Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 3–(‘Gunopasamhara pada’)Summary-

Gunopasamhara pada which is the third quarter in the third chapter.

In the light of the above Bhakthi yoga and Nyasavidya (Prapatti yoga) this pada will be dealt with now.
In this pada along with Brahma vidyas mentioned earlier prana vidya and udgeetha vidya are also considered.
Prana Vidya is the meditation on Mukhya prana or the air we breathe.
Udgeetha is Pranava which is meditated upon in several ways.
As these two vidyas are mentioned in the upanishads only and no where else the Sutrakarar thought it fit
to deal with them in Brahma sutras which are only the interpretation of upanishads.

Upasamhara means unifying or combining the attributes.
That is if a particular Brahma Vidya is mentioned in more than one upanishads like
Vaisvanara vidya, Dahara vidya and if it is established that a vidya with the same name appears in
two or three upanishads for the same moksha phalam then the Kalyana gunas mentioned in one and
not mentioned in the other are to be added to the kalyana gunas mentioned in the other and
they are to be jointly meditated upon.

This pada has the largest number of adhikaranas which is 26.
It is enough if the conclusion arrived in each adhikara is known in a nutshell.
Now the adhikaranas can be considered one by one.

1) The first adhikaranam is Sarva vedantha pratyaya adhikaranam.
In this first adhikarana the topic for discussion is whether vysvanara vidya mentioned in many upanishads is one and the same.

The poorva pakshi says when the above vidya has been retold completely in another context
in other upanishads they should be different.

The Sutrakarar in the first sutra “Sarvavedanta pratyayam chodanadi aviseshath” says the above vidya is one and the same.
The meaning of the sutra is,
Sarva vedantha pratyam – A vidya mentioned in several upanishads is one and the same because
Chodanadi Avisheshath – Avisheshath means one and same
chodanadi means motivation, fruit, nature of the object of meditation and name.

In every vidya there should be a command or motivation for doing Bhakthi yoga or meditation.
The fruit or Moksha phala should be one and the same. The nature and attributes of the object of meditation
that is Lord Sriman Narayana should be one and the same. The name of the vidya should also be one and the same.
When a particular vidya mentioned in several upanishads is one and the same, then the upasamhara that is the
adding of attributes of the object of meditation mentioned in the upanishads arises.
The reason of retelling the vidya of the opponent for proving the vidya is different is countered by saying
when the student learning the vidya is different naturally the same vidya has to be repeated.
This is something similar to that the same subject of mathematