who is also not subordinate to any body else.
This meditation is continuous flow of thought like the flow of oil leading to a state of realisation of the Lord
in the mind which is almost equal to external and full realisation.
This has to be done every day till the day of his journey to the supreme abode Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka
and ends with the remembrance of the Lord just before the departure of the soul from this mortal body.
This is called Antima smrithi. As already said the performance of daily rituals according to
one’s varna (Caste) and Ashrama (Stage of Life) along with karma yoga.
With Sadhana Sapthaka and realisation of one own self that is atma or along with karma yoga, jnana yoga
combined with sadhana sapthaka and realisation of one’s own self which was mentioned as atmavalokana before.

The four castes are Brahman, Kshatriya, Vysya and Sudra.
The four stages of the life or the four ashramas are Bramacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Samyasa
(Bachelor, Married, Living in forest and ascetic).

Bhakthi yoga has to be done only by those belonging to Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya castes only.
(This bhakthi yoga is there fore called Trivarnikadhikara or confined to three varnas).
Ladies are also not eligible to do Bhakthi yoga because both sudras and ladies are not eligible to recite Vedas.
This in other words mean Vedas are not accessible to them.

This Bhakthi yoga which is prescribed as means for moksha or salvation is called parabhakthi.
This parabhakthi generates a deep desire to realise Lord Sriman Narayana. When this realisation is achieved
at the time of meditation this state is called paragnana. This paragnana leads to the development or
generation of a deep and devoted desire to enjoy the supreme being continuously and this is called parama bhakthi.
This parama bhakthi makes Sriman Narayana to expedite the granting of moksham to the concerned person
who has crossed the three stages (States) which are parabhakthi, paragnana and parama bhakthi.

To attain the state of deep meditation which is called “Samadhi” which is the highest state
there are seven lower steps and these seven steps together with the state of samadhi is called Ashtanga yoga.
The eight angas or ancillaries (components) of Bhakthi yoga are
1)Yama – This means of controlling senses. This is possible if only five sub ancillaries of this
are practiced and achieved. The five sub ancillaries are
(a)Brahmacharya or celibacy – One should not aspire women other than his own wife. He should be devoted towards his wife.
(b)Ahimsa- One should not think, talk or do harm to others.
(c)Astheya – One should not steal other man’s belonging or property. Also one should not think that
his soul which is ever sub ordinate to and exclusive property of Lord Sriman Narayana as quite independent and not subordinate.
If he thinks like the above he will be charged as Atmapahari (One who has stolen his soul).
After all stealing means of thinking of one substance belonging to the other as his own.
The atma pahara is the gravest crime in this world.
(d)Aparigraha – Not accepting any gift for the sake of his own self.
(e) Satyam – One should speak truth which is palatable to others and which will be well taken by them.
An unpalatable thing though a fact or true should not be spoken.

2)Niyama – Bringing all the senses under one’s direct control and not allowing to run after any
material pleasure giving object. This has again has five sub ancillaries which are as follows.
(a) Santhosha:- having contentment with what one gets and enjoying the objects of material pleasure.
(b)Saucham – Saucham means purification. This purification is of two types. The first is external purification
which is the purification of body with mud and water and the second type is the internal purification
that is the purification of mind. There should be purity in the food one takes.
If should not be jathi dushta, Ashraya dushta and nimithth adushta as explained earlier under sadhana sapthaka.
Any food one takes should have been offered to Lord Sriman Narayana after worshipping him in
archa form which may be in the form of salagrama or consecrated idol form or both.
(c) Tapas – This means fasting on special days like Ekadasi, Sravana dwadashi, Sri Jayanthi, Sri Ramanavami,
Sri Narasimha jayanthi days. Tapas also means avoiding overeating or undereating is always enemy to meditation.
(d)Svadhyaya – Reciting of Vedas after leaning it under the feet of a preceptor. It also means uttering the names of Lord Sriman Narayana.
(e) Pranidhanam (Brahma pravanyam) – making the mind rest on Lord Sriman Narayana.

(3) Asanam – Being seated. The meditator should get seated at a purified place.
The purification of the place should be done by smearing with water along with gomayam (cow dung)
on this dharbam (Kusa grass) should be spread over. Over this Aginam (Skin of the deer) should be placed.
Over the above cloth should be placed and this arrangement gives a cushioning effect.
Over the above a wooden board in the shape of any of the following.
Chakra, Padma, Kurma, Mayura, Kukkuta, Veera, Svasthika, Bhadra, Simhasana, Mukthasana, Gomukha
should be kept over which the meditator should get seated facing the east.

(4) Pranayamam – This means controlling the breath. This has three stages of operation.
The first stage is called Rechaka in which the left nose is closed by the shortest finger and next to it
and exhaling the air from the right nose with eyes closed.
The second stage is called Puraka in which the right nose is closed by the thumb and air from outside is
inhaled through the left nose. The third stage is called kumbhaka in which both the noses are closed by
the three fingers as mentioned above and the breath is controlled and maintained at that level
for about 36 seconds which is the best period, 24 seconds which is next best or for at least 12 seconds.
One second can be considered as Mathra the duration required to pronounce a short alphabet like
the first alphabet Aa. During the period of holding the breath the ashtakshara mantra or
dvaya mantra has to be recited with in the mind for 25 times. This pranayama is required for keeping the body healthy.

(5) Pratyahara – This means dragging the mind which is after senses and senses are after the objects of enjoyment,
towards the Lord Sriman Narayana by developing a sense of detachment and by realising drawbacks or defects in the sensual pleasures.

(6) Dharana – After getting detachment in the sensual pleasures and after developing love or devotion
towards auspicious and beautiful form of Sriman Narayana which in other words called Divya mangala vigraha
(auspicious means subhashraya) the meditation should get his mind constantly and continuously
on the lotus feet of the supreme being and seeing that the mind does not move away from the above.

(7) Dhyanam – This means deep meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana along with the auspicious attributes
as enunciated in the upanishads in the contexts of various brahma vidyas the details of which will be dealt with after this.
This dhyanam is always compared to the flow of oil to indicate that there is no break.
So this meditation is continuous thought which will not be interrupted with any other thought.
When this meditation is undertaken the mind should constantly be thinking of Divya Mangala vigraha of
the supreme being who is adorned with five weapons and ornaments. The weapons are
Sudarsana chakra- Disc – This represents the mind of a human being.
Panchajanya – Sankha- Conch shell – This represents Sathvika ahamkara which is one of the 24 tenets.
Kaumodaki – Gada – Mace – This represents Mahan.
Sarngam – Bow – This represents Ahamkara
Arrows – These represent ten senses.
Khadga – Sword. This represents the Gnana or conscious ness.

The ornaments are
Kireeta – Crown
Makuta – Ornament of head
Chudavatamsa – a garland worn on head.
Makara kundala – Ear rings in the shape of a crocodile.
Graivayakahara – Neck lace
Keyura – Arm let
Kataka – Bracelet
Srivatsa – hair on the chest of the lord
Kousthubha – Gem on the breast of the Lord. This kousthubha represents jivatma.
Muktha – Single string of pearls.
Peethambara – Yellow garment
Kanchee guna – Golden waist belt.
Nupura – An anklet.

(8) Samadhi – A state that is reached after the daily practice of dhyana in which the intrinsic nature or
swarupa of the supreme being is meditated upon. Samadhi also means full mental realisation of the Lord
even after getting up from dhyana.

Thirtytwo Brahma vidyas:
Vidya means knowledge. The basic root of this word is “Vid jnane”. This knowledge is of two types which are
(1) ordinary knowledge (2) Meditatory knowledge. Brahma means the supreme being Lord Sriman Narayana.
So Brahma vidya means meditation on Brahman for liberation from bondage of samsara and attainment of eternal bliss.
So this Brahma vidya is Bhakthi yoga the details of which were dealt with in the preceeding paragraphs.

These Brahma vidyas, each of which is an independent means of attaining moksha are thirty two in number
and each one of them is a form of Bhakthi yoga excepting nyasa vidya which is saranagathi or prappaththi
which is also an independent means of attaining moksha.
As explained earlier Karma yoga and Jnana yoga are ancillaries to Bhakthi yoga (Brahmavidya).
In addition to this Prapatti or Saranagathi has to be done at the lotus feet of the Lord Sriman Narayana
to wash off sins (both punya and papa) which are blocking a Traivarnika man from doing Bhakthi yoga
(Trivarnika means a person belonging to Brahmana, Kshatriya or Vaisya castes).
This Prapatti done to remove impediments for starting Bhakthi yoga is called as Anga prapatti.
Anga means ancillary. The sequence of commencement of Bhakthi yoga or Brahma vidya is as follows.
There are two alternative sequences.

I – First Sequence:
(a) Karma yoga and practicing of Sadhana sapthaka
(b) Realisation of one own self (Atma sakshatkara or Atma avalokana)
(c) Anga prapatti
(d) Bhakthi yoga – Choosing any one of Brahma vidyas whose names will be mentioned below adopting Ashtanga yoga.

II-Second sequence:
(a) Karma yoga and practising of Sadhana sapthaka
(b) Jnana yoga
(c) Atma avalokana
(d) Anga prapatti
(e) Bhakthi yoga choosing any one of the Brahma vidyas adopting Ashtanga yoga

While doing Bhakthi yoga adopting Ashtanga yoga Three things are to be essentially meditated upon which are
(a) Meditating upon Lord Sriman Narayana having a Divya mangala vigraha and always associated with his
consort Mahalakshmi and both together becoming one single entity who is the inner soul or antaryamin of
the meditator who is his body that is the meditator or jivatma is the body of paramatma or paramatma is the soul of jivatma.
While meditating on the supreme soul or paramatma as mentioned above two categories of the auspicious attributes
of the Lord Sriman Narayana are also to be meditated.
They are (I) Six basic auspicious attributes which are called Svarupa nirupaka dharmas (here Dharma is Kalyana guna) and
(ii) The auspicious attributes which are exclusively related to the particular brahma vidya which the meditator chooses to meditate.

(b) Meditating on his own self as knower, doer, enjoyer, always subordinate to Sriman Narayana,
of atomic, knowing his own self (called Pratyaktva)

(c) Thinking of Brahmavidya which one has adopted for attaining salvation.

(d)The sequence of fruits one is going to enjoy at the conclusion of Brahma vidya which are Antima Smrithi (last memory),
departure of the soul with a miniature body or sooshma sarira from the mortal body, reaching the bank of viraja river,
along the Archiradi marga or route and there deserting the sookshma sarira, crossing the Viraja river
and reaching the opposite bank and entering in to the territory of Sri Vaikuntha para loka, getting Brahmalankara,
being conducted to para paryanaka or throne where the pine couple are seated, ascending the throne
and reporting to Divine couple, blossoming of Eight attributes called Gunashtaka,
getting ordained or initiated into the eternal service to the pine couple there by attaining moksha samrajya.

The thirtytwo Brahma vidyas are as follows.
This is narrated below in the sequence of the Adhikaranas in Sri Bhashya.
(1) Sadvidya: This brahmavidya is taught to Svethakethu by his father sage Uddalaka in the 6th chapter of Chandogyopanishad.
(a) The six attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana which are to be meditated upon and which are called svarupa nirupaka dharmas are,
i) Satyatva – By virtue of this attribute the supreme being is different from the unliberated soul
who is called Baddha jiva and also different from the mortal body in which the baddha jiva dwells.
Satyatva also denotes being free from transformation both in the intrinsic nature which is called
svarupa and ordinary nature which is called Svabhava.
ii)Jnanatva- Always omniscient. By virtue of this attribute the paramatma is different from muktatma (liberated soul)
iii) Anantatva- Paramatma is limit less or infinite with regard to space, time and substance which in other words
he encompassess the entire universe both externally and internally
He is antaryami to both sentient and non sentient beings. This aspect makes him different from Nitya suries.
iv)Anandatva – Always with Infinite bliss.
v) Amalatva – blemishless ness
vi)Sriyahpativa- Consort of Goddess Mahalakshmi.
The above six attributes which establish the svarupa or intrinsic nature of Lord Sriman Narayana
are to be meditated upon in every brahmavidya without exception including nyasavidya.

(b) The exclusive attributes or Kalyana gunas which are to be meditated upon in this vidya only are as follows:
i) Jagad upadanatvam – Material cause for this universe
ii)Jagan nimitatvam – Operational cause for this universe.
iii)Sarvajnatva – Omniscient
iv) Sarva sakthi yoga – Omnipotent
v) Satya sankalpatvam – Possessing unshakeable will.
vi) Sarva antaratvam – being inner soul or antaryami in everybeing.
vii)Sarva tharatvam – Supporting the entire universe.
viii)Sarva Niyanthrutvam – Controlling or ordaining every thing.

(c)Specific mention of Moksha phala in this vidya : In the sixth chapter of the chandogyopanishad
it is said that who practices this Brahma vidya (Sath vidya) and meditates attains moksha on the expiry of Pra rabya karma.

2) Anandamaya vidya:- This brahmavidya is mentioned in the Anandavalli of Taittariya upanishad.
(a) The six svarupa nirupaka dharmas as mentioned above are to be meditated upon while meditating
on Lord Sriman Narayana who is Anandamaya.
(b)Exclusive attributes to be meditated upon in this vidya are
i)Creator of five elements or Bhuthas which are Akasa, Vayu, Thejas, Water and earth
ii)He is antaryami to Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya and vignana maya
iii) He wills and creates the universe
iv)He has entered in to all the sentient and non sentient beings as antaryami and they have become bodies to him
v) He confers happiness on all jivas and without his grace none can survive.
vi) He is a terror to Sun, Moon, Vayu, Indra, Agni, Yama and other celestial gods who perform
their duties correctly and promptly on account of fear towards Sriman Narayana who is Anandamaya.
(c)Mention of Moksha phala to one who resorts to this Brahma vidya

At the conclusion of this Anandavalli it is said that Brahmananda which is eternal and infinite bliss
in Sri Vaikunta Divya Loka is also attained by Akamohata Sratria which means a person who has vairagya
and who has meditated upon Anandamaya who is paramatma.

Note : Knowing the names of all the Brahma Vidyas and exclusive auspicious attributes relevant to
each and every Brahma Vidya to be meditated is of academic interest and it will be a very elaborate and lengthy affair.
No body in this Kaliyuga resorts to Bhakthi yoga which is very difficult to practice.
It is said even sage Nathamuni who was a yoganishta and who chanted “Kanninun Siruth thambu” a Tamil deivatamil
composed by the Sage Madura kavi Alwar in praise of Nammalwar 12000 times with deep concentration
to see or realise Nammalwar to get the preaching of 4000 verses called Divya deivatamil did not practice Bhakthi yoga.
In Bhakthi yoga it cannot be precisely said that Lord Sriman Narayana will grant Moksha at the end of that birth or janma
in which one may resort to Bhakthi yogam. He may have to take several births before the supreme being grants him moksha.
So nobody will dare to practice Bhakthi yoga in this Kaliyuga.

So in this lecture I will mention merely the names of 32 Brahma vidyas and the name of the upanishad
in which it is mentioned. This information will suffice.
I have already dealt with Sadvidya and Anandamaya vidya. For the sake of the completeness of the list
I repeat their names here and try to give some details of Nyasa vidya at the end.

Name of Brahma Vidya–Name of the upanishad in which it is mentioned–Phala or fruit for Name of the adhikarana in Sri Bhashya in which this vidya is discussed or dealt with.

1-Sadvidya. Uddalaka preaches to Svethakethu–Chandogya – 6th chapter–Moksha phalam–Ikshathyadhikarana
2-Ananda vidya or Anandamaya vidya. This is not preached to anybody.–Taittariya upanishad. Anandavalli–Moksha phalam–Anandamayadhikarana
3-Antharaditya vidya–Chandogya Ist chapter, 6th khanda, 6th Mantra–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Antharadhikarana
4-Akasha vidya–Chandogya Ist chapter, 9th khanda–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Akasa adhikarana

5-Prana vidya–Chandogya 1-11-5–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Pranadhikaranam
6-Gayathri Jyothir vidya–Chandogya 3-12–Moksha phalam. Here the attainment of Svarga loka means Moksha–Jyothiradhikaranam
7-Prathardana vidya–Kousithaki upanishad 3rd chapter–Moksha phalam. The person who resorts to this vidya first attains svarga loka abode of Indra and stays there for a considerable period and then goes to Sri Vaikunta–Indra pranadhikaranam.
8-Sandilya vidya–Chandogya 3-14– Agnirahasyam Brihadarayanaka upanishad 7-6-1–Moksha phalam–Sarvatra prasiddhi Adhikaranam

9-Nachiketha vidya. Lord Yama preaches this vidya to Nachi kethas–Kathopanishad–Moksha phalam–Attradhikaranam
10-Upakosala vidya. Sage Satyakama preaches this vidya to upakosala.–Chandogya 4th chapter. 10 to 15 Khandas–Moksha phalam–Antharaa adhikaranam
11-Antaryami vidya–Brihadaranyaka 5th chapter and 7th Brahmanam subalopanishad–Moksha phalam–Antaryami adhikaranam
12-Akshara para vidya–Mundaka upanishad–Moksha phalam–Adrasyatvadi Adhikaranam

13-Vysvanara vidya. King Ashwa pathi teaches this vidya to six sages–Chandogya – 5-11-24–Moksha phalam–Vysvanadhikaranam
14-Bhooma vidya. Sage Sanath kumara preaches this vidya to sage Narada.–Chandogya 7th chapter–Moksha phalam–Bhooma adhikaranam
15-Gargi Aksara vidya–Brihadaranyakam 5-8-8–Moksha phalam–T
16-hrimatra pranava vidya–Prasnopanishad 5-5–Moksha phalam–Ekshathikarmadhikaranam

17-Dahara vidya–Chandogya 8th chapter–Moksha phalam–Daharadhikaranam
18-Angushtha pramitha vidya–Kathopanishad–Moksha phalam–Pramithadhikaranam
19-Jyothisham jyothir vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 6-4-16–Moksha phalam–Madhvadhikaranam
20-Madhu vidya–Chandogya 3-1–Moksha phalam–Madhvadhikaranam

21-Samvarga vidya. Sage Raikva preaches this vidya to king Janasruthi.–Chandogya 4-3–Moksha phalam–Apa sudradikaranam
22-Akasa vidya–Chandogya 8th chapter–Moksha phalam–Arthantara vyapadesadhikaranam
23-Balaki vidya–Kausitaki upanishad. Brihadaranyaka upanishad–Moksha phalam–Jagadva chitvadhikaranam
24-Maitreyi vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 4-4–Moksha phalam–Vakya Anvayadhikaranam

25-Panchagni vidya. King pravahana preaches this vidya to sage Aruni.–Chandogya upanishad 5-3–Moksha phalam enjoing his ownself first and then doing service to the pine couple in Sri Vaikunta para loka.–Tadanthara pratipatti adhikaranam
26-Purusha vidya–Taittiriya upanishad–Moksha phalam–Purusha vidyadhikarana–
27-Akshistha Satya Brahma vidya–Brihadaranyakam upanishad 5-7–Moksha phalam
28-Isavasya vidya–Isavasya upanishad–Moksha phalam

29-Ushasthikahola vidya. Sage Yagna valkya preaches this vidya to ushastha and kahola.–Brihadaranyaka 5-4 and 5-5–Moksha phalam–Antharatvadhikaranam
30-Paryanka vidya–Kaushitaki 1st chapter–Moksha phalam–
31-Vyahrithi vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 7-5-1–Moksha phalam
32-Nyasa vidya–Taittariya upanishad, Svethashwara upanishad–Moksha phalam

Details of Nyasavidya:
Of all the Brahma vidyas listed above, Sri Nyasa vidya is superior most and Sri Swamy desikan in Rahasyatrayasara
says that Bhakthi yoga cannot be even equal to 1/107 Nyasa vidya and this Nyasa vidya is prapatti or saranagathi.

The Taittiriya upanishad says that this Nyasa vidya is superior to all forms of Tapas.
Svetasvara upanishad says that I will surrender at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana who created the
four headed Brahma and preached Vedas to him and by whose grace his knowledge is acquired.
Here surrender means entrusting the responsibility or burden of protecting the soul of a person who does prapatti.
This is called Bhara samarpanam. Protecting the soul means Lord Sriman Narayana granting moksha to him
and he makes him render all service and at all times to him and to his consort Mahalakshmi.

In Sri Bagavad geetha Lord Gitachaarya stipulated to Arjuna to do prapatti at his feet to wash of all his sins
(Punya and Papa) which are standing in the way of his attaining moksha.
This is applicable to all of us while arjuna did not do prapatti and attain Moksha.
The above stipulation is called Charama sloka in Sri Bhagavad geetha. All of us are getting the benefit of the above
stipulation and we are doing prapatti through an Acharya and we will certainly attain Moksha, which is eternal bliss.

The basic definition of prapatti according to Bharatha muni is when any person desires to attain any thing and
when it is not possible by any other means the person makes a prayer to Lord Sriman Narayana to be the means
for the above and make him to attain that thing.

Just like Bhakthiyoga has eight ancillaries and it is called Ashtanga yoga, this prapatti has
five ancillaries and this is called Panchanga yoga.
The basic eligibility factors to do prapatti are Akin chanya and Ananya gathikatva.
Akin chanya is utter in ability to do bhakthi yoga and becoming miserable on account this inability.
Ananya gathikatva means there is no object other than the pine couple Lord Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi
(both constitute a single entity) to attain.

This Prapatti can be done by all without distinction of caste, creed, colour or sex.
Prapatti can be done even for animals, trees and non sentient beings because there are jivas (Souls) in all these things.

In prapatti yogyadhikarana of Srimad Rahasyatraya sara Sri Swamy desikan mentions the following four factors
for becoming eligible to do prapatti or Nyasavidya. They are
i) Uttar physical inability to do Bhakthi yoga. This tells inability to do karma yoga which is prerequisite to Bhakthi yoga.
ii) Not possessing the requisite quantum of knowledge to do Bhakthi yoga. This tells in ability to do gnana yoga which is also a prerequisite to Bhakthi yoga. It may also refer to inability to get the concentration of mind required for meditation which is also a form of knowledge.
iii) Being born in a caste inferior to Brahmana, Kshatriya or Vysya or belonging to fair sex.
iv) not being able to bear the delay in attaining moksha because in Bhakthi yoga there is no guarantee that the
individual who does bhakthi yoga attains moksha at the end of that janma or birth itself.
But in prapatti attaining moksha at the end of that birth itself is guarandeed or it is cent percent certainly.

There are fifteen categories of persons who become eligible to do prapatti.
i) Four categories of persons having any one of the above four factors.
ii) Six categories of persons having any two of the above four factors.
iii) Four categories of persons having any three of the above four factors.
iv) One category of persons having all the above factors.

Doing Prapatti is a very very simple affair and it will not last for more than 30 minutes and an one time affair
where Bhakthi yoga has to be repeatedly done for several years and during several births.
Obviously some doubts arise regarding the efficacy of prapatti as to how a short duration prapatti can confer
the same moksha to its doer when it is conferred on a person resorting to Bhakthi yoga for several years and births.
Sri Swami Desikan raises five doubts and gives convincing clarifications or replies.
This is called Sanka panchakam which is as follows.
Doubt I:
When the mean minded gods like Siva, Indra, Four-headed Brahma, Ayyappan, Mariamman etc grant fruits
to persons who make prayers very quickly and when Lord Sriman Narayanan grants fruits after considerable delay
how can he grant fruit or Moksha to a person who does prapatti within the time prayed by a person at the time
doing prapatti and when the person who does prapatti has committed countless number of sins.
Added to this Lord Sriman Narayana is omniscient and knows the sins committed by persons
and he is capable of awarding punishment to persons who have committed sins because he is danda dhara holding the stick always.
Also he gives the fruits of sorrow and happiness according to the deeds (Papa and Punya karmas) of a person.

Reply: Lord Sriman Narayana who has neither equal to him nor superior to him ignores all the sins of the persons
and extends a gracious look at those persons on account of purushakara or recommendation made by a person to him
for condoning all the sins. In the case of prapatti done for Moksha, Goddess Mahalakshmi becomes
purushakara and recommends to the Lord to condone the sins and extend a gracious look.

Doubt II:
How can Lord Sriman Narayana confer the Moksha fruit which is infinite bliss on an individual who has committed
countless sins for his short durationed prapatti?

Reply: There is the relationship of “Seshi Sesha” between Lord Sriman Narayana and the inpidual soul.
“Seshi” is Swami or Master who expects service from Sesha or servant. So the Lord wants persons to come to him
to do service to him and Mahalakshmi eternally. This aspect makes him grant infinite eternal bliss to that person who does Prapatti.

Doubt III:
Still the doubt arises as to how the Supreme Lord Grant moksha for a too small and insignificant act of Prapatti?

Reply: Lord possesses virtuous and auspicious qualities Daya and Vatsalya etc.
Vatsalya means unlimited affection shown to an inpidual like a cow towards a just born calf.
Daya or Karunya is the quality by virtue of which the Lord exhibits limitless compassion towards a person in
distress and sincerely wants to relieve the distress without expecting any return out of it.
Vatsalya also means ignoring the drawbacks of an individual.
These qualities make the lord to grant moksha for the too small act of prapatti.

Doubt IV:
How can the Lord grant moksha without delay?

Reply: The supreme being has the vyapara or action (business) of willing and his strong and unshakable will
cannot be changed by any body. This is called satya sankalpa. This makes him grant Moksha without delay
at the time prayed by an inpidual soul while doing prapatti. In this context it should be noted that
there are two categories of prapannas (one who does prapatti is called prapanna).
The categories are Driptha prapannas and Arthi prapannas. A driptha prapanna wants Moksha at the end of his life or janma.
Arthi prapanna who gets disgusted or vexed with samsara wants Moksha soon after doing prapatti.
Lord accepts both druptha prapatti and artha prapatti and grand us moksha at the time prayed during Prapatti without any delay.

Doubt V:
How can the Lord grant moksha without any descriminating among the persons who do prapatti?

Reply: There is a purpose or prayojana derived by the lord in accepting Prapatti.
Any person who takes refuge under him becomes a true devotee or Ashritha. His main purpose is to protect
the individual who becomes a true devotee. So there is no question of any descrimination in granting moksha to persons who do prapatti.

The five ancillaries of Prapatti Yoga
As already said prapatti is a panchanga yoga. The angas or ancillaries are
i)Anukulyasya sankalpa:- This means that person who does prapatti at the feet of the Lord should always be favourable to the Lord.
This in other words mean that he should always act according to sastras which contain the dictates of the Lord.
It also means kritya karana that is what is to be done has to be done that is doing Nitya naimittika karma anushtana.
Also sentient and non sentient beings are the bodies of paramatma. Acting favourable to them
ii) Pratikulyasya varjanam:- This means refraining from doing things which are not to the liking of the Paramatma.
This also means Akritya Akarana that is not doing things which are prohibited.
Paramaatma’s mandates or dictates are contained inscriptures or sastras and we should not go against them.
Also refraining from thinking that one is a master of one’s own self is also pratikulyasya varjanam.
This also implies that one should be harm less to-wards sentient and non sentient beings.
iii)Rakshishyathi Iti Vishwasa:- This is also called Mahavishwasa which is the most important anga of prapatti.
Vishwasa is faith. One should have absolute and un shakeble faith in the supreme being and his granting the fruit after accepting our prapatti.
iv) Gopthritva varanam:- This means requesting the paramatma to be the protector of our souls (Jivas)
by granting moksha in response to our prapatti. It also means making a humble submission to the
Lord Sriman Narayana what we actually desire.
v) Karpanya:- This indicates our humble ness. That is our uttar inability to do Bhakthi yoga which is called
upaayaantara and realising that the object to be attained cannot be anything other than Lord Sriman Narayana
and his consert Mahalakshmi. Not having means other than prapatti is called upaayaantara sunyatva which is called Akinchanya.
Not having object to be attained in the Moksha other than the pine couple is called Prapyantara sunyatva which is called
Ananyagathi katvam. So Karpanyam denotes the above.

After thinking of the above five ancillaries the angi of samarpanam should be done which is also a mental activity.
There are three samarpanas which are
i)Svarupa samarpanam – The intrinsic nature of jivatma was given by paramatma and it has to be offered back to him.
ii)Bhara samarpanam – Placing the responsibility or the burden of the protecting the jivatma (Soul) at the lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana.
iii)Phala samarpanam – After reaching Sri Vaikuntham the mukthatma does eternal service to the Divine Couple there
and the divine couple become pleased with this service.

The actual enjoyers of the moksha phalam are divine couple and this enjoyment makes the muktatma attain the eternal bliss.
So the fruit of moksha should also be offered to the divine couple and this is called Phala samarpanam.

Some important points in this prapatti are
i)Lord Sriman Narayana is suddho paya or ready means. So he is the granter of moksha to a person
after getting pleased with his prapatti done at his feet.
ii)Because a person cannot do Bhakthi Yoga which is the established means in the upanishads, the person
who does prapatti places paramatma in the place of Bhakthi yoga and does bhara samarpanam.
This is called upayantara sthana nivesha that is requesting paramatma to be in the place of Bhakthiyoga.
iii) The auspicious attributes to be thought while doing Prapatti. Firstly the Purushakara (recommendor) prapaththi is done at the feet of Goddess Mahalakshmi for catching the attention of Sriman Narayana towards the person.

For doing Purushakara prapatti, the attributes of Goddess Mahalakshmi are
(a) Satyatva, Gnanatva, Ananthatva,anandatva, Amalatva and vishnu patnitva. These are the svarupa nirupaka dharmas (attributes) of Mahalakshmi.
(b) Attributes which are helpful for doing Prapatti. These are called upayatva upayuktha guna:
without which neither Mahalakshmi nor paramatma cannot be siddhopaya or ready means.
They are twelve in number.
1-Vatsalya – Ignoring or not seeing the blemish of the inpidual who does prapatti.
2-Svamitva – Being master
3-Sausilya – Free mingling with devotees.
4-Saulabhya – Easy accessibility
5-Sarvajnatva – Omniscience that is knowing everything.
6-Satya sankalpatva – Strong and unshakeable will.
7-Paramakarunikatva – having deep mercy with an intention to relieve the suffering of the devotees without expecting any return or reward.
8-Kritagnatva – Possessing a sense of gratitude.
9-Sthiratva – Strong desire in protecting devotees.
10-Paripurnatva – having all desires fulfilled.
11-Sarvasakthitva – Omnipotent.
12-Paramodaratva – deep desire to offer any thing and every thing to the devotees.

The above attributes are also applicable to Lord Sriman Narayana and they are to be thought while doing
Prapatti at his lotus feet. Instead of Vishnu patnitvam, Sriyapatitvam is to be considered in the case of Paramatma.
An important point to be noted in this context is that Lord Sriman Narayana will cancel prapatti done by a person
if he continuously devoted towards a Devatantara like Siva, Murugan, Ganesha, Ayyappan and others and
if a person commits sin or apachara with Brahmavits and Bhagavathas who are extremely devoted to-wards Sriman Narayana, the supreme being.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 1–(‘Vairagya pada’)Summary-

February 19, 2021

The third chapter is called “Sadhana” Adhyaya dealing with means (upayam) of attaining moksha or eternal bliss.
The first two chapters exclusively dealt with the entity who is the cause of the universe
(material cause, operational cause and instrumental cause) and dealt with the objects created by him.
It was conclusively and irrevocably established that Lord Sriman Narayana who is called Brahman or even Para Brahman
is the cause of the universe in the first chapter known as Samanvaya Adhyaya and
in the first two padas of the second chapter which is called as “Avirodha Adhyaya”.
In the 3rd and 4th quarters in the 2nd Adhyaya the objects created by the Brahman and their nature were discussed and decided.

There are four padas in this chapter which are called
(1) Vairagya pada (2) Ubhaya linga pada (3) Gunopasamhara pada (4) Anga pada.
There are two essential prerequisites for a person to adopt the means for attaining Moksha.
The prerequisites are
(1) a sense of detachment from worldly pleasures which is called Vairagya
(2) an intense or extreme desire to attain the lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana in the super world called Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

If these two prerequisites are there then only a person resorts to Bhakthi yoga which is deep meditation
on the Lord Sriman Narayana which is having eight ancillaries and this bhakthi yoga is known as Ashtanga yoga.
An individual soul who is in the bondage of samsara has four phases or states of his remaining in a mortal body.
The four phases are
1)State of awakening: This is called Jagrath Avastha. Avastha means phase or state , Jagrath means awakening.
2)State of sound or deep sleep: This is called sushupthi Avastha. Sushupthi means sound sleep.
3)State of seeing dreams: This is called Svapna Avastha. Svapna means dreams.
4)State of unconsciousness or coma state: This is called MoorchaVastha. Moorcha means unconsciousness.

So the Sutrakarar who is the sage Badarayana felt if the drawbacks or defects in the above four phases
are highlighted in the first pada, then the person who hears these will develop vairagya or sense of detachment
in the worldly pleasures and then begins to do meditation or bhakthi yoga to attain moksha.
In this first pada the defects in the state of awakening are dealt with while
in the second pada the defects in the other three states namely state of sound sleep,
state of seeing dreams and coma state are dealt with.

The reason for this is that in these three states some auspicious attributes that is in other words
Kalyana gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana are also established.
The Kalyana guna in the state of seeing dreams is that Lord Sriman Narayana is creator of objects we see in the dreams.
The Kalyana guna in to state of deep sleep is that Lord Sriman Narayana allows the inpidual soul
to sleep on him only as he is antaryami and dwells in the heart of every body.
The Kalyana guna in the case of coma state is that Lord Sriman Narayana protects the individual soul from departing from the body.

In the second pada which is called ubhaya linga pada the Sutrakarar establishes two basic characteristics of Lord
Sriman Narayana which are (1) being blemishless and (2) repository of infinite number of Kalyana gunas.
These two characteristics are known as ubhaya linga.
Ubhaya means two and linga means basic characteristic or distinction.
This establishment of ubhaya linga of Lord Sriman Narayana became necessary because of the fact that
the object to be attained by a jiva by doing either bhakthi yoga or prapatti (also known as Saranagathi.)
in Sri Vaikunta pya loka, must be much superior to him in all respects.

In the third pada of this chapter which is called Guna upasamhara pada the various brahma vidyas in upanishads are discussed.
Vidhya is knowledge of meditation and Brahma vidya means knowledge of meditation on Brahman who is Lord Sriman Narayana.
Meditation is a mental activity based on knowledge of Brahman.
This Brahma vidya is nothing but Bhakthi yoga which is a means for attaining eternal bliss.

The last pada of this third chapter is called Anga pada. Anga means ancillary and this pada deals with
the essential ancillaries required for doing Bhakthi yoga.

So Summing up this third chapter mainly deals with Sadhana or means of attaining the eternal bliss.
As already said the first pada which is also called Vairagya pada highlights the defects in the state of awakening of jiva
who is struggling in this Samsara.
This deals with the process of reappearance of jiva in this world after his enjoyment in heaven or swarga loka or
after his suffering in the hell which is called naraka loka.

To explain this process a particular portion in the fifth chapter of chandogyopanishad is considered.
This portion is briefly dealt with here as this happens to be the basic upanishadic text for discussion in this pada.
Svetha kethu the son of the Sage Aruni was sent to a king named as Pravahana who was the son of the Jibila.
This King asks Svethukethu under whom he has received instructions or in other words he has been taught
for which Svethakethu replied that his father has taught him.
The King puts him the following five questions.
1) The place or destination to which a Jiva who has done yagas, goes after departing from the mortal body in this world.
2) The route in which the Jiva comes back to this world for rebirth after his enjoyment in Swarga loka.
3) The difference between Deva yana route and pithru yana route.

It may be mentioned in this context that there are three destinations for a Jivatma departing from the mortal body in this world.
The destinations are
(a) Sri Vaikunta pya loka and this destination can be reached by a Jiva who has done Bhakthi Yoga or Prapatthi.
The route for this destination is called Deva yana marga and it is also called Archiradi gathi.
b) Swarga loka or heaven which can be attained by a Jiva who does sacrifices like Jyothishtoma yaga etc.
The route to this loka is called pithru yana marga also called as dhoomadi marga.
This Jiva is called Ishtadhikari which will be elaborated later.
c) The third destination is the Naraka loka or hell which is reached by a Jiva who commits heinous crimes and sins in this world.
He is called anishtadhikari. The route to this Naraka loka is of a very difficult terrain and the route is called as Kashta marga.
4) 4th question – why the heaven or Svarga loka is not filled up by Jivas.
5) How the Jiva returning from heaven to earth assumes the body in a mother’s womb after he goes through four agnies or fire.

In this context it requires the mention of five agnies or fires through which a Jiva goes through
before entering the mother’s womb and then he comes out of the mother’s womb with a rebirth in this world
to again enjoy the fruits of the balance of his punya and papa in this world.
The five agnies are heaven, Rain, Earth, male person and female person.
The Jiva after his enjoyment of punya in svarga loka is poured in to the fire of heaven
Just like ghee is poured in to the Sacrificial fire.
From the heaven Jiva comes in to the rain which falls on to the earth.
When the rain falls on earth the crops are grown and then Jiva enters in to the grains of the crops like paddy wheat
or any other eatable crop. Then Jiva enters in to the body of a male person through the food which
the male person eats and lies within his semen who becomes father. Jiva enters in to the womb of the mother
through semen during the mating of father and mother. Then the Jiva assumes a body in the mother’s womb and dwells there
for ten months or little more or less and comes out of the mother’s womb, and takes a rebirth.
The child grows and enjoys the fruits of the balance of punya and papa and again does punya and papa
during his life time and again goes to the other world heaven or hell and again comes back,
in the process explained above and this cycle of birth and death continue till he attains moksha or Salvation
after doing Bhakthi Yoga or prapatthi. The five agnies mentioned above are not the real fires and
they are only compared to the agnies to drive home the point the process involved in the Jiva taking rebirth in this world.
The sanskrit names to the five agnies referred to above are Dhyu.(heaven) ParJanya (rain) , Prithivi (earth) ,
Purusha (male person) and Yoshith (female person).
The substances that are poured in these agnies are Sraddha, Somaraja, Varsham, Annam and rethas.
Sraddha is in liquid form, Somaraja is the beautiful body of Jiva in heaven. Varsha means rain. Annam means food, rethas means semen.

In the light of the above we can now take the adhikaranas in this pada for discussion and conclusion.
There are six adhikaranas in this pada.
The first adhikaranam is known as “Thadanthara Pratipatti adhikaranam”.
The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam is the particular portion of the upanishadic text in chandogya upanishad
which was dealt with above. The doubt that arises here is whether the Jiva who goes from one world to the other is
always associated with the five elements i.e Sky, Air, Fire, Water and Earth in their comic form.
These five bhuthas in cosmic form are called “Bhutha Sukshmas”. This mortal body is made up of five bhuthas
and hence this body is known as Pancha bhoutika Sareeram. These bhutha sukshmas, should always go along with
Jiva to facilitate him to assume a body in the mother’s womb for the sake of rebirth.

The opponent or poorva pakshi contends that Jiva becomes associated with bhutha sukshmas where ever he goes
because they are easily available. This contention is refuted by the Sutrakara in
the first sutra of this Adhikarana which reads as
“Thadanthara Prati paththan ramhathi Samparishvaktha: Prasna niroo panabhyam”.

The meaning of this sutra is when ever Jiva goes from one world to the other (from one body to other body)
he is always associated with the bhutha sukshmas because this fact is revealed in the questions
put by the king Pravahana and the answers he himself gave. As soon as Jiva enters in to the svarga loka
for enjoyment he assumes a beautiful body there for the enjoyment of the pleasures there and
this body he gets out of the “ Sraddha” poured in to the fire of heaven by Devas who are said to be Indriyas.
This “Sraddha” is in the liquid form which contains both Jiva and bhutha Sukshmas.

This Adhikarana has seven sutras.
In all these sutras the Sutrakara refutes the contention of the poorva pakshi based on some upanishadic sayings
in this context and establishes the fact that Jiva goes from one body to the other always associated with Bhutha sukshmas.
It is said that Indriyas also go along with Jiva. The points contained in the other sutras are briefly narrated as follows.

a) It is said in the upanishadic text that the semen from the body of the father which flows in to the mother’s womb
assumes a human body. So when the Jiva is in contact with the semen in the liquid form and enters in to the womb of the mother
it should be said that Jiva is in contact with the liquid which belongs to the Bhutha (element) of water.
Then the doubt arises whether the Jiva is in contact with the other bhutha sukshmas or not.
The Sutrakara clears this doubt by saying that the semen which is in liquid form comprises of all the five bhuthas
in minute form on account of Pancheekaranam explained earlier
(Pancheekaranam is called Trivrithkaranam in Chandogyo Upanishad) and in this liquid the water has a major component.

b)It is also said that when Jiva departs from the mortal body at the time of death, the mukya prana and
all the eleven senses go along with the Jiva. In Bhagavad geethaa Lord krishna says that when ever Jiva departs
from one body and enters in to another body after his sojourn in heaven as the case may be
he is always in conjunction with the indriyas and Bhutha sukshmas.

c) Again it is said in this portion of Upanishadic that when Jiva departs from the body his speech which is an indriya
gets absorbed in the Agni (fire) , the mukya prana gets absorbed in the air and the eyes get absorbed in Surya. (Sun god) .
The doubt arises in this context that when the senses get absorbed how it is possible for these senses to go along with the Jiva.
The Sutrakara clears this doubt stating that the literal meaning need not be attached to this upanishadic saying
because of the fact it is also said in continuation of the above, that hairs in the body get absorbed in plants
and the hairs in the head get absorbed in trees and this absorption is not true because we physically see the
hairs in the dead body and hence they do not disappear. Hence literal meaning should not be attached to the above.

d) Again the opponent contends that in the heaven which is mentioned as the first fire. Sraddha is poured into it
and not watery substance which is semen, how can jiva go accompanied with Bhutha sukshmas.
The Sutrakara says that Sraddha means water or watery substance and hence there is no inconsistency in the upanishadic statement.

e) Once again the opponent contends that there is no mention of jiva in this upanishadic statement
and hence he does not go associated with bhutha sukshmas.
For this, Sutrakarar replies saying that in the very next upanishadic saying it is said that the Ishtadhikari
who is a jiva and who has done yagas goes to heaven to assume a beautiful body there for the enjoyment of pleasures
there and at the conclusion of enjoyment there he comes back to this world for rebirth.
The beautiful body he assumes there is called Somaraja. This body called Somaraja he assumes after pouring of Sraddha
in the first agni or fire called heaven and finally the jiva comes back to earth for taking a rebirth
after the same “Snaddha” which in liquid form or watery substance and which in other words
called “Semen” enters in to the mother’s womb. So there is the mention of jiva in this context
and he goes there and comes back associated with bhutha sukshmas.

f) The opponent took advantage of another saying in the upanishad relating to this context to reiterate his point
that jiva does not go associated with bhutha sukshmas. The saying is that jiva is an eatable substance to
devas or celestial people in heaven when he goes there. The opponent says that as jiva cannot be eaten,
the somaraja the name given to jiva and his beautiful body in the svarga loka cannot be a jiva.
This view of the opponent is countered by Sutrakara by saying that jiva is not eaten there but
his enjoyment there is equal to that of devas and he also becomes an aide to them there.
So there is no literal meaning to the statement that he is eaten there by Devas.

Hence Jiva goes to heaven accompanied by “Bhutha Sookshmas”.

The Second adhikaranam in this chapter is called “Krithathyadhikaranam”.
Here the topic for discussion is whether the jiva who after the enjoyment of pleasures in the svarga loka
reborns in this world with the balance of punya and papa or without any balance of karma.
The opponent or the poorvapakshi is of the view that jiva returns to earth with the nil balance of karma
which comprises both punya and papa. In support of his contention he cites an upanishadic text which says
that jiva will remain in svarga loka till his punya karma is exhausted and then he will return to this world
without any balance of karma. There is also another Upanishadic statement which also confirms his above view point.

The Sutrakara refutes the above contention of the poorva pakshi in the sutra which reads as
“Krithathyaye Anusayavan rishtasmrithibyam Yathetham Anevamcha”.
The meaning of the above sutra is that Jiva returns back to this earth with a balance of punya and papa karma
and takes a rebirth because of some special statements in upanishads and smrithis and
also he takes a slightly changed route while descending from heaven to earth.
The upanishadic statement is that those who have done good deeds and acquired punya will born here in
superior castes and those who have done bad deeds or who have committed sins and acquired papam will born here
in inferior castes and even as animals. Those who have done virtuous deeds are called Ramaniya charana,
while those who have committed sins are called Kapuya charana. Charana means deeds.

The route taken by a jiva during his ascending to heaven which is called dhoomadi marga is as follows.
This route is also called pithru yanamarga. Dhooma (Smoke), Rathri (night),
Aparapaksham (Krishna paksha or fortnight ending in Amavasya), Dakshinayana and then Pithruloka,
Akasa, moon and then heaven. The route while descending is Moon, Akasha, Vayu, Dhooma, Abhram, Megha.
Abhram means water borne cloud, Megha is also cloud which is about to rain.
The difference in the above two routes is in the ascending there is pithru loka and no vayu loka and
in the descending there is vayu loka and no pithru loka.

The above mentioned names in the route are all lokas as well as names of celestial gods and
each of them conducts the jiva through each one’s territory and the next in the order takes charge of the jiva.
The view point of the poorva pakshi countering the sutrakarar’s above statement is That charana referred to
above in the upanishadic text, means only righteous conduct or Achara which is also synonimous with words
like Seelam and Vrittam because it is said in Taittariya Upanishad that doings or activities which are
flawless alone are to be done and also it is said that good deeds alone are to be performed.

Here in this context the viewpoints of the two disciples of the sage Badarayana are mentioned.
The Names of the disciples are Sage Karshna jini and Sage Badari.
Therefore the above sage namely Karshna jini contends that righteous conduct alone is responsible
for the jiva to take rebirth in superior castes and not Anushaya which meant balance of punya and papa karma.

In this context I think it is necessary to keep you all informed regarding what we have to do daily
in keeping with the preachings of our ancient Rishies contained in Smrithies and scriptures.
What we have to do daily comprises of two important components namely (1) Nityakarmanushthana and (2) Naimiththika Karmanushthana.
I. Nithya Karmanushthana(Obligatory rites)
Nithyakarmanushtana refers to what we have to do daily which is elaborated below sequence wise one after the other.
(a)Taking bath after doing Sankalpa for the same. This sankalpa has to be done after doing Achamana and Pranayama.
(b) After the bath the dhothi has to be worn. A married person should wear the dhothi with a Kachcha which is most important.
Kachcha means the hem of the lower garment tucked in to the waist band. Without having a kachcha a married is not fit
to do any Vaidika karma like Sandhyavandanam and every other thing there after. A bachelor should not wear the kachcha.
(c) Having Urdhvapundras at 12 places in the body if Pancha Samskara has been undergone.
Otherwise a single urdhvapundra on the forehead (Face) will do.
(d)Doing Snananga devarshi tarpana.
(e) Doing Pratha sandhyavandanam with Gayathri japa atleast 10 times.
(f)Those who have undergone Panchasamskara, should ashtakshara manthra japam.
(g) Adhara sakthi tarpanam.
(h) Devarshi Kandarshi tarpanam
(i) Brahma yagnam.
(j) Madhyanhikam with atleast 10 times Gayathri japam.
(k) Worshipping or doing Thiruvaradhanam to Salagrama murthi and then Vaisvadeva and Pancha maha yajnam.
(l) Doing Sandhyavandam in the evening with atleast 10 times Gayathri japam and Vaishvadeva in the evening.
Important Note: – Doing Sandhyavandam thrice a day is the most essential pre requisite for doing any Vaidika karma.
Without sandhyavandana no brahmin in general and Sri Vaishna in particular has no basic eligibility to do any other karma.
It is said that “Sandhyaheena : Asuchi : nityam. Anarha : Sarva Karmasu.”
The body of one who does not do sandhyavandanam is always polluted (impure) and unfit for doing any other karma.

II. Naimiththika Karmanushthana (Occasional rituals)
The Naimiththika karmas have to be done only on special days as detailed below.
(a) Upakarma on full moon day in the month of Sravana.
(b) Gayathri japam on the next day of Upakarma
(c) Special pujas on the days of Sri Jayanthi, Sri Rama navami and Narasimha jayanthi and also on the day of Thirukkarthigai.
(d) Father ceremony and mother ceremony to be performed by those whose parents are not alive.
They have to do the following Tarpanas. Amavasya tarpana, Tarpana on the Sankramanam days (Commencement of Solar month),
Mahalaya Tarpana, Tarpana on the days of Ashtaka and Anvashtaka in the month of “Masi” (Kumbha month).
Tarpana on the occasion of Solar and Lunar eclipses.

If the above things are performed without lapse then only a person is said to possess Achara.
It is said that Vedas do not purify a person without having Achara.
The viewpoint of the Sage Karshnajini in this context is that the upanishadic text Ramaneeya charana
must be construed as Nitya and Naimittika karma performed by an individual soul as elaborated above and
he is said to be associated with Achara or righteous conduct.
The punya karma is the yaga and the yaga can be performed by observing the basic principles of Achara as explained above.
The Kapuya charana in the upanishad refers to papakarma or sinful acts and obviously the above basic principles
of Achara are given a go by. The enjoyment of Sukha is the result of the punya karma and suffering is the result of papa karma.

The poorva pakshi raises the doubt in this context that righteous conduct or Achara prescribed in Vedas
and smrithies become purposeless if they are not of any use to jiva and this doubt is cleared by the
Sage karshnajini who says that if there is no Achara to a person he does not get the basic eligibility to do a punya karma.

The sage Badari expresses his viewpoint in this context that charana mentioned in the Sruthi or upanishad means
only the performance of good or bad deeds Punya or Papa Karma. So the upanishadic statement Ramaniya charana :
and Kapuya charana means the Punya, Papa Karma and a Jiva descends to earth for a rebirth with the balance of
punya, Papa karma. Doing SandhyaVandana is a must and there is no relaxation in this point.

The third AdhiKaranam in this pada is called as “Anishta dikarya dhikaranam”.
In this world there are only three categories of human beings. They are
(1) Ishtadhikari – one who does only good deeds or Punya karya as per scriptures.
This includes performance of Yagas besides Nitya, Naimittika, Karmanushtanas. These ishtadhikaries go to heaven.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in Saranagathi gadya mentions five categories of sinful acts.
They are (a) Akrithya karana which means doing a thing which should not be done.
(b) Krithya akarana – not doing a thing which should be done.
(c) Bhagavada apachara – Apachara means misconduct. Bhagavath apachara means misconduct towards the Lord Sriman Narayana.
This means not being devotional to-wards Sriman Narayana and at the same time remaining dis respectful to-wards him.
(d) remaining disrespectful towards Bhagavathas who are extremely devoted to-wards Lord Sriman Narayana.
(e) Committing of heinous crimes. This is called Asahya Apachara.

So Ishtadhi Karies are those who do what is to be done (Kritya Karana ) and who will not do
what is not to be done ( Akrithya Akarana) and who will not commit Bhagavadapachara, Bhagavathi Apachara and Asahya Pachara.
These ishtadhikaries attain heaven through the route knowns dhooma dhi marga as already mentioned.

The second category is
2)Anishta dhikaries – Those who do what should not be done ( Akrithiya karana),
Those who do not do what is to be done, commit Bhagavathapachara, Bhagavathapachara and Ashyapachara are the Anishtadhi karies.
They go to hell through the route of a difficult terrain which is called kashta marga.

3) The third category is Mokshadhikaris – Those who desire to attain eternal bliss by developing
a sense of detachment from wordly pleasures and also from heavenly pleasures which do not last long are mokshadhikaries.
They do Bhakthi Yoga or do Saranagathi at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana and attain Moksha
( Sri Vaikunta pya loka) through the route called Archiradi marga or Deva yana marga.

The topic for discussion in this Adhikarana whether these Anishtadhikaris go to Moon before going to hell.
The room for this doubt arises out of a statement of Kawshitaki Upanishad which says that
those who depart from this world would invariably go to moon and converse with him.
According to this statement all the three categories of human beings go to moon before reaching
their respective destinations. This statement is a very general statement.

This Adhikaranam has ten sutras out of which
five sutras are Purva Paksha Sutras
and the remaining five sutras are siddhantha sutras.

In the first five sutras the opponent or Poorva pakshi is assertive of the fact that even Anishtadhikaries
go to moon after undergoing punishment awarded to them for their sinful acts in narakas or hells.
The first sutra reads as “Anishthadhikarinamapicha Srutham”.
The meaning of this Sutra is that we hear in the Kausitaki upanishad that even anishtadinakaries
as explained above go to moon because the upanishadic statement is general in saying that
all those who depart from this world go to moon without any distinction.

In the second sutra, to Sutrakara clears the doubt that both Ishtadikaries and anishtadi karies go to moon
in the same route by saying that going to moon by anishtadikaries is after undergoing punishment
in hells which are under the control of Lord Yama.

In the next Sutra , the Sutrakara reminds of a sloka in Vishnu purana in which the sage Parasara says
that all those who depart from this world will be under the control of Yama.

In the sutra next to the above it is said that there are seven hells or narakas to which those
who commit sinful acts go for undergoing punishment.
The names of the seven hells are Rourava, Sukara, Rodha, Thala, Vishasana, Mahajwala, Taptha kumbha.
Actually in Vishnu purana, sage Parasara identifies twenty eight hells and gives the names of them.
Sage parasara also elaborates by saying the various sins that could be committed by the human beings
and the name of the hell to which a particular jiva goes after committing a particular sinful act.

In the next sutra it is said that all the hells are under the control of yama and therefore
what ever may be the name of the hell to which a sinner goes, he goes to yamasadana or house of yama
because all hells are within the jurisdiction or control of yama. The sinner goes to the hell under
the orders of yama only just like an offender is remanded to a jail by a judge.

After expressing the views of purva pakshi by five sutras in which he argued that even an
anishtadhikari goes to moon after his punishment in hell
the sutrakarar in the next five sutras refutes the above viewpoint and gives some additional information in this context.

The first of these five sutras reads as “Vidyakarmanorithi thu Prakrathathvath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Anishtadhikaries do not go to moon and going to moon is confined to only
ishtadhikaries and mokshadhikaries. The word “Thu” in the sutra means the viewpoint of the opponent is refuted or rejected.
This is a convention in Brahma sutras that wherever there is word “Thu” in any of Brahma sutras
it means the viewpoint of the opponent is rejected.

The word “Vidya” in the sutra refers to mokshadhikaries who practices Brahmavidya which is Bhakthi yoga.
Even the saranagathi or prapaththi done at the feet of the lord instead of Bhakthi yoga is called Nyasa vidya.
The word “Karma” referred to in the sutra means ishtadhikaris.
The reason given by the Sutrakara is that in the chandogyopanishad in which king Pravahana tells the sage Aruni
that in the Devayana marga or route through which the mokshadhikaries go to Sri Vaikuntam meet the moon and converse with him.
As already mentioned Devayana marga is also called Archiradimarga.

He further tells in the pithru yana marga through which ishtadhikaris go to heaven, they meet the moon
and converse with him. This Pithru yana marga is called Dhoomadi marga as already mentioned.
So the position of the moon in these two routes is a junction point. So two separate routes mentioned above
starting from Agniloka in Deva yana marga and starting from Dhoomaloka in pitru yana marga converge
at the position of moon and again perge one leading to Sri Vaikuntam and the other leading to heaven.

It should be noted here that narakas (hells) are located below the Bhuloka or earth where as
heaven and Vaikunta pya loka are above earth. Moon are above earth. So the possibilities of the
anishtadhikaries who go to hell below earth meeting the moon is completely ruled out.

In the sutra next to the above, another doubt is cleared.
The opponent says when there is no question of anishtadhikari going to moon, how can the jiva of this anishtadhikari
who is also called papa karmi take rebirth in this world without the jiva entering the mother’s womb from the father’s body.
This process of the jiva entering into mother’s womb from the body of the father is called “Panchama Ahuthi”.
The king Pravahana asked Svethakethu as told in the beginning whether he knows how a jiva assumes a body
in the mother’s womb after the pancham ahuthi.

This doubt is cleared by the Sutrakarar by saying that for the third category of Anishtadhikaries
(the first two category are Ishtadhikaries and Mokshadhikaris) no Panchamahuthi is required for those jivas
to take rebirth in this world. These jivas of Anishtadhikaries who return from hell after undergoing punishment
there are born as creatures and insects. These creatures and insects born and die at very frequent intervals.
These insects and creatures can born as human beings if they have done punya during any of their innumerable previous births.
Lord Sriman Narayana alone who is omniscient and who alone grants fruits for punya and papa karmas
knows who has done punya karma to take birth as a human being.
Pravahana tells gowthama (another name of Svethakethu’s father that on account of these
Anishtadhikaris not going to heaven it is not getting filled up.

The Sutrakara in the further sutras says that in the case of jivas who have done extraordinary punya karmas
can take birth in this world without Panchamahuthi just like Draupadi the wife of Pandavas who appeared in this world
from the sacrificial fire or Agni kunda.
The Sutrakara further says that in the upanishads it is said that there are three
categories of living beings or organisms in this world. There is a fourth category also.
These categories are,
(1)Jivajam also called as Jarayujam – These are the living beings who are born on account of the
mating of male and female partners. They are human beings, animals like cows, goats, dogs etc.
All these require panchamahuthi.
(2)Andajam – These are living beings appearing in this world from eggs.
They are snakes, birds etc. Panchamahuthi is required.
(3)Svedajam – Insects or organisms appearing on account of heat. For example if rice or any other food grain
is kept without exposure to the air or sun, some insects appear in them. These are called Svedajas.
(4)Udhbijjam – These are the plants emerging above ground on account of the sowing of their respective seeds.

Among the above categories, panchamahuthi is not required in the case of svedajam and uthbijjam categories.
So jivas who have committed only sins will not go to moon.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called That Svabhavyapaththi adhikaranam.
Now it is eatablished that Ishtadhikaries return to this earth with balance of punya and papa karma after meeting moon.
While descending from heaven it was also said that jivas come in contact with
Akasha (Sky), Vayu (Air), Dhooma (Smoke), Abhram (Water bearing cloud), Megha (Cloud which rains)
and they fall on earth through rain water.

The doubt arises here that whether the jivas are merely in contact with the above while returning to earth or
whether they enjoy anything there like soma bhava in heaven or human bhava in this world.

This doubt is cleared by Sutrakarar in the sutra “Thath Svabhavyapatti: upapaththe:”.
The meaning is that jivas become similar to the above and there is no question of any enjoyment there.
There is only enjoyment in the case of a soma bhava in heaven and manushya bhava in this world.

The fifth adhikarana is called “Nathichiradhikarana”.
The doubt that arises here is whether jivas stay in the lokas like Akasha, Vayu etc.
and up to their entering into the food grain like paddy for a long time or for a short time.
The Upanishad says that the exit of jivas from out of the food grains and entering in to the bodies of
male beings is rather very difficult. When the Upanishad says this particularly in the case of jivas
in the food grains like paddy etc. it should be constructed or inferred that jivas do not stay
for a long period in Akasha, Vayu, dhooma, abhram and megha and they come out quickly from the above.

The last adhikarana in this pada is called “Anyadhisthitha adhikarana”.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is whether the jiva who has descended from the heaven
for rebirth and who has entered in to the food grain like paddy assumes the paddy grain as his body
for enjoyment or merely gets associated with it.
The room for this doubt is the upanishadic statement which says that the jivas who fall on earth
through the rains are born in the form paddy and other food grains.
Because it is said as born the above doubt arose. The opponent says that literal meaning should be attached
to the word “born” and just as we say the man was born it should be said the jiva is born assuming the body of paddy grain.

This contention of the poorva pakshi is countered by the Sutrakara who says in the first sutra
which reads as “Anyadhishtithe Poorvavath Abhilapath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. The paddy grain is the body of another jiva who has specifically assumed it
on account of his papa karma and he is subject to suffering in this where as the jiva who has come down
from heaven for rebirth in this world in superior caste, inferior caste or any animal or creature
according to his Anusaya which is the balance of his punya, papa karma gets merely associated with
the paddy grain as in the case of Akasha, Vayu, dhooma etc.

The poorva pakshi contests the above contention saying that jiva is subject to the suffering
by assuming the body of paddy grain on account of the sin committed by him by killing an animal
in the yaga and offering the same to the celestial gods through the sacrificial fire.
It is said that animals and creatures should not be harmed, hurt or killed.
If the animal is killed it is a sinful act.
But at the same time the veda says that a yaga has to be performed by killing the animal.
As this is a sinful act the jiva under goes punishment by assuming the body of a paddy grain
even though prior to this the jiva attained heaven and enjoyed all the pleasures there.

This argument of the purva pakshi is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra, “Asudda mitchenna sabdath”.
“Asuddhamithi ceth” means the killing of the animal is a sinful act which the opponent says.
The Sutrakara says by the words “Nasabdath” refutes the above and asserts that animal killing is not a sinful act
because the jiva in the animal killed during the performance of yaga goes to swarga and
assumes a beautiful body there and enjoys all the pleasures there.
The jiva enters in to the body of a male member through the food he eats and assumes a body
in the mother’s womb after entering in to the mother’s body from the body of the father.

The first pada of the third chapter concludes with this Adhikarana.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam-Athyaayam 2-Paatham 4–(‘Indriya pada’)Summary-

February 18, 2021

The 4th quarter of the 2nd chapter is called Indriya pada,
because it deals with creation of Indriyas, Number of Indriyas, Creation of Mukya prana
(The air that we breathe) and some allied topics.

This Indriya pada settles the domestic quarrel that arose on account of the fact that there are upanishadic texts
which say there is no creation of Indriyas and in contradiction of the above
there are some other upanishadic texts which say that there is creation of Indriyas.

The dispute is also there regarding the number of Indriyas which are called senses, and their size.
Further the doubt regarding the creation of Mukya prana is cleared in this pada and finally
the Sutrakarar establishes the fact that Lord Sriman Narayana does the task of giving name and form for each substance
created after doing the mixing of the five bhuthas which is called Panchikaranam by being the antaryami
of the four headed Brahma after creating him from his navel.

The First Adhikaranam is named as “Prana utpaththi Adhikaranam”.
Prana means Indriya. The topic for discussion in this Adhikaranam is a text in Upanishads which says
before creation, there were only Rishis and for the question who are the Rishis, the Upanishad says Rishis are Pranas or Indriyas.
This upanishadic statement gives rise to the doubt whether Indriyas are created or not?.

The Sutrakara says in the first Sutra as “Thatha Prana:”.
The meaning of this sutra is just as sky and other elements are created so also the senses are created.
This is because of the fact that before creation there was only one entity that Lord Sriman Narayana
with his consort Mahalakshmi and these two together are called “Sath”.
The Mundaka upanishad also says that from the Brahman or Paramatma the Mukhya prana, the indriyas
and five Bhuthas are born or created.

But the question still remains that what exactly is the meaning of the upanishadic statement
which stated that Rishies which are Pranas or Indriyas were there before creation.

The Sutrakara says that Rishies mean Paramatma only and they do not refer to Indriyas.
Again the question arises how the word Rishies which is plural could mean Paramatma who is singular.
The Sutrakara in the second sutra says that no literal meaning need be attached to the words
Rishies and Pranas and they mean only Paramatma.

The Sutrakarar further says that the word Prana means Paramatma only because all the entities other than Paramatma
get their names only because of their creation.
Also there was no form and name to any substance or object before creation. So the senses are created.

The Second Adhikaranam in this pada is called “Sapthagathi Adhikaranam”.
In this adhikaranam the discussion is held regarding the number of Indriyas.
The doubt arises whether the number of Indriyas is seven or Eleven.

The opponent or purva pakshi says that the number of Indriyas is seven only.
This is according to a Sruthi in Taittariya upanishad which says that
Jiva moves from one body to the other along with seven Indriyas.
The seven indriyas are Mind, Buddhi, eyes, ears, noses, tongue and skin.

This view of the opponent is contained in the first sutra of this adhikarana and the Sutra reads as
“Saptha gathe: Visheshitatvachcha”. This sutra is called poorva paksha sutra.
The meaning of this sutra is that while Jiva enters in to one body at the time of birth and
departs from the body at the time of death, he is always associated with seven senses.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by the Sutrakarar in the second sutra which is called Siddhantha Sutra.
This sutra reads as “Hastha dayastu Stithe Athonaivam”.
The meaning of this sutra is when there are indriyas like hand etc, the number of indriyas is not seven only but it is eleven.
So the indriyas are as follows.
Mind – (Knowledge giving Indriyas):
1. Eyes
2. Ears
3. Nose
4. Tongue
5. Skin
Action oriented Indriyas:
6. Hands
7. Legs
8. Speech
9. Genital organ (Sexual organ)
10. Excretary organ.
Buddhi is not considered as an indriya because Buddhi is a settled state of mind on a particular object.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called “Prana Anuthvadhikaranam”
and in this adhikaranam the size of the Indriyas is decided.
The doubt regarding the size arises because of the fact there is one quotation in Brihadaranyaka upanishad
which says that all the senses are equal and endless. The word endless may imply that senses are everywhere
which means they are vibhu like paramatma himself.

Because of this doubt the sutrakarar says in the Sutra “Anuvasha”
which means all the senses are of very limited size.
Even though the sutra says that the size is “Anu” (atomic) the size of the indriyas cannot be of
atomic size because of the fact in the case of the skin which is there throughout the body,
it cannot be said that the skin is of the atomic size.
Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja says in the Sri Bhasya in this context, that the senses have a very limited size
such that their exit or departure from the body cannot be realised by those who are very close to the body
at the time of the departure of the individual soul from the body.

The composing of the sutra “Anavashcha is based on the upanishadic saying
which states that when the jiva departs from the body, his breathing comes to a stop that is
in other words the breath which is called Mukhya Prana also departs from the body and following
the departure of the Mukhya Prana the eleven senses also quit.
The quitting and entering are possible only when the senses are of very limited size.

In this Adhikarana itself the Sutrakara says that even Mukhya Prana or Breath is created.
The specific mention of its creation had to be mentioned because the doubt that arose in the upanishadic saying
which states that Mukya prana which is in the form of Air was there even at the time of great deluge ( Maha pralaya).
The mahapralaya takes place after the tenure of office of four headed Brahma ends.
The tenure of office of four headed Brahma is 2 x 10 to the power of 17 years (two Parardhas).
One parardha is 10 to the power of 17 years as per our reckoing of years.

It is the contention of Sutrakara that the above upanishadic saying which is in Rig Veda
does not specifically mention the existence of Mukhya Prana at the time of deluge but it tells that
Lord Sriman Narayana alone was there along with Goddes Mahalakshmi because the word Svadha
in this upanishadic saying refers to Mahalakshmi.
In our Siddhantha Lord Sriman Narayana and his consort Mahalakshmi together constitute one single entity
as both are inseparable from each other. This single entity alone was there before creation of universe.
As Mundaka upanishad un ambiguously mentions the creation of Mukhya prana (breath) and hence it is not without creation.

So the Sutrakara clearly states that Mukhya Prana is subject to creation in the Sutra
“Sreshtashacha”. Mukhya prana is also known as “Shreshta prana”.

The fourth Adhikarana in this pada is called “Vayukriyadhikaranam”.
In this adhikaranam the exact nature of Mukhya prana and its function are dealt with.
This Adhikarana has four sutras.
There are three fold doubts regarding the nature of Mukhya Prana.
They are 1) Whether the Mukhya prana is the second Bhutha that is Vayu
2) Whether it is the movement or action of vayu itself
3) Whether it is a special type of Vayu or Air.

The Sutrakara dismisses the first two views and says that the third view is correct in the first sutra
which states “Navayukriye Prithak upadeshath”.
The Mukhya prana is not the function or action of Vayu and it is a special type of vayu
because the Mundaka upanishad says that from Lord Sriman Narayana, Mukhya Prana, Mind,
Ten senses and five Bhuthas or elements are born.
In this saying it is clearly mentioned that vayu which is the 2nd bhutha is different from Mukhya prana.

The Sutrakara in the second sutra in this adhikarana dismisses the view that Mukhya prana is a transformed
form of vayu or air and it is just another bhutha like fire.
It is further said that this Mukhya prana is an aid to Jiva just like eyes.
Though the functioning of Prana is not exactly like eyes and other senses still it helps jiva to support the body and Indriyas.

In the Chandogyopanishad there is a story regarding Mukhya Prana.
In the body of Jiva there are Paramatma as antaryami, Jivatma, Mukhya Prana, Mind and Ten senses.
A quarrel arose among the senses in which each sense claimed superiority over others and all the senses
went to four headed Brahma to act as a mediator and arrange an amicable settlement.
Lord Brahma asked each sense to leave the body and remain outside for one year and watch
the functioning of the body one after the other. First the speech left the body and remained elsewhere
and the person became dumb and this did not hamper the functioning the body, later speech returned.
Then the eyes left the body and remained outside and the person became blind.

Even though be became blind the functioning of his body remained normal. Then eyes returned back.
Then by turn, Ears and Mind left the body and the functioning of the body was not affected much
then the Mukhya Prana left the body and the other indriyas followed it.
Then the body became dead and began to decompose.
So the Lord Brahman told the senses that Mukhya Prana is superior to all the senses and it is the leader of all the senses.
This is called Prana Samvada in the Chandogyopanishad. According to this Mukhya Prana helps the jiva to support the body and senses.

This Mukhya prana functions throughout the body with five different names at five different places.
Prana in the heart, Apana in the excretory organ, Samana in the Navel, Udana in the neck and Vaygana operates throughout the body.
This is just like several stages of mind like desire, will, doubt sincerety, not being sincere in sincerety,
Boldness, fear, shyness, etc. So also the Mukhya prana with the above five names functions within the body
at different places and helps the inpidual soul to remain in the body.

The fifth adhikarana in this fourth pada is called “Sreshta anuthvadhikaranam”
in which it is established that this Shreshta prana or mukhya prana is of a very limited size.

The doubt that arises in this context is that there are some statements in the upanishads saying that
this prana is every where which means vibhu or Anantha that is without end.
In one statement it is even said that everything is within prana and the whole thing is encompassed by prana.

The above doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar in the sutra “Anushcha” which means that
this mukhya prana (breath) is of very limited size or of cosmic size because of the fact that
it also departs from the body along with jiva. The exit from the body is not possible
if the shreshta prana is every where or vibhu. There is a clear cut upanishadic text
which says the departure of this prana from the body along with the jiva.

The sixth adhikarana in this pada is called “Jyothiradi Adhikaranam”.
So far Sutrakara established that Indriyas and Mukhya prana were created from paramatma
who is Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) and they are of very limited size and the number of senses got fixed at eleven.

In the first pada of the second chapter there is one sutra which states
Abhimani vyapadesasthu vishesha Anu gathibhyam” the Sutrakarar established the fact
that every inanimate object which has no knowledge or consciousness is controlled by a celestial god called Devatha.
This celestial god is called Abhimani devatha of a particular object or even called Adhishtana devatha.
Even in Pranasamvada which was mentioned previously that all senses went to four headed Brahma
to decide who is superior most among them the speaking of the senses with Brahma was done only by
their respective abhimana devathas or Adhishtana devathas. This is similar to the statement that
India tells pakisthan which exactly means that the spokes person of India tells the spokes person of pakisthan.
So Abhimana devatha also means spokes person.

There is an Upanishadic text which says clearly that Agni devatha (Fire god) who is the messenger of devathas is
the abhimani devatha or the controlling person of the sense ““speech and entered in to the tongue of a person.
Similarly The Sun god (Surya) is the abhimani devatha or the controlling devatha of the sense “eyes”
entered in to the eyes in the body of a person. So also the Vayu devatha who is the abhimani devatha or
the controlling god of Mukhya prana entered the noses of an inpidual person for the sake of breathing.

On the same analogy, jiva is the Adhishtana Devatha or controlling entity for all the indriyas in the body
which are there for his enjoyment. Jiva enjoys sound or music through his ears by being its controller.
He enjoys colour or Rupa through his eyes by virtue of being their controller. He enjoys the pleasure of touch
through his sense of skin in the capacity as its controller. He enjoys the taste of an eatable through his tongue
which is controlled by him. He enjoys the sweet smell of an object through his noses which are under his control.

So it is clear from the above that mukhya prana and the other senses are controlled by their respective
celestial gods and jiva for his or her enjoyment by being their abhimana devathas or Adhishtana devatas.

In this context the doubt arises whether this act of controlling or being adhishtana is on account of
his own or her own volition of a jiva (Volition of a celestial god also) or this act is controlled by the will or
sankalpa of paramatma who is Sriman Narayana. The room for the above doubt whether controlling is on the own
volition of jiva because that jiva who is also in the list of being meditated upon or worshipped can also grant fruits.

This view is dismissed by the Sutrakara in the sutra
“Jyothiradi Adhishtanam thu thadamananath pranavatha shabdath”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Jyothiradi adhishtanam pranavatha means the controlling of mukhya prana and other senses by celestial gods
like Agni devatha and so on along with jiva is on account of the will or sankalpa of paramatma.
Here pranavatha means by jiva.
Thandamananath means the will of the paramatma. That means paramatma, Amananam means his will or sankalpa.

The reason for the above conclusion is “Sabdath”, here sabda means “Upanishadic quotation”.
In antaryami Brahmana of the third chapter of Brihadaranyaka upanishad sage Yajnavalkya in reply to sage Uddalaka
identifies twenty one objects and says that Paramatma is there in every substance or object and
he is different from that object, this object does not know that Paramatma and this object is the body of the
paramatma and Paramatma is the inner soul or Antharyami of that object and controls its activities
from within and he is also the Antaryami of the questioner that is Uddalaka.

These objects are five elements, senses, jiva, sun, moon and stars, All bhuthas that is creatures, Darkness,
light, Directions etc. According to this Antharyami Brahmana, every activity of every being including jivas,
celestial gods and every object in the universe is controlled by paramatma and subalopanishad says that
this antaryami is Lord Sriman Narayana himself who is blemishless and resides in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka.
He encompasses the entire universe both inwardly and outwardly. This nature of paramatma being antaryami
in every thing and controlling its activity is eternal.

The seventh adhikarana in this pada is called “Indriyadhikaranam”.
The doubt that arises in this context is whether the mukhya prana is in the category of the senses or Indriyas or
whether it is outside this category. The room for this doubt is that mukhya prana which is breath is also
called prana and Indriyas are also called pranas and all are aids of the jivatma within the body.

To clear this doubt the Sutrakara composes the sutra “Tha Indriyanithath vyapadesath Anyathra shreshtath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that all eleven indriyas are senses and mukhya prana is not an indriya.

The Sutrakarar cites another upanishadic text in the second sutra in this adhikarana which reads as
“Bheda sruthe: vailakshnyachcha”.
This means that in the upanishadic text which the sutrakarar cites, it is said that
Mukhya prana and eleven senses are born from Paramatma.

So this Sruthi or upanishadic saying draws a clear distinction between Mukhya prana and the senses.

The last and eighth adhikaranam in this pada is called Samgna murthi klipthi Adhikaranam.
Samgna means name, Murthi is form. Every substance or object in the universe has a definite name and form.
This definite name and form distinguishes one object from the other.

The creation of the universe takes place after the deluge. The deluge takes place after the expiry of the
tenure of four headed Brahma, According to the calculation of human years, the tenure of office of
four headed Brahma is 2 x 1017 years that is the at the end of two parardhas. One parardha is 1 x 1017 years.
Incidentally For Chathurmukha Brahma one kalpa is day which is called svetha varaha kalpa and
another kalpa is night which is known as padma kalpa. One kalpa is 1000 chathur yugas.
One kalpa is 4320000000 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 4320000000 end_of_the_skype_highlighting human years.
Duration of one chathur yuga is 4320000 human years.
Duration of Kaliyuga is 432000 years. The duration of Dwapara yuga is 864000,
Duration of Tretha yuga is 1296000 years where as duration of Kritha yuga is 1728000 years.
Duration of deluge is also two parardhas that is 2 x 1017 years.

The creation of the universe is having the following stages.
a)Samasutisrtshti – Lord Sriman Narayana creates the five Bhuthas or elements.
b)Tri vruth karanam also otherwise called Panchee karanam
c)Anda Srshti – Creation of Anda. Anda is in the form of egg and it comprises of fourteen worlds or lokas
which are called Chathur dasa Bhuvana.
The names of the fourteen lokas are 1) Bhuloka 2) Bhuvarloka 3) Suvarloka 4) Maharloka 5) Janoloka 6) Tapoloka 7) Sathya loka.
Bhuloka is the world in which we are living now. Below Bholoka, There are seven lokas
which are 1) Athalam 2) Vithalam 3) Suthalam 4) Thalathalam 5) Mahathalam 6) Rasathalam 7) Pathalam.
In all fourteen lokas, The head of each Anda is called Andadhi pathi who is the four headed Brahma.
There are infinite number of Andas and hence Lord Sriman Narayana is Ananthakoti Brahmanda Nayaka.
In each Anda therefore there is one Chathurmukha Brahma, Siva, Indra and so on.
d) After doing Anda Srishti (Srishti means creation) chathur mukha Brahma of each Anda is born from the navel of Lord Sriman Narayana.
e)Lord Sriman Narayana by being the Antharyami of Chathurmukha brahma does the nama rupa vyakaranam
which is also called Vyashti Srishti. In this context Chathurmukha brahma is called Samashti Purusha.

Details of Trivruth karanam otherwise called Panchee karanam are as follows.
f) After Samashti srishti was done by Paramatma, no work took place. There is a saying in Sri Vishnu purana in which
it has been clearly spelt out that though the five bhuthas created are having potential, no work could be carried out
and creation of devas, human beings, animals, creatures and inanimate objects could not take place
because these bhuthas were not mixed with one another. This mixing of bhuthas with one another is called Panchee karanam(Quintuplication).

This is something similar to saying that cement is there, sand is there, water is there, jelly is there, steel is there
still there is no construction. It is therefore clear that mere procurement of materials will not cause any construction.
The reinforced cement concrete structure can come in to being by mixing of cement, sand, jhelly with water which constitutes
the cement concrete and which when poured on steel reinforcement and cured produces a stable reinforced cement concrete structure.
So for any work to be turned out mixing of the constituent materials is essential.
So also in the case of the universe work could be turned out and further creation can take place
only if the bhuthas(elements) are mixed with one another.

Lord Sriman Narayana does the panchee karana even before the creation of Anda and Andadhipathi chathur mukha Brahma.
The manner in which the Panchee karanam is done is as follows. As already said the Panchee karanam means the mixing of Bhuthas with one another.
Panchee karana of Akasha (Sky)
Akasha – 50 %
Vayu (Air) – 12.5 %
Thejas (Fire) – 12.5%
Water – 12.5 %
Earth – 12.5 %
That is 50 % of Akasha gets mixed up with 12.5% of each of the remaining four Bhuthas and the sky we are seeing now
is the mixture of all the five bhuthas as per the above mentioned percentage.

Similar is the panchee karanam of the other bhuthas which is as follows.
a) Vayu (Air)
Vayu – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
b) Thejas (Fire)
Thejas – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
c) Water
Water – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
d) Earth
Earth – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%

So in the universe the ingredients of any object or substance are five bhuthas.
Similarly the human body also consists of five bhuthas and hence it is called pancha bhutika sareeram.

In Chandogyopanishad, it is said as Trivrithkaranam only because it mentioned the creation of only three bhuthas
which are fire, water and earth. So the mixing of these 3 bhuthas is known as Trivrithkaranam.
Sage Uddalaka tells about this Trivrithikaranam to his son Svethakethu by an illustration.
Uddalaka tells Svethakethu that the flame has three colours Red, White and Black.
The Red colour confirms the presence of the bhutha thejas in the flame and the white colour confirms
the ingredient of water in the flame and the black colour confirms the presence of earth in the flame and so on.

But in Taittariya upanishad, the creation of all the five bhuthas is mentioned and hence pancheekarana. Pancha is five.
The chandogyopanishad says that Lord Sriman Narayana who is called sath in this upanishad entered into the body of
samashtijiva who is Hiranya garbha (Chathurmukha Brahma) and allotted names and forms to various objects in the universe.
In fact every substance or object in the universe gets a name and form on account of the Paramatma entering into
every object along with a jiva. So there is no substance in which there is no jiva and his antaryami, Paramatma.
In the case of inanimate objects the existence of jiva and its antaryami is dormant where as in the case of
animate objects the existence of jiva and paramatma is evidently clear.
So it is clear from the above that all sentient and non sentient being are the bodies of paramatma.

The first sutra in this adhikarana is “Samjna murthi klipthisthu Trivruth kurvatha upadeshath.”
This sutra means that Lord Sriman Narayana who does the Trivruth karana earlier also does
nama rupa vyakarana that is allotment of names and forms.

With this the second chapter gets concluded.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 2-(Avirodha )-Paatham 3–(‘viyath pada’)Summary-

February 18, 2021

After establishing decisively that Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe during the previous six padas
(Four padas of the first chapter, two padas on the second chapter),
the sutrakarar now begins the discussions on the objects created by Brahman
who is Lord Sriman Narayana in this 3rd quarter and 4th quarters of the second chapter.
The 3rd quarter is called viyathpada and the 4th quarter is called Indriya pada.
In these two quarters the sutrakarar settles the internal quarrel or domestic quarrel.
The reason for the domestic quarrel is the apparent internal contradictions in Vedas
regarding the objects of creation as detailed below.

1)There are some texts in Vedas which say that sky is not created and is eternal.
In the same Vedas there are texts which say that sky is created and not eternal.
2)There are some references in Vedas that jivas or individual souls are created and in contradiction
of these references there are upanishadic sayings that jivas are not created and they are eternal.
3)whether the jiva or inpidual soul has the consciousness. Here consciousness is Jnana or knowledge
which means the ability to perceive things. The size of the jiva is also discussed.
4)Some quotations are there in Vedas and upanishads that jivas are not doers of any activity which in other words
mean that a jiva is not a karta. Quotations are also there that jiva is a doer (kartha).
5)If it is established that jiva is kartha, the doubt has to be cleared whether this doing of an
activity is independent or subordinate to Lord’s or paramaatma’s will.
6)Again some references are there in Vedas which say that there is absolutely no relationship between jivatma and paramatma.
In contradiction of the above there are references in Vedas and Sri Bhagavad geetha, that jivatma is the body of the paramatma.
7)Some upanishadic texts say that senses or Indriyas are not created and there are texts which say that Indriyas are created.
There are some contradicting statements regarding the number of senses.
8) Mukyaprana is the air which all the living organisms breathe. There is one saying that this
mukyaprana is not created but there is another saying that this mukyaprana is created.
9) The doubt arises regarding the size of the senses and mukyaprana.
Some say they are of big size and some others say they are very near atomic size.
10) whether the task of giving name and form to every object of creation is that of four headed Brahma or
that of Lord Sriman Narayana by being the antaryami of four headed Brahma who is called Hiranyagarbha.
This act of giving name and form is known as Namarupa vyakarana.

The above contradictions which led to internal or domestic quarrel are settled in the
3rd and 4th quarters (third and fourth padas of the second chapter).
In the 3rd pada, there are seven adhikaranas.

The first adhikarana is called Viyath adhikarana. Viyath means sky or akasa.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is whether there is creation for akasa or sky.
The opponent says that the akasa is not created as its creation is unheard .
There are two reasons to support his view point.
(a) one of the upanishadic texts says that Anthariksha that is Akasa and vayu the air, are both eternal.
(b) In Chandogyopanishad, in the 6th chapter which deals with sadvidya, it is said that before the
creation of the universe there was one entity called “Sath”.
This sath obviously means Paramatma or Lord Sriman Narayana with his consort Mahalakshmi.
In our Visishtadwaitha system both Goddess Mahalakshmi and Sriman Narayana are always together and are inseparable
and both together constitute a single entity called Brahman. So Mahalakshmi has also involvement in the creation of the universe.

Now coming to the point, this “sath” who is Lord Sriman Narayana willed and created fire, then water and there after earth.
In this sequence of creation the Akasa (Sky) and Vayu (Air) are omitted. So this led to the doubt whether Akasa is created.
In this Adhikarana, the Sutrakara counters the above view point of the opponent
and gives several reasons to establish the fact there is creation for Akasa.

The reasons cited by Sutrakara to establish the above fact of creation of sky are as follows.

(a) In Taittariya upanishad there is a clear mention of creation of akasa.
This upanishad clearly laid down the sequence of creation from paramatma, as
akasa, vayu, fire that is agni, water (AP), earth (pruthvi).
(b)In Mundaka upanishad, there is an unambiguous saying that from the Lord Sriman Narayana,
Mukhya prana the breath, Mind, the other ten senses akasa, vayu, fire, water and earth were born that is they were created.
(c)The opponent who still holds the view that there is no creation to akasa, says when chandogya upanishad omitted
the mention of sky and vayu in the sequence of creation, no literal meaning need be attached to the creation of sky
and vayu mentioned in the Taittariya upanishad.
(d)The question again arises how could be there no literal meaning to the words of creation of sky and vayu
when there is literal meaning in the same upanishad for fire, water and earth.
For this opponent replies that in Mundaka upanishad, the word Brahman has literal meaning in one context
and there is no literal meaning to Brahman in another context likewise in this case of saying in Taittariya upanishad also.
(e) This contention of the opponent was rejected by sutrakara who states that there is no exception to the pledge
made in the 6th chapter (Sadvidya) of chandogya upanishad in which the above pledge says as follows:
If the basic raw material is known then several products produced from this material are known.
According to this pledge when Brahman is the cause of the universe every object other than Brahman is created
and there is no exception to this pledge. If sky and vayu are not created then the above pledge loses its significance or validity.

So the Sutrakara finally establishes the fact that Akasa is subject to creation and not eternal.

The second adhikarana in this quarter is called Thejo adhikarana.
Here the doubt arises whether the creation of the five Bhoothas and the tanmatras in between them
takes place one after the other in a sequence like. Mahath from prakrithi, Ahamkara from Mahath,
Sabda tanmatra from Ahamkara, Sky from Sabda tanmatra, Sparsha tanmatra from sky, vayu or air from Sparsha tanmatra,
Rupatanmatra from Air, Thejas or fire from Rupa tanmatra, Rasa tanmatra from thejas, water from rasa tanmatra
and gandha tanmatra from water and finally earth from Gandha tanmatra.

In other words the doubt is whether the succeeding tatva or element is created directly from the
preceeding element or whether the succeeding element or tatva is created from the will of the paramatma
who is the inner soul or antaryami of the preceeding element or tatva.

The Taittariya upanishad says that the creation of the five Bhuthas takes place one after the other
without any mention of Tanmatra. There is also no mention in Chandogya upanishad of the antaryami (inner soul)
willing and creating the succeeding element or tatva. In subahopanishad, there is the mention of tat mantra.
Tanmatra is a stage between two consecutive bhuthas. This is similar to the stage in between Milk and curd.

The Chandogyopanishad says that thejas or fire wills, the water is created, the water wills the earth is created.
Since fire and water do not have consciousness or gnana, they cannot will that is in other words
inanimate objects cannot will at all. So it has to be construed that the inner soul or antaryami of each element
or tatva wills and the next element in the sequence mentioned in the preceeding para is created.

The Mundakopanishad clearly states the above fact that Paramatma who is antaryami in every tatva wills
and creates the next tatva or element. The upanishad says that from Lord Sriman Narayana
the Breath which is also called Mukya prana, Mind, the ten senses (Indriyas), the five bhutas are created.

So considering the statements of Taittariya upanishad, Chandogyopanishad, Subalopanishad, and Mundaka upanishad
the final conclusion with regard to the creation and its sequence is as follows.

Paramatma (Sriman Narayana also called Brahman)
Prakriti ( Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami in prakrithi wills)
Mahan is created (Antaryami of Mahan wills)
Ahamkara is created (This ahamkara is of three categories)
1) Satvika ahamkara – Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami of satvika ahamkara wills
and then the eleven senses are created. Details of senses will be dealt with in the 4th pada of the 2nd chapter.
2) Rajasa ahamkara – The antaryami of this ahankara helps both satvika ahamkara and Tamasa ahankara for
creating senses and for creating the tanmatras and bhuthas respectively.
3) Tamasa Ahankara (Antaryami of this Ahamkara Lord Sriman Narayana wills)
Sabda tanmatra is created (Antaryami of Sabdatamatra wills)
Akasha or sky is created (Antaryami of Akasa wills)
Sparsa tanmatra is created (Its antaryami wills)
Vayu or Air is created (Its antaryami wills)
Rupa tanmatra is created. Rupa means colour or form (Its antaryami wills)
Tejas, Agni or Fire is created (Its antaryami wills)
Rasa tanmatra (Its antaryami wills)
Ap or water is created (Their antaryami wills)
Gandha Tanmatra is created (Its antaryami wills)
Bhoomi or Earth is created.

It should be noted in the above that Apa or water is always plural that is according to sanskrit grammar
and hence it was mentioned as their antaryami. Further also it should be noted that Sabda or sound is
the attribute of Akasa, Sparsha or touch is the attribute of Vayu, Rupa or colour is the attribute of
Tejas, Rasa or taste is the attribute of water and Gandha or Smell is the attribute of Earth.

Incidentally it may be noted that sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha are objects of enjoyment.
They are called vishayas. Sabda is the object of enjoyment of ears, sparsha is the object of enjoyment of
skin, Rupa is the object of enjoyment of eyes, Rasa is the object of enjoyment of tongue, Gandha is the object of enjoyment of nose.

Finally in this Adhikarana the opponent’s (Purva pakshi) point of view is that the creation is sequential
and there is no question of Lord Sriman Narayana remaining Antaryami in each and willing.

The Sutrakara who is the sage Badarayana refutes the opponent’s view and says that the paramatma is
the Antaryami in every thing who wills and creates the bhuthas. Willing is called Sankalpa in sanskrit.

In this Adhikarana there are 8 sutras out of which
four sutras narrate the viewpoints of the poorva pakshi
and the latter four sutras are the viewpoints of the sutrakara as detailed above.

In the last sutra of this Adhikarana the Sutrakara establishes a very important maxim of Visishtadwaitha philosophy
which is called “Aparyavasana vritti”.
This means the name of any object in this world finally refers to the lord Sriman Narayana
who is the antaryami because every object is his body and any reference to the body finally refers to Sriman Narayana only.
In other words both words referring both sentient and non sentient beings finally refer Lord Sriman Narayana only.

The third Adhikarana in this pada is called Atma adhikarana.
In this adhikarana the doubt whether the inpidual soul who is jiva is subject to creation or not.
The opponent’s view is that jiva is also created because anything and everything other than Brahman
is subject to creation as Lord Sriman Narayana is the creator of both sentient and non sentient beings in the universe.
There are two statements one in Taittariya upanishad and another in Yajur veda samhita
which support the viewpoint of the opponent that inpidual souls are created by Brahman because
he is the cause of the entire universe. Also there are two more statements in the upanishads that jivas are created.

In Taittariya Upanishad it is said that Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) is the entity from whom the universe is born,
who sustains or protects this universe and who causes the annihilation of the universe at the time of deluge.
In another context in the same upanishad it is said that the universe was born from Brahman who created jivas along with water.

In the yajurveda samhitha the prajapathi who is Lord Sriman Narayana created the prajas who are the jivas.

In Chandogyopanishad it is said that these prajas or individual souls are born from sath who is the Lord Sriman Narayana.

Another view point in this context that the same chandogyopanishad says as
“Tatvamasi” which mean jiva himself is Brahman, when jiva himself is Brahman, he is eternal.
This point is countered by saying that the same chandogyopanishad says that everything in this universe is Brahman.
If it is so then the sky which is also Brahman becomes eternal but it has been established that Sky is subject to creation.
So on the same analogy jiva also cannot be eternal.

This viewpoint of the opponent is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra
” Natmasruthe: Nityatvachchachathabhya:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Jivatma or simply Atma is not subject to creation because of two reasons.

i)The Kathopanishad clearly says that jiva is neither created nor destroyed.
Further it is said that Paramatma and Jivatma who are the Supreme soul and inpidual soul respectively
are both eternal and not subject to creation.
ii) Further the same Katho upanishad says that individual souls who are infinite in number are eternal
and the supreme soul who is also eternal fulfills the aspirations of the people.

Now the question arises that when the jiva is not subject to any creation how the pledge or vow that
Eka vijnana sarva vijnana ( by knowing the cause, knowing all the things created becomes possible)
will be valid and true. This question is answered as follows.

Except Lord Sriman Narayana the Brahman or Paramatma, all the sentient and non sentient beings are created.
The creation is said to be of two types.
1) Physical transformation which takes place in non sentient beings and this is called Swarupa Anyatha Bhava.
Anyatha bhava is the physical transformation. Clay becoming pot, pot becoming kapala that is pot broken to pieces and so on.
This is the physical transformation.
2) Transformation in the nature or attribute and this transformation takes place in sentient beings which are jivas.
The jiva possesses consciousness or knowledge. This consciousness is known as Dharma bhootha jnana
by means of which a jiva is able to perceive objects. This knowledge undergoes a transformation
( By contraction or expansion) contraction means sankocha and expansion means vikasa.
This quantum of Dharma bhootha gnana varies from one jiva to another jiva depending upon his past deeds.
This Dharma bhootha gnana varies from zero in the case of an inanimate object to infinity in the case of paramatma,
Nityasuries and Mukthatmas (liberated souls). This transformation in the dharma bhutha gnana of a jiva is called Svabhava Anyathabhava.
Because of this transformation Jiva also gets included in the category of creation though his intrinsic
nature is not subject to creation and destruction. So the pledge of Ekavijnanana, Sarva vijnanam continues to be valid and true.

The opponent’s view that there is creation and destruction to jiva based on some afore said upanishadic texts
is replied by saying that though jiva is eternal, the body he assumes in every birth borns and dies and this is not applicable to jiva.

The Fourth Adhikarana in this pada is called the Gnadhikarana.
From this adhikarana onwards the remaining four adhikaranas of this pada basically deal with
the nature, size and attributes of jiva and the relationship between paramatma and jeeva.

In this adhikarana it will be established that the jiva is self luminous and it does not require the aid of
anything else to know his own self. Self luminousness is also a form of consciousness and this is called Dharmijnana.
Dharmi is jiva and his luminousness is called Gnana. Jiva requires Dharma bhutha Jnana to perceive objects other than his own self.
So there are two gunas to jiva one is Dharmi jnana and the other is Dharma bhuthai jnana.
It should be noted that “I” it self is the jiva or individual soul and to know him as “I” is Dharmi Jnana.
This Dharmi Jnana is there even in darkness and even in dreams. Even in the case of deep and sound sleep
there will be realisation of his own self because he says after waking up I had a sound sleep.
He will also say that he did not know himself. The meaning of this statement is that even though
he had the consciousness of “I” during the sound sleep he did not know to which varna (case) and to which Ashrama his body belonged to.

The Dharmi jnana is one and the same to both paramatma and jeevatma since both have self luminous conscience of “I”.
The difference between them is only in respect of Dharma bhutha jnana. As already mentioned it is infinite
in the case of paramatma and it is very limited in the case of unliberated souls like us and its quantum varies
according to our past deeds that is punya and papa karma.

In this Adhikarana the points for discussion are
(1) whether the jiva is self luminous only according to Buddhism and Sankya
(2) whether the jiva is just like a stone without any consciousness according to sage Kanada
(3) whether the consciousness in jiva is not there always and consciousness comes to him periodically.
Another school of thought is whether jiva is gnatha and he is able to perceive things.
There is one more school of thought in which if it is said that Jiva’s self luminous ness and consciousness
are natural and accepted then jivatma is everywhere and his consciousness is always there.
Then there is no need for him to have senses or indriyas to have sensual perception.

Obviously the consciousness is not there at the time of sound sleep and in coma stage and therefore it cannot be there always.
In the stage of awakening the jiva becomes conscious provided he has all the requisite aides
like light, object and dharma bhutha gnana. So the opponent belonging to the above school of thought
contends that neither jiva is self luminous nor has dharma bhutha gnana. So it has to be accepted that
the consciousness of jiva is only periodical and it has also to accepted that jiva is everywhere because
work is turned out everywhere. There is also no authority or testimony to prove that jiva turns out work only by the movement of his body.

There are upanishadic texts which say the absence of consciousness during sound sleep and also in the state of Moksha or liberation.
In the light of the above pergent views on the intrinsic nature and attribute of jiva
the sutrakarar says in the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as “Gnotha Eva”.
This Adhikarana has 14 sutras.

The meaning of first sutra is that jiva besides being self luminous he has dharma bhutha gnana
that is in other words he is gnatha that is he is having inherent nature of consciousness.
Several upanishadic texts support this view.
One of the upanishads says that the inpidual soul is the seer, listener, smeller, taster, thinker, knower, doer, conscious.
This means he is able to perceive objects through his senses by virtue of his dharma bhutha gnana.

The sum and substance of the remaining 13 sutras is as follows.
(1) This jivatma is of atomic size as it moves out of this mortal body at the time of death and
enters into another body at its subsequent birth.
(2) So going out and coming back has to be done physically by the jiva on account of his good and bad deeds
(Punya and papa) and going out and coming back is not possible by the mortal body as it perishes soon after death.
(3)The upanishadic text clearly tells regarding the size of the jivatma.
The Svetashwatara upanishad in this context specifically mentions the size of the jiva as follows.
The size of the jiva is 1/100 th pision of the 1/100 th pision of the end of one of the hairs in the tail of the horse.
This jiva’s dharmabhutha jnana becomes infinite after his attaining salvation.
Another upanishadic text says that the size of the jiva is that of the tip of a needle which is used for
stitching leather bag or footwear. This says he is of micro size.
(4) Now the doubt arises that when the jiva is of macro size and is in the corner of the heart of the body
how he will be able to feel the pain or pleasure that takes place at another place in the body.
This doubt is cleared by an illustration. The illustration is that when a moist sandal paste is smeared
at a particular place of the body the jiva in the heart feels the pleasure of the cooling.
In the same manner the jiva feels the sensation.

(5)Even though the jivatma is in the heart of the body of an inpidual he is able feel the sensations taking place
in the different parts of the body on account of the dharma bhutha gnana and to explain this point
the sutrakara gives another illustration in which he says that even though the light or lamp burns
at one particular point its light is spread all over the place in which it is placed.
(6) In one sutra the sutrakarar draws a clear distinction between Dharmi gnana that is “I” and dharma bhutha gnana.
Here the dharma bhutha gnana is clearly the attribute of the jiva and not jiva himself.
Another illustration to explain this point is that smell is the attribute of the earth and not earth itself.
There is a clear distinction between them.
(7)Another doubt that arises in this context is cleared when the vignana or consciousness which is dharma bhutha gnana
is different from jiva how could jiva be called as vijnana himself in two different upanishadic texts
That Lord Sriman Narayana stands always by the side of viguana (jiva) and vignana does yaga (jiva does yaga).
The sutrakarar clears this doubt by saying that there is always the practice calling the noun by its attribute.
A parallel illustration is mentioned in this context that “Ananda” the meaning of infinite bliss is the name of
paramatma himself even though Ananda is an attribute of the Lord Sriman Narayana.
Another reason for this is dharma bhutha gnana which is a permanent and eternal attribute of jiva and so he can be called “Vijnana”.

(8) One more doubt arises in this context when dharma bhutha gnana is a permanent and ever attribute of jiva
why its presence is not felt in the state of sound sleep. Dharmabhutha jnana is also very much
contracted or restricted in the case of a child and it expands as the child grows.
This doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar by another illustration. In a male child the masculinity or potency
is dormant in the childhood and it blossoms at the time of the child attaining the age of youth.
So also dharma bhutha gnana is dormant in the state of sound sleep and it blossoms in the state of awakening.

(9) Finally the Sutrakara refutes the argument that jiva is omni present and jiva is self luminous only.
He says if he is omni present then Dharmabhutha jnana should blossom for ever or should not blossom at all.
The same is the case if jiva is self luminousouly. So the final conclusion is that jiva has both Dharmi jnana and Dharmabhutha jnana.

The fifth adhikarana is karthru adhikaranam.
It is stablished here that jiva is kartha or doer. The doubt regarding the above arises on account of
two statements one in katopanishad and the other in Bhagavad geetha.
The statement in katopanishad says the killer of a person says that he has killed a person and both
the killer and killed do no know that one can be a killer and the other can be killed.
Similarly in Bhagavad geetha Lord Krishna says Arjuna, that it is an illusion that jiva is a doer
where as in reality the attributes of the prakrithi. Satva, Rajas and Tamas are the doers.
So the contention of the opponent is that jiva is not the doer.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by the sutrakarar who says in the first sutra as
“Kartha sastrartha vatvath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that jivatma is the doer or kartha because the jiva is the enjoyer of the fruits of his doing.

It is said that one who aspires the svargaloka or the heaven should do jyothishtama yaga.
Similarly one who aspires to attain Moksha or salvation he has to meditate on Lord Sriman Narayana.
So if the inpidual soul does yaga he will be the enjoyer of the fruit of the yaga which is the svargaloka.
Similarly if a jiva meditates on paramatma then he will enjoy the fruit of the meditation which is moksha.
When it is so how can the three attributes of prakrithi (primordial matter) could be the doers.
There are six more sutras in this adhikarana in which the Sutrakara cites several upanishadic texts
to establish the fact that jiva is the doer. In one of the statements of the Taittiriya upanishad,
it is said that viguana does the yaga.
According to the opponent viguana is the buddhi which may be called as a steady state of mind.

But Sutrakara says that viguana is jiva and not buddhi. If it were buddhi the upanishad should have stated as vignanena.
The third case which is in Sanskrit called as Thruteeya vibhakthi. So jiva is the doer as he is the enjoyer of the fruit.

The next adhikarana is known as “Parayattadhikaranam”.
In this adhikarana it is established that the actions or doings of jiva are controlled by Paramatma.

The opponent says that if every action of an individual soul is controlled by paramatma or Lord Sriman Narayana
then the scriptures which say “do this” and “do not do that” become meaningless.
The shastra which says “do this” is called vidhisastra and shastra which says do not do that is called nishedhasastra.
Shastra means scripture.

The sutrakarar says in the first sutra of this adhikarana that actions and doings are controlled by
paramatma because of some statements in the upanishads. The first statement in the upanishad is that Lord Sriman Narayana
who is the antaryami or the inner soul of every being controls every action of every being or inpidual soul.
Paramatma is by the side of the jiva in the heart of every being, he is different from jiva,
jiva is his body, and he controls every action of jiva.

In the Bhagavad geetha also Lord Krishna says that he dwells in the heart of every being
and he directs the actions of the jiva. In another sloka also Lord Krishna says Arjuna that Eswara or paramatma
is in the heart of every being and makes every bhutha or jiva rotate in a wheel like machine.
The first sutra is “Paraththu Thath Sruthe:”

In the second sutra the sutrakarar replies to the opponent’s viewpoint that vidhi nishedha shastra becomes
meaningless if jivatma does not have freedom for his action and without the body and senses a jiva by himself cannot do anything.
Depending upon the punya papa karma of a jiva, paramatma gives jiva a body and senses.
Jiva’s actions and doings are through only body and senses. When a jiva attempts to do a particular thing
good or bad paramatma gives basically his consent for the same. If after paramatma giving the consent,
jiva resorts to do bad deeds or sinfull acts on his own it cannot be said that paramatma is merciless
and he is responsible for the bad and good deeds of the individual.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja gives a beautiful illustration in this context.
When the body and senses given by paramatma belongs to both paramatma and jivatma one cannot attempt
to do a particular thing without the consent of the other. It is just like a father signing a blank cheque
and giving it to his son for drawing the amount and utilising the same in any manner he likes.
He may use it for a good cause or for a bad cause. In either case he has to enjoy the fruit of his own action.
He will be happy if he has used it for a good cause and acquired punya and he will regret if he has used it
for a bad cause and acquired papa. So Paramatma’s grace will be there for a person who continuously engages himself
in doing good deeds and he is lifted upwards even upto Moksha. Paramatma’s disgrace is there for a person
who continuously resorts to do bad deeds and he is pushed downwards even to the hall.
So the vidhi Nisheda sastra is not meaningless inspite of the fact that jiva’s actions are controlled by paramatma.

The last adhikarana in this 3rd pada is called Amsha adhikaranam.
The question that arises here is what exactly is the relationship between paramatma and jivatma.
Is it that both these two are entirely distinct identree? Or Is paramatma himself assuming jiva form
on account of the illusion which is called Avidya. Does Paramatma become jiva after being affected by upadhi
which is the mortal body or is jiva a part of the paramatma.
Upadhi means reason Paramatma or Brahman assumes jiva form after entering in to several mortal bodies.

This four fold doubt arises on account of some upanishadic texts which superficially appear to express
pergent views on the axact relationship between jivatma and paramatma.
One upanishadic text says that paramatma is Sarvajna that is omniscient and jiva is ignorant.
This means that jiva and paramatma are two distinct entities.
In another upanishadic saying Brahman is jiva and this jiva is Brahman.
According to these sayings Brahman can become jiva on account of Avidya or illusion.

In the background of the above doubts the Sutrakarar who is the sage Badarayana says in the first sutra as
“Amsonana vyapadeshath Anyatha chapi dasakitha vaditvam Adheeyatha Eke”.
This sutra means that jiva is a part of Brahman. Amsa is part.
Brahman is called Amsi where as jiva is called Amsa. So this relationship is called as Amsamsi Bhava
which is same as sarira Atma Bhava”. This is in other words means that paramatma is the soul and jivatma is the body.
There is a statement in Atharva veda that Brahman or paramatma is a fisherman, and he is a rogue so on.
This actually means that Brahman is the soul for the jiva in the body of fisherman, rogue etc.

So every jiva in every body without any distinction is the body of paramatma.
Even Lord Krishna tells the same thing to Arjuna in Bhagavad Geetha.
Now the doubt arises in this context that when all the jivas are alike and are bodies of paramatma
how could there be a difference between one jiva and other jiva based on the caste, creed, colour or sex.
This doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar himself by stating that there is no difference in the nature of
one jiva and that of another jiva but the difference basically lies in the body in which the jiva dwells.
So caste, creed, colour or sex applies to the body and not to jiva who resides in the body.

To explain this viewpoint the sutrakarar gives a beautiful illustration.
Fire or Agni by itself is pure of course. But could it be said that fire in the cremation ground is same as
the fire in the kitchen of our house. Nobody agrees that the fire in the above two places is one and the same.
So the difference basically lies in the substance with which the fire is in contact.
In the cremation ground the fire burns in contact with a dead body.
In the house the fire burns in contact with the hearth. So also the difference between one jiva and other jiva
lies in the body of one jiva and the body of the other jiva.
One body may belong to superior caste and the other body may belong to inferior caste.
So the jiva in the body of a brahman should do all rituals like sandhyavandana etc prescribed in the scriptures
where as jiva in the body of an inferior caste say fourth caste is not expected to do the rituals as there is no upanayana samskara.

This adhikarana has eleven sutras.
In the remaining sutras the Adwaitha system, Bhaskara system, dvaitha system philosophies have been refuted.
The 3rd quarter of second chapter concludes with this Adhikarana.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,–Athyaayam 2-(Avirodha )Paatham 2–(‘Tarka pada.’)Summary-

February 18, 2021

The second quarter in this second chapter is known as Tarka pada, in which the sutrakarar
who is sage Badarayana goes on offensive
attacking the systems of philosophy opposed to Sri Vishishtadwaitha system.

The systems of philosophy that are attacked and denounced are the following.
1) Nirishwara Sankhya system of Lord Kapila.
2) Vaisheshika system of Kanada
3) Four classifications of Buddhism.
4) Jaina system.
5) Pasu patha system.
After refuting the above the sutrakarar finally establishes the authority of Pancharatra sastra
which is also known as Bhagavath sastra.

Out of these systems mentioned above, the Nirishwara Sankhya system accept the authority of Vedas
and the others do not accept the authority of Vedas.
There are eight adhikaranas in this pada.

The first adhikarana is “Rachana Anupapaththi Adhikaram” in which the Nirishwara sankya system is refuted.
The basic text for them is Kapila smrithi, which is not available now.
Eshwara Krishna a follower of kapila has composed a work called sankhya karika which is the available basic text for this system.
Lord Kapila is an incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana as mentioned in Srimad Ramanayana of Sage Valmiki.
His main contention is Prakrithi which is the primordial matter is the material cause of the universe
and not Brahman. Prakrithi is also known as Pradhanam, Anumanikam or Asabdam.
This prakrithi creates the universe in the presence of Jiva who is called Purusha in this context.

There are nine sutras in this adhikarana.
Each sutra is a refusal of a viewpoint of the Sankhya system.
The first viewpoint is that this universe is a peculiar structure comprising of attributes satva, rajas and tamas.
Satva causes happiness, Rajas causes material desire and Tamas causes illusion.
The sequence of transformation of the prakriti is mahat, Ahankara, Tanmatras and Bhutas.
This system further says that Prakriti creates the universe on its own.

1) This viewpoint is refuted by Sutrakarar who says in the first sutra which reads as
“Rachana Anuppaththeshacha nanumanam pravrutteshacha”.

The meaning is that prakrithi without having the omniscient brahman or paramatma as inner soul(Antaryami)
cannot be the cause of the universe which is having a wonderful structure.
The inner soul paramatma wills and causes the transformation of prakruthi in to the universe.

2) In the second sutra the opponent or poorva pakshi contends that
(a) the milk becomes curd on its own.
(b) Water poured at the root of a coconut tree becomes a tender coconut containing tasty water on its own.
(c) Water poured at the root of a mango tree becomes a mango fruit with a tasty juice on its own.
So in all the above cases it is not necessary that paramatma should be the inner soul to will that the above things should happen.
The reply of the sutrakarar for the above is that Brahman is the inner soul in all the above cases and wills and the above things happen.

In the 3rd sutra the sutrakarar says, If the Brahman is not the inner soul and wills, the creation and deluge
will take place very often as it cannot be controlled by any body.
Only when paramatma wills from within then only there will be creation and deluge at regular intervals.

3) The Sankhya who is the poorva pakshi further contends that just as a cow after grazing the grass
gives the milk which is a natural process so also the prakrithi creates the universe on its own.
The sutrakarar’s reply to the above contention is that bull which also grazes the grass does not give the milk,
which means that paramatma is the antaryami in the grass grazed by the cow and
this antaryami wills and produces the milk through the cow.

4) The opponent gives another illustration to drive home his point of view that Pradhanam (prakriti) creates the universe.
Just as a lame person makes a blind person to move about in his presence and a magnet attracting iron materials,
so also pradhanam creates the universe in the presence of jiva.

The sutrakarar says in reply to the above that the creation of the universe is not possible without
the antaryami that is paramatma willing because of the fact that the lame person sitting on the neck of the blind person
gives directions to the blind person regarding the route in which they have to go which means that
paramatma is the antaryami to the lame person.
In the case of the magnet paramatma is the antaryami to the magnet which attracts the iron materials.

5) The next contention of the sankhya that deluge takes place at the time when the attributes
satva, rajas and tamas are of equal percentage and creation comes when they are of unequal percentage.
Even if it is argued that uneven percentage occurs during the time of deluge then there should be creation always.
Therefore it is not possible for pradhana to become cause of the universe without paramatma being its antaryami.

6) The Sutrakara further says that even if it is accepted with great difficulty that pradhana is the cause of the universe
in the presence of jiva, then jiva can never attain moksha or salvation which is the purushartha or supreme goal.
As jiva has to attain moksha, some time or other pradhana cannot be the cause of the universe
without paramatma controlling it from inside in the form of its antaryami.

7) Finally Sutra karar says that sankhya system cannot be accepted
because of many internal contradictions in that system itself.

The second adhikarana in this pada is called Mahath deerghavadtvadhikarana
and this adhikarana is devoted for the refutal of vaisheshika system founded by Kanada,.
He is Kanada because he was eating only grain of paddy.
His main contention is that atoms are the cause of the universe and not pradhana.
He further says that two atoms become diatomic and from diatomic, triatomic is produced.
His technical term for diatomic is hrasva and for triatomic is Parimandala.
The argument in this context is that the tri atoms join together on all the six faces and become a
bigger object and so on. Such joining of triatoms is the cause for becoming a small object
like mustard and a very big object like a mountain.

In the background of his above contention, the Sutrakara refutes this system by
seven sutras.
1) In the first sutra which reads as “Mahath deergavadva hrasva parimandalabyam”.
The Sutrakara who is sage Badarayana says that what Kanada says that this universe is made up of
diatoms and triatoms by their joining together and becoming big and lengthy is not correct.
This is because of the fact any object like a cloth comes to existence on account of the threads producing
the cloth get weaved together on all the six sides both length breadth wise and then become the cloth.
This form of joining with one another is not possible in the case of diatomics because they are invisible.
Invisibility is called Niravayava. If atoms which are called paramanus are accepted as having six faces
and this goes on without an end which is called anavastha. So the Sutrakara contends that universe cannot be created by atoms.

2) In the second sutra, Sutrakara refutes another contention of the Vaisheshika mmatha.
The contention is that the movement of paramanus is on account of the past deeds which is called karma or Adrishta.
The doubt arises whether this adrishta is in paramanus or in jiva. Both these two cannot be there because
the adrishta is eternal and if the karma or adrishta is eternal then there should be creation for ever.
So the universe cannot come into existence from out of atoms.

3) In the third sutra another contention of the Vaisheshika is refuted.
The contention is that relationship between the objects is called Samavaya.
This is different from the Aprithak siddha sambandha as in the case of the object called
guni and its attribute Guna and category called Jathin and the inditual called vyakthi.
If samavaya relationship is accepted then the cause for one Samavaya has to be traced and hence
another samavaya has to be created and so on without end.

4) In the 4th sutra, another contention is refuted. It is said that samavaya relationship is eternal.
If this is so then the pot and its support which is ground become eternal and there will not be any creation and destruction.
As this cannot happen the Vaisheshika system is not correct.

5) In the 5th Sutra of this adhikarana another contention of theirs is refuted.
They say because the mud pot has a definite colour, this colour is there in the atoms which produce it.
This is in contradiction to their original stand that atoms are eternal, very minute and impossible
and cannot possess colour. Hence the vaisheshika system is not correct.

6) In the 6th sutra, the Sutrakara says even if Kanada says he will not accept colour to the atoms,
then also he cannot escape from his inconsistency because of the fact when there is no colour in the karana (cause)
there cannot be any colour in the karya and so his system is not correct because it is not based on any sound logic.

7) In the 7th sutra, the sutrakara says that while kapila system which accepts the authority of Vedas
can be considered, the Kanada system cannot be accepted under any circumstances.

The Third, Fourth and Fifth adhikaranas are called
samudaya adhikaranam,
upalabdhi adhikaranam,
sarvatha anupapatti adhikaranam.
In these three adhikaranas, the Bauddha system of philosophy is refuted.

In the Bauddha system there are 4 subsystems which are as below.
(1) Vaibhashika system in which they accept that the objects we see around could be perceived
by eyes (pratyaksha) and they are momentary which is called Kshanika. Their knowledge is also momentary.
(2) Sautran thika system in which they say the external objects are there but they can be perceived by
Anumana (inference) and not by pratyaksha (Sensual perception). Objects are momentary and their knowledge are momentary.
(3) Yoga chara system in which they say the external objects are not all there but their knowledge is there which is momentary.
(4) Madhyamika system in which they say that nothing exists in this world and everything is non ense. He is called sarva sunya vadi.

All the above say that this universe is created by atoms and hence they are called paramanukaranavadies.
In the Vaibhashika system, it is said that the external objects are the combination of the atoms of
earth, water, fire and air and internal objects like continuity of knowledge and desires.
It is further said earthly atoms have a form, taste, sense of touch and smell.
Atoms of water have form, taste and sense of touch.
Atoms of fire have form and sense of touch. Atoms of air have only sense of touch.
They do not accept sky as one of the elements.
Points of refutation in Vaibhashika and Sautrantika.

1) Their contention that atoms create earth, water, fire and air and these four elements are the cause
of our bodies and senses is not correct because they say everything is momentary or kshanika.
Also in the world there will not be any talk or reference regarding them because their existence is momentary.
The questions that arise and which they are not able to answer convincingly are
(1) while the atoms are of momentary existence how and when they unite or combine to become elements for doing their respective jobs.
(2) When they become objects of perception
(3) When they become object of acceptance or rejection.
(4) Who is the soul etc.

2)They say Even though the objects and their knowledge are momentary on account of avidya (ignorance of jiva)
or illusion of jiva, They say they are eternal.
Sutrakarar says this is also not correct because they are not able to spell out clearly how this world came into being.
Here the avidya makes a diametrically opposite perception that is perceiving a momentary object as eternal.

3)Their contention is that the mud pot which comes after the previous mud pot disappeared,
because of its momentary existence and the previous mud pot is the cause for the succeeding mud pot.

This is not correct because the succeeding mud pot comes in to existence only after the previous got disappeared.
So the preceding cannot be cause for the succeeding one.
If Abhava or nonsense is the cause, then everything is produced by nothing always. This does not happen.
The Sutrakara citing some more points refutes the Vaibhashika system.
They further say that sky or Akasha is non sense and does not exist.
This is also refuted in this context saying that sky very much exists just like earth.

The argument of vaiseshika that something comes out of nothing( nonsense) which is called thuchcha is also not correct.
The world created by the nonsense should be nonsense only. Clay produces a mud pot. Gold produces an ornament.
So neither nonsense produces something nor something produces nonsense.
After seeing an object some where some time back we are able to remember that particular object.
This is called the prathya bigna of the object. When pratya bigna is there how can an object be momentary or
its knowledge also are momentary. Another contention of soutranthika that the attributes of
one object get transferred to another object is also referred by the sutrakara in this context.

Both vaiseshika and soutran trika were objected by sutrakarar on another point.
If the argument that something is produced from nothing and there is niranvaya vinasha
( nothing remains when an object gets destroyed) are really true then no body need put in any effort for Producing something.
We have seen in this world that any effort is aimed at the removal of the evil or for the achievement of the desired objective.
If everything goes or get destroyed in a moment and nothing remains there after there is nothing to be achieved by effort.
when something achieved by nothing then for those persons who remain in active or do not put in any effort
everything like worldly desire, heavenly desire or even salvation should get fulfilled . But unfortunately it is no so.

So Vaisheshika and Soutranthika systems do not stand to any reason and hence they are to be condemned out right.

The Sutrakara tells the vaisheshika whose system is under refutation, now that even if you say that
something is produced from nothing , then this statement is against your pledge or prathigna ,
The particular sense which perceives the object is called Adhipathi,
This sense for example eye see an object and afterwords perceive it.
There are four stages which give the knowledge of a particular object.
They are sense, seeing, object, perception. This is the Pratigjna. To make the above pledge true when
one pot moment is there it must be said another pot moment is also there.
Here the pot moment means the moment at which the pot was perceived.
It should be said that the first pot moment is the cause and the second pot moment is the effect.
But the question is how two pot moments one being the cause and the other being effect be there simultaneously.
The perception is not like that. The pledge of being momentary also fails.

Further the contention of Vaibhashika is that nothing remains when an object is subject to destruction is also refuted.
This is called Niranvaya vinasha. Vaibhashika says when the flame of a lamp is put out nothing remains.
He further says that in the case of the flame of lamp there is the wick, oil and flame.
Every moment a new small portion of the oil is burnt and the wick also gradually burns.
So the flame which is the result of the burning of oil and the wick is different every moment.
Though the flame apiers to be the same by the perception of eye ( Pratyaksha Pramana ) the flame becomes different every moment.

The Vaishashika says two types of destruction in this context. When the flame is put out by us.
The destruction is called Aprathi sankya Nirodha. ( a technical term used by vaiseshika) and if the flame
gets put out on its own in account of the exhaustion of the oil or complete burning of the wick or both,
the destruction is called Prathi sankya nirodha.

In both the cases they say the destruction is niranvaya vinasha because nothing remains.
it is also said that sthula vinasha is Prathi sankya nirodha in which the remains after destruction are visible.
Aprathi sankya nirodha is sukshma vinasha in which the remains are not visible.

His above contention is not accepted by the sutrakara who says that destruction is always sanvaya
because destruction is always a transformation. If a pot is hit by a hammer then the pot is destroyed
and the pot is broken in to pieces which are called kapala and this vinasha ( destruction) is sanvaya only.
Even in the case of the putting out of the flame the Sutrakara says the remains which are of
atomic nature are frittered away in to the air and the vinasha is sanvaya only.
In one of the sutras in this Adhikarana the soutran thika system of buddhist philosophy is also retuted.
The sutra reads as “Nasatha Adrishta Thvath.”

The Soutrankika generally contends that even though the externed objects are there they have to be perceived by
inference only. And both the objects and their knowledge are of momentary in nature.

The 4th adhikarana in this 2nd quarter of 2nd chapter is called “upalabdhi adhi karanam.”
In this adhi karanam the Yoga chara system of Buddhist philosophy comes for condemn nation.
It has three sutras.

The main contentions of Yoga chara are
1) The objects are not physically there but their knowledge is there. Even that knowledge lasts for a moment.
2) Just like the objects we see in the dream are momentary. So also the objects in the state of awakening.
This argument they advance in that variety of knowledge is not based on the variety of the objects.
The variety of knowledge is an account of the continuity of concept which is called vasana.
The exact meaning of vasana is the continuity of the perception of difference.
When the knowledge of a mud pot is there it leads to the knowledge of kapla ( broken pieces of mud pot).
The perception of mud pot is again from the perception of mud pot which existed before and again
this perception is from the perception of mut pot which existed before and so on as the perception is momentary.
In other words, one perception disappears and another perception appears in that place and so on.

When Yoga chara was asked how the shape of the external objects like mustard and mountain comes in to the
knowledge which is in the inner mind he replies that even the reference of an object is
on account of the vocal expression of the same.
The Sutrakara refutes the above argument in the first sutra which reads as “Nabhava upalabdhe:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that when the object physically exists its non existence cannot be established.
This means in other words that the object and its perception are co-existent.
The yoga chara says when the perception and the object are co-existent, it is called
“Sahopalambha” “Upalambha” means perception, “Saha” means together.
In the case of “Saho palambha” he says that knowledge and object are one and the same.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja says in the Sri Bhasya conntering the above argument that Sahopalambha does not mean
that object and perception are one and the same. If a person says “I perceive this pot”.
In this statement “I” refers to the person who is the subject (“Kartha“), the mud pot means the object which is perceived.
When there is difference between the subject and object so also there is difference between the object and its perception.

In the second sutrakarar says there is difference between the objects perceived during the dreams
and those perceived during the awakening state. The objects perceived during the dreams are subject to the
defects caused by sleep and defective mind and other things.
Further it is said that there could be no perception Without the object. such a perception could never be there.
There could be no knowledge without a person who is the subject and without an object.

So the final conclusion is that Yoga chara system can never be accepted.

The Fifth adhikarana is “Sarvatha Anupapaththi” adhikaranam.
This adhikaranam is devoted for refuting the Madhyamika system of Buddhist philosophy.
This Madhyamika is called “Sarva Sunyavadi”. He says that there is neither object nor its perception
and it is the final conclusion of Lord Buddha. Non sense is the tenet of his system and nonsense it self is the salvation.
The reason for a thing to exist is to be traced. He says he has not seen the creation of some thing from something.
When the heap of the clay is lost there will be only nonsense from which the nonsense pot is created.
Further in this world everything is an illusion.

This contention is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra which reads as “Sarvatha Anupapaththeshcha”.
This sutra means that by any stretch of Imagination, this sunyathvavada has no relevance at any time and at any place.
He is to be questioned whether he pledges that everything is sat (real entity) really exists,
whether it does not exist, whether it is the other than the above two and so on.
In any case he will not be able to establish his contention.

The sixth adhikaranam in this pada is called “Ekasmin Asambhavadhikarana” which has four sutras.
This Adhikaranam is fully devoted for denouncing the Jaina system of philosophy.

The Jainas are also paramanukaranavadies. Their main tenets are as follows.
This universe which comprises of sentient and non sentient beings does not have a supreme being who is called Iswara.
This universe is made up of six substances called dravyas. These dravyas are Jiva, Dharma, Adharma, Pudgala, Kala and Akasha.
The above are elaborated below. Jiva is the inpidual soul (sentient being) is of three categories.
The categories are Baddhas, Yoga siddhas and Mukthas. Baddhas are unliberated souls having the bondage of samsara.
Yoga siddhas are those jivas who have acquired yogic powers by meditation with a sense of detachment.
Mukthas are those who are liberated. Dharma is that power (punya) which makes a jiva to depart and attain salvation.
Adharma is the sinful act which makes jivas to remain in this universe itself.
Pudgala means substances having colour, smell, taste, touch. This pudgala is again of two types.
The first is in the form of atoms and second is their combination.
The combination of atoms constitutes air, Fire, Water, Earth, Body, World etc.
Kala or the time is pided as past, present and future. Time is atomic. Sky or Akasha is of infinite space.
All the above substances other than atoms are again classified as five Asthikayas.
If a substance encompasses a large space it is called Asthikaya.
The five asthikayas are Jivasthikaya, Dharma Asthikaya, Adharma Asthikaya, Pudgala Asthikaya, Akasha Asthikaya.
The means for salvation is Righteous conduct with the background of sound knowledge and insight.
Salvation is the blossoming of the intrinsic and inherent nature of one’s own self which is Jivatma.

In addition to the above they say that every object in this world is of seven fold mutually contradicting characteristics.
The seven fold characteristics are (1) May be an object exists (2) May be an object does not exist
(3) May be an object exists and also does not exist. (4) May be an object is indescribable
(5) May be an object is exists and is indescribable (6) May be an object does not exist and is indescribable
(7) May be an object exists & does not exist and indescribable.

This seven fold characteristic is called Saptha bhangi vada.
The Sutrakara begins to refute the above Jainism with the Sutra reading as “Naikasmin Asambhavath”.
This means it is not possible for the mutually contradicting characteristics to be there in the same object at the same time.
It is just like telling that the shadow and hot sun are at once place at the same time.
As this is not possible, the seven fold mutually contradicting characteristics in the same object at the same time is not possible.
So the Jainism cannot be accepted. In the second and third sutras, the Sutrakara refutes another viewpoint of the jainas.
They say that Jiva the inpidual soul has no fixed size.
They say that jivas are of the size of the body which they take during every birth.
This statement is something absurd on the very face of it because of the fact in one birth a jiva may become
an elephant and the size of the jiva in that birth will be of the size of the elephant and if
in the subsequent birth if jiva were to become an ant then the size of the jiva will be that of ant.
How can jiva of the elephant size can reduce himself to that of ant. This cannot happen because jiva is impossible.

So the Jain system becomes totally unacceptable and hence to be condemned.

The Seventh Adhikarana in this pada is called “Pasupathi Adhikaranam which has four sutras.
In this Adhikarana the sutrakara denounces the pasupathi system of philosophy founded by Lord Siva who is called Pasupathi.
His teachings are, 1. For the universe Nimitta karana is Lord Siva where as the Upadanakarana is the Prakrithi that is primordial matter.
Their customs and habits are very nasty and even vulgar. All their teachings and customs are totally repugnant to Vedas.
The followers of this religion and philosophy are of four categories.
1) Kapalika – One who knows the names of six mudrikas ( wearing certain things on the body)
and meditates on his own self attains Moksha. The mudrikas are a necklace, finger ring, ear ring,
a bead worn on the tuft of hair on the head, ashes and holy thread are the six mudrikas.
2) Kalamukhas – They say the following are the means for attainment of all fruits here and in the other worlds.
The means are to eat out of a human skull, to bathe with the ashes of the cremation ground,
and put it in the mouth, to bear a stick, to fill a vessel with toddy (liquor) and worship it.

Similarly the other two categories namely Pasu pathas and Saivas teach on the similar lines to their followers.
They also say a person belonging to an inferior caste can be converted to superior caste.
The above pasupatha system of philosophy is denounced by the Sutrakara in
the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as “Pathyu: Asamanja syath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that the philosophy and religion of Pasu patha (Lord Siva) is to be rejected
outright because of mutual internal contradictions and his teachings are entirely against those contained in Vedas.
All the Vedas in one voice proclaim that Lord Sriman Narayana is himself is the material and operational cause of the universe.
Certain references to fourheaded Brahma and Siva in some of the vedic and upanishadic texts
have to be interpreted as per the sutra in the Indra prana Adhikarana of the first quarter and first chapter.
The sutra is “Sastra Drishtyathu upadesha: Vamadva thath” which means
that if any other deity is mentioned in upanishadic contexts pertaining to meditation,
then in those contexts the object of meditation is Lord Sriman Narayana only
who is in the inner soul of the deity mentioned there in.

The other objections to the pasupatha philosophy is that in this system of philosophy opposed to Vedas
citing the supreme being as operational cause only and not material cause is based on inference only (Anumana pramana).
A pot maker who is the operational cause for a mud pot handles the heap of clay and is incharge of all
the other operations involved in the pot making. Being in charge of all the operations is called Adhishtana.
The pot maker is an Adhishtana because he has a body. Even if a body is accepted to Lord Pasupathi
that body cannot last for ever as it has to perish on one day or other. So Lord Siva cannot be nimittha karana.

It is argued that an inpidual soul without itself being a body is the adhishtana for his body and senses
for the enjoyment of pleasure and sorrows.So also Lord Siva can be adhishtana to prakrithi and be nimitta karana.
Jiva is adhishtana on account of his punya and papa. Because according to them
there is no punya and papa to Lord Siva, he cannot be adhishtana.
Even if punya, papa is accepted to Lord Siva then he will be like any other ordinary soul (Jiva)
and with limited knowledge. So he cannot be nimitha karana ( operational cause).
So the pasupatha matham is to be rejected outright completely.

In the case of sage Badarayana who is the Sutrakara rejecting the Buddhism and Jainism, a doubt many arise.
Buddha and Jaina appeared in this world in Kaliyuga and propagated their respective systems.
The Sutrakara was in Dvapara yuga and composed sutras.
The doubt is how can the sutra kara denounce the systems which were propagated in Kaliyuga only.

This doubt is cleared as follows:-
Buddha and Jaina preached their respective religions and philosophies which were already existing, to their followers.
These philosophies are anadi or without a beginning. So the Sutrakarar has rejected them.
Another explanation is that the present kaliyuga is 28th Kaliyuga in the cycle of 71 chathur yugas
( Kritha, Thretha, Dvapara and Kali are the four yugas and they together constitute one chathur yuga) of vaivaswatha manvantara.
Every manvanthara has 71 chathur yugas. Buddha and Jaina would have born in 27th Kaliyuga also
and preached their respective religions. So sage Badarayana who was born in 28th dvapara yuga
would have denounced the Buddhism and Jainism which were preached in 27th Kaliyuga.

The 8th or the last adhikarana in this 2nd pada of the 2nd chapter is “Utpathi Asambhavadhikarana”.
In this adhikarana the opponents of Sri Pancharathra Sastra are denounced and the authority of the
Pancharathra sastra is established. Lord Sriman Narayana did not author the Vedas but he only taught
Vedas to the four headed Brahma who was created in his navel.
But he is said to be the author of the entire Pancharathra sastra and propagated the same to others.
This Pancharathra sastra was preached by Lord Sriman Narayana to five celestial gods who are
Anantha, Garuda, Vishvaksena, Brahma and Indra and this preaching was done in five nights
and hence it is calld “Pancharathra”.
Another reason for calling it as pancharathra is that this sastra deals with the daily routine
to be observed or performed by an inpidual. This daily routine is divided in to five parts
which are called Abhigamana, Upadana, Ijya, Svadhyaya and Yoga.

This Pancharathra sastra comprises of 108 samhitas which fall in to four categories.
(1) Agamasiddhantha (2) Manthra Siddhantha (3) Tanthra siddhantha (4) Tanthranthara siddhantha.

This is just like pision as Rigveda, Yajur veda, Sama veda and Atharvana veda.
It is said if an individual strictly conforms to the preachings contained in one samhitha
he will attain Moksha that is eternal bliss. This is equivalent to practicing Bhakthi yoga adopting
any of the 32 Brahma vidyas prescribed in upanishads as means for attaining Moksha.

The doubt regarding the authority of Sri Pancharathra sastra arose because of a statement
in one of the samhitas as “Sankarashno nama Jivo jayathe” which means that a jiva by name sankarshana was born.
As there is no birth or death to an inpidual soul that is Jiva as per the upanishads the above statement
contradicts what is established in Vedas. When the contradiction is there and as Vedas are of supreme authority
it was contended that Pancharathra sastra which is contradiction to Vedas is not an authority.

The first two sutras are the purva paksha sutras stating the viewpoint of the opponents.
The latter two sutras are siddhantha sutras refuting the viewpoint of the opponent or Poorva pakshi.

The first sutra is “Utpatthi Asambhavath”.
The meaning of this sutra “as there is no creation of the Jiva, the Pancharathra sastra which mentions
the creation of the jiva cannot be an authority. This argument was countered by the sutrakarar
who says in the sutra as Vignanadi Bhavevathatda prathisheda:”.

The meaning of this sutra is that Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha are the vyuha forms of the Lord
Sri Para vasudeva (Sriman Narayana) and there is no jiva by name sankarshana and hence
there is no contradiction between veda and pancharathra sastra. So the pancharathra is an authority in its entirety.
Sankarshana is the form of the Lord Sriman Narayana who represents jivas and Pradyumna represents senses.
The portfolio of sankarshana is the destruction of the universe at the time of deluge.
Pradyumna is the creator and Aniruddha is the protector.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja has quoted profusely from several samhithas, establishing the full agreement of
Pancha rathra sastra with the Vedas. So Pancha rathra sastra is a complete authority to us.

As already mentioned, earlier the second chapter is called “Avirodha Adhyaya”.
The word Avirodha means “No opposition or No objection”. This further means Lord Sriman Narayana
who is called parabrahman or merely as Brahman is the three fold cause of the universe
that is upadana karana (material cause), Nimitta karana (operational cause) and Sahakari karana (instrumental cause).
This fact was established in the first chapter called samanvaya adhyaya and this was further strengthened
and reinforced in the second chapter. So the second chapter asserts that there is no objection in
Lord Sriman Narayana in being the three fold cause of the universe.
This assertion came after Sutrakara who is the sage Badarayana over ruled the various objections
raised by Nirishwara Sankhya against Lord Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe in the
first pada by being on the defensive and starting offensive against the other systems of philosophy
and denouncing them by pointing their internal contradictions and other drawbacks.

The systems that were refuted are (1) Nirishwara Sankhya system of Kapila
(2) Vaisheshika system of Kanada who is a paramanu karana vadi which means atoms are the cause of the universe
(3) Four sub systems of Bauddha who are Vaibhashika, Soutrantika, Yogachara and Madhyamika who are all paramanu karana vadies.
(4) Jaina system who is also a paramanukaranavadi.
(5) Pasupatha system of Lord Pasupathi who is paramasiva who they say is the nimitta karana only and not upadana karana.

After the above offensive, the Sutrakara finally establishes the authority of pancharathra sastra
also called as Bhagavat sastra after clearing some initial doubts regarding the same.
As mentioned earlier the first pada is called Smrithi pada and the second pada is known as Tarka pada.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,–Athyaayam 2-(Avirodha )Paatham 1–(‘Smrithi pada’)Summary-

February 18, 2021

The second chapter is called Avirodha Adhyaya.
Avirodha means no objection or no opposition.
This means all objections or opposition against Lord Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe
are over ruled and it is again established that he is the cause of the universe.
This in other words reinforces the final conclusion of the first chapter.

The second chapter has four padas or quarters.
The first pada is called Smrithi pada.
The second pada is called Tarka pada.
The third pada is called Viyath pada.
The fourth pada is called Indriya pada or Prana pada.

The first two padas reinforce the fact that Brahman who is the Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe.
The third and fourth padas deal with the objects that are created by Brahman.

From another aspect it is said that the first two padas over rule the objections raised by the opponents
against Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe
while the latter two padas that is third and fourth settle the internal dispute or domestic quarrel in Vedas
including upanishads which are the supreme authority to us.
There are some texts which appear to be mutually contradictory in nature.
Contradictory in the sense that one text says that Sky or Akasha is eternal and not created
while another text says that Akasha is created.

Similarly there are texts which say that Jivas or the sentient beings are created
while there are texts which say that jivas are not created and they are eternal.
Likewise there are texts which say that senses which are called Indriyas are created
while there are upanishadic sayings that they are not created.
As every syllable of the Vedas including upanishads is an authority to us, the above contradictions
which are superficial in nature have to be settled and a compromise to be effected by applying reasonable and sensible logic.

In the first pada the Sutrakara who is Sri Vedavyasa also called as Sage Badarayana is on the defencive
by overruling logical objections raised by both the Nirishwara sankhyas and seshwara sankhyas
against Lord Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe.

In the second pada the sutrakarar goes on offensive and refutes the sankhya system of philosophy,
vaiseshika system of philosophy, Buddhism, Jainism and Pasupatha system of philosophy
by pointing out fissures in them.
Finally in the second pada the sutrakarar establishes the authority of pancharatra sasthra which is called Bhagavath Sastra.

The first pada in the second chapter is called Smrithi pada because the entire pada is dominated
by the objections raised by Nirishwara sankhya based on kapila smrithi
which is the basic text for nirishwara sankhya system of philosophy.

This pada has ten adhikaranas.
The very first adhikarana in this pada is Smrithi Adhikarana.
As already said in all the ten adhikaranas the Purvapakshi or opponent is Nirishwara sankhya.
The founder and propagator of Nirishwara Sankhya system of philosophy is Sage Kapila
who is an incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana. The work composed by the sage kapila is called Kapila Smrithi.

The word sankhya means number. The philosophy based on this number is sankhya system.
This sankhya system which does not believe in the existence of Lord Sriman Narayana
who is called Brahman or Eshwara is called Nirishwara Sankhya system which says that
there are 24 tatvas of prakrithi which is primordial matter which is also called Pradhana, Anumanika or Asabda.
Jiva is the 25th tatva. Because this philosophy is based on these 25 tatvas it is called Nirishwara Sankhya system.
In this philosophy prakrithi is the material cause for the universe and it creates the universe in the presence of the Jiva.

The other branch of the Sankhya system is Seshwara Sankhya which was founded and propagaed by Hiranya garbha or four headed Brahma.
This system believes in the existence of Eshwara or Brahman who is the 26th tatva.
In this system it is said that prakrithi is the Upadana karana and Eshwara (Narayana) is the Nimitta karana.

Both these systems are against the vedic philosophy which says that Brahman is
both the material cause and operational cause (Upadana karana and Nimitta karana).
Our Visishtadwaitha philosophy is entirely in tune with vedic philosophy.
We agree with sankhya regarding the number of tatvas which are 26 in number.

So in the first adhikarana, the Nirishwara sankhya says that interpretation of Vedas and upanishads
is impossible without the aid of Smrthees. He further says even though there are a number of Smrthees
with whose aid the interpretation of Vedas and upanishads has to be done,
Kapila Smrithi is the most suitable and acceptable one because it deals with only the thathvas of philosophy
and hence it is more powerful than the other smrthees like Manu smrthi etc., because these smrthees deal with
both tenets and performance of daily rituals. He further argues that if kapila smrithi is not considered for
interpretation of Vedas it becomes meaningless and purposeless. This should not happen.

In the sutra, the sutrakarar uses a technical term known as Anavakasha.
Anavakasha means meaning less or purposeless. A maxim is eatablished here according to which it is said that
when there is a contradiction between Vedas including upanishads and smrithis,
Vedas are more powerful than smrthees.

Poorva pakshi is further of the opinion that the Vedas themselves highlight the greatness of the sage kapila;
then the Vedas have to be interpreted with the aid of kapila smrithi only.

This argument of the poorvapakshi who is Nirishwara sankhya is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra
which reads as “Smrithi Anavakasha dosha prasangath Ithi cheth Naanyasmrithi Anavakasha dosha prasangath”.
The meaning of this Sutra is as follows:
If the Kapila smrithi is not made use of for the interpretation of Vedas and upanishads
it becomes meaningless and purposeless which is a serious flaw in that case a number of other smrithis
which are opposed to Kapila Smrithi will have the serious flaw of of becoming meaningless and purposeless.

It is implied from this sutra that Kapila smrithi is opposed to Vedas and upanishadss which say
Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe and this fact is whole-heartedly and unanimously
endorsed by all the other smrithis like Manu smrithi, Parasara Smrthi etc.
Manu Smrthi says, “Aponara Ithi Prokthaa: Apo vai Nara sunava:
Thaa yadasya Ayanam purvam: Thena Narayana Smruthi: ||”
This sloka clearly says that Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe.
Veda also says that whatever Manu says it is medicine for the disease of samsara.
So Manu’s sayings are of authority to us like Vedas.

When the poorvapakshi further said that sage kapila by his yogic powers was able to see all
the superhuman things by himself and his sayings have to be accpeted in toto,
the sutrakarar refuted this point and said that even the Manu and other sages who had also yogic powers
did not see the superhuman things in the manner in which kapila saw.
So the conclusion is that Kapila smrithi cannot be accepted under any circumstances.

The second adhikarana is yoga prathukthi adhikaranaa.
In this adhikarana the Sutrakara denounces the Seshwara Sankhya system of philosophy founded by
Hiranyagarbha by applying the same argument as in the previous adhikarana.
This Seshwara Sankhya system is also known as Yoga system of philosophy.
According to this system of philosophy, Lord Sriman Narayana is not upadana karana to the universe
but his only nimiththa karana –upadana karena is prakrthi itself.

The Sutra is Erthena Yoga prathyuktha:
The meaning is by the same argument the yoga system is refuted because even though
the chathur mukha Brahma was born from the Navel of Lord Sriman Narayana he is afflicted by the
Rajasa and Thamasa gunas. So his sayings cannot be taken as authority.

The third adhikarana is called Vilakshanathva adhikaranam.
From this adhikarana onwards the Nirishwara sankhya raises objections from the common sense point of view
based on Kapila smrithi and tries to destroy our edifice of Lord Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe
that is both upadana karana and nimiththa karana. The sutrakarar by giving most fitting replies to him,
over rules his objections and establishes the stability of the edifice.

The first objection is contained in this adhikarana.
This adhikarana has nine sutras out of which the first two sutras are purva paksha sutras
which echo the view point or objection raised by the opponent
and the remaining seven sutras are siddhantha sutras which are in reply to opponent’s objection.

The first sutra is “Na vilakshanathvat Asyathathatvamcha sabdath”.
Its meaning is “For this universe which has three attributes of satva, Rajasa and Tamasa and
which is mixed and whose material is quite different from that of Brahman, Brahman cannot be
the material cause or upadana karana. In fact that the material of the universe is different
from that of Brahman is clear in the upanishads”.

The above objection is a very common sense one because we have seen the material of the mud pot is same
as that of clay which is the upadana karana.
Similarly gold which is yellow in colour is the material cause for the several ornaments.
These ornaments are also yellow in colour and the material is same as gold.
The primordial matter which is prakrithi is upadana karana for this universe which comprises of both sentient and non sentient beings.

The Brahman is omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient whereas jiva is ignorant and innocent.
Some statements in the upanishads like earth spoke and water willed, etc., do not actually refer to
inanimate objects which are without any knowledge and it refers to the respective spokes persons.
It is some thing like saying India tells pakisthan in which it refers to the respective spokes persons.
So when Jiva is entirely different from Brahman and inanimate objects are also entirely different from Brahman,
the opponent asks how Brahman could be material cause for both the sentient and non sentient beings.

For this objection of the opponent the sutrakarar replies as follows.
The first sutra in his reply is “Drishyathethu”.
This means that in this world, we have seen some cases in which the cause and effect are
entirely different both in material and colour.
The scorpian is created by cow dung. Our question is whether there is any similarity between the two.
Cow dung is the cause and scorpion is the effect. So there is no strict need of any similarity between
the cause and effect that is karana and karya. If the material of the cause and effect is not one and the same
then it may be argued that any thing may be created from anything or from even nothing. It is not so.
In this context Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in Sri Bhasya gives a beautiful illustration to explain and codify
the principle of cause and effect i.e. karana and karya. The illustration is that a child undergoes
several physical transformations right from the day of its birth.
The transformations are of childhood, boyhood, youthhood and then becoming old aged.
These transformations are possible only when the child continues to be alive throughout
that is in other words the soul is within the body.
These transformations are to the body only and not to Jiva or soul who dwells in the body.
The same illustration holds good in the case of Brahman being the cause of the universe.
The Brahman or paramatma is the inner soul or antharyami of all animate and inanimate objects
that is in other words sentient and non sentient beings.

At the stage of ‘karanathava’ or in the causal stage he is the antaryami for all sentient and non sentient beings
in Sukshma (atomic) form and this stage is at the time of deluge.
When paramatma wills to create the world, the sentient and non sentient beings which were in the sookshma form
assume definite form and name and become of big size. So the codified version of karana and karya bhava is as follows.
In the ‘karanavastha’ the paramatma is sookshma chethana achethana vishishta
(Sookshma means subtle, chethana is sentient and achethana is non sentient, and visishta means conjunction).
In the karya vastha that is at the stage of the effect the paramatma is sthula chethana achethana visishta (Sthula means big).
So the transformation is not to the antaryami or paramatma but to his bodies which are chethana and achethana.
At the causal stage the bodies are sookshma (atomic) and at the effect stage they assume definite form and name.
This is in accordance with the illustration mentioned above.
So there is no change in the material of atomic stage and definite stage.
So the objection of the opponent is overruled.

In this adhikarana Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja gives a beautiful definition to the mortal body.
This is the most appropriate definition to the body. The definition is as follows.
The substance or the material which is supported by an inpidual soul, controlled by the soul and
which is subordinate to the soul is the body of the soul.
The same definition holds good to the jiva or soul who is the body of paramatma.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called Sishta Aparigraha adhikaranam.
In this adhikarana, the sutrakarar says applying the reply given to Nirishwara sankhya and
overruling his objection the other systems of philosophy which do not accept of the authority of Vedas
get automatically vanquished. These systems are vaiseshika system founded by sage Kanada, Nyaya system
founded by the sage Gowthama who is called Akshapada. Buddhism and Jainism.
These systems says that the cause of the universe is not brahman, is not pradhana or prakrithi but atoms.
These systems are called para maanu karana vathies.

The fifth adhikaranam is called Bhokthrapatti Adhikaranam.
This adhikaranam has direct link with Vilakshanathvadhikarana in which it was said that
chethana and achethana objects are the bodies of the paramatma.

The opponent Nirishwara Sankhya rises up again. He says when the sentient and non sentient beings are
the bodies of paramatma both in the atomic form and definite or big form
there is not much of difference between jivatma and paramatma.
Just like jivatma undergoes the suffering and enjoyment that take place in the body,
so also paramatma should also be subject to this suffering and enjoyment that occur in his body which is the entire universe.

So the Brahman by becoming the cause for the universe which is again by virtue of his having
the entire universe as his body is subject to the sufferings and enjoyment which take place in his body.
He further says that our stand of the prakrithi or pradhana being the cause of the universe is much better.
So Brahman cannot be considered as the cause of the universe because
the possession of the body itself makes him subject to suffering.

This argument is refuted by Sutrakara in the Sutra,
“Bhokthrapaththe: Avibhaga: Cheth Syath lokavath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
The difference between jivatma and paramatma is always there.
Possession of the body is not the cause for suffering.
Suffering or enjoyment is on account of the past deeds of jiva which are punya and papa.

The Sutrakara himself gives a practical example to explain the above point.
In the prison or jail there is the Jail warden and convict undergoing the punishment for his offences.
The Jail warden supervises the convict undergoing the punishment.
So the sufferings in the prison do not affect the jail warden.
Likewise here Paramatma who is the antharyami is not subject to any misery and the jiva alone is subject to suffering.
So Brahman alone is the cause of the universe.

The next adhikarana is Arambanadhikaranam.
This has link with one of the sutras in vilakshanathwadhikararam in which it was said that the material
in karana and karya is one and the same.
The opponent says karana is different from karya on account of the following factors.
1) Names are different. For Example, clay and pot. Clay is the cause and pot is the effect.
2) Forms or shapes are different – the shape of the pot is different from that of heap of clay.
3) The work done by clay is different from that of a pot.
Pot is used for carrying water while it is not possible in the case of the clay.
4) Time is involved in making a pot from clay.
5) If clay and pot are one and the same then the effort of the pot maker becomes meaningless.

So when the karya is different from karana, and if on the same analogy
the universe which is the karya is entirely different from the karana that is brahman,
the purva pakshi says that Brahman cannot be the cause for the universe.

The above view point of the opponent is refuted by the sutrakarar who says in the first sutra
of this adhikarana as “Thath Ananyatvam Arambana sabdadibya”.
The meaning of this sutra is explained as below.
In the three illustrations given by sage uddalaka to his son svethakethu, the clay, gold and Iron,
he says that this world was only sath before creation.
When Brahman who is called sath in this context willed to create the universe he transformed himself as universe.
In other words, as already said before creation, Sath the Brahman was antaryami to the sentient and non sentient beings
in the atomic form and when he willed the transformation took place the same sath that is Brahman becomes
antaryami to the sentient and non sentient beings in a definite and big form.
This again means the Brahman provided four different types of bodies to the jivas according to the past deeds.
The four different types of bodies are Celestial beings (Deva), terestial beings (human form), animals and inanimate objects.
So paramatma enters in to each body in the four forms explained above along with jivas and gave them definite form and name.

In the illustration the heap of clay which was clay in the morning
became ghata (pot), plates or disc (plate or disc) in the afternoon. Plate or disc is called sharava.
Though the material is same in all these clay products, the names are different according to the purpose
for which they are required. Ghata or the pot is used for the purpose of carrying water and keeping the water in the same.
Even if the names and purposes of the different clayey products are different the fact remains
that all of them are made of clay only. So the karana and karya are one and the same in the aspect of
the raw material from which karya becomes into being.
In respect of the universe, the universe is the body of the paramatma and he is the supreme soul or antaryami.
As body and soul are inseparable they are called ananya which means not separable.
In some of the upanishadic texts, the same sath is called as asath and avyakrutha.,
This means asath or avyakrutha refer to the non transformed state or karana state. That is brahman himself.

The seventh adhikarana in this pada is called Ithara vyapadesadhikaranam.
The opponent rises again to state that Brahman cannot be the cause for the universe.
The logic or the reasoning applied by him is as follows.

When the karana and karya are not different and both are one and the same and when jiva is also a karya of paramatma
who is the karana and both are ananya that is not different can the brahman who is jiva could have created
the universe not favourable to him in every aspect.
So Brahman who is jiva has two points of flaw. The first flaw is creating the world most unfavourable to him
and the second flaw is not creating the world favourable to him.
So brahman cannot be the cause of the universe. This argument or reasoning echoes the advithic system
propounded by Sri Adi sankara. In the advaitic system of philosophy Brahman and jiva are one and the same.
Brahman assumes the jiva form on account of Avidya or ignorance covering him and this jiva becomes Brahman
again when he learns from guru “Tatvamasi” which means thou are Brahman.
This argument of the opponent is refuted by the sutrakarar.

In this adhikarana the first sutra is Ithara vyapadesathhitha akaranadi dosha prasakthi
and this is the poorva paksha sutra the meaning of which is as explained above.

The second sutra is the siddhantha sutra which is in reply to the above in the form of refutation of the above.
This sutra reads as “Adhikamthu Bheda nirdesath”.
This means that Brahman or Lord Sriman Narayana is much superior and above to jiva
and hence the question of Brahman assuming jiva form and creating an unfavourable world does not arise at all.

The Eight adhikarana in this pada is upasamhara adhikarana.
Tn this adhikarana the nirishwara sankhya vadi who is bent upon refuting the Brahma karanatvam,
and who is pradhana karana vadi rises up again and applies another reasoning against brahmakaranavada.
He says we have seen in this world a pot maker making use of a wheel and stick for making a mud pot.
Similarly a gold smith makes use of several tools for making an ornament.
But in respect of the universe at the time of deluge there is only Brahman and nothing else.
Of course here Brahman refers to both goddess Mahalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana.
His question is when there is no tool and other implements how can paramatma create the universe.

In reply to the above question the sutrakarar says in the first sutra,
“Upasamharadarshanath Naiticheth na ksheeravadhi”.
The meaning of this sutra is when in the world we have seen that to create any object
besides upadana karana, nimitta karana, there should be also sahakari karana.
When there is no sahakari karana, the Brahman cannot be the cause of the universe.
This is refuted by stating Ksheeravaddi. Sutrakara cites a practical example in this context.
For Milk to become curd no extra tool or implement is required.
Similarly Brahman does not require any tool, instrument or implement.
Just like sage viswamitra out of his acquired yogic and spiritual powers willed to create heaven for the sake of Trisanku.
Also just like celestial gods like Indra, Siva, four headed Brahman create things without the aid of any thing,
Likewise the paramatma the supreme being is capable of creating the universe without any aid.

The 9th adhikarana is known as Kritsna prasakthi Adhikarana.
In this the opponent picks up another reasoning or logic to say that Brahman cannot be the cause of the universe.
This adhikaranam has direct link with the Arambanadhikarana in which it was said that
the universe is the transformation of Brahman.
When Brahman transforms himself in to the form of universe. There is no Brahman at all.
Brahman is an object which cannot be cut or pided. He says if Brahman is there there is no world or universe.
If universe is there there is no Brahman.

The first sutra in this adhikarana is “Kritsna prasakthi: Niravayavatva sabdakopova”.
The meaning of this sutra is as mentioned above and this is purva paksha sutra.
In reply to the above the sutrakarar states the siddhantha sutra which reads as
“Sruthestu sabda moolathvath”.
The meaning is Sruthi or Upanishad says that Brahman is Niravayava which means
he has no organs like the limbs, hands etc, and that is why he cannot be cut in to parts.
At the same time paramatma has enormous superhuman powers.
On account of this he wills and transforms in to the universe and at the same time remains intact as Brahman.
The objection raised by Nirishwara sankhya based on our common experience does not apply to Brahman.

The sutrakarar himself points out certain defects in the Nirishwara Sankhya system.

The tenth or the last adhikarana is called as Prayojanatva adhikaram.
In this adhikarana, the opponent raises his last objection for brahman to be the cause of the universe.
His objection is very relevent and logical. He says the Brahman professed by you has no unfulfilled desire
and is called Avaptha samastha kama. When it is so what is the earthy benefit he derives out of the creation.
He further says that the benefit is of two types. (1) Benefit for his own self. (2) Benefit for the others.

As he is Avaptha samastha kama, there is no benefit to his own self.
As the universe he has created is causing misery to the majority of the human beings, there is no benefit to the others.
When there is no benefit either to himself or to the others, he cannot be the cause of the universe.
There is a maxim in this world without expecting any benefit even a fool will not do anything.
So on account of the above the Nirishwara Sankhya vadi says that Brahman cannot be the cause of the universe.

The first sutra is “Na prayojanatvat”.
The meaning of the sutra is as mentioned above. This is the purvap aksha sutra.
The second sutra in this adhikarana is the siddhantha sutra which reads as “Lokavattu leelakaivalyam”.
This means the creation, protection, destruction of the universe is the game of the paramatma and it is his past time.

The opponent says if the above view is accepted there will be two defects to Brahman because the creation is not even.
The defects are Bias and merciless ness. He is biassed towards those who are happy in this world
and he is merciless towards those who are in misery in this world.

The Sutrakarar says that the above two defects are not to be attributed to Brahman
because he makes the creation according to the past deeds of the jeevas.
The opponent again counters this point by saying when the Brahman was alone at the time of deluge or
before creation where was neither jiva nor his past deeds.
To this sage Vyasa who is the Sutrakarar says that jivas are eternal and they are not physically created
and therefore their past deeds are also without a beginning.

So in this pada all the objections raised by the Nirishwara sankhya were overruled and hence
the fact of the Brahman being the material, operational and instrumental cause of the universe got established and strengthened.

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ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-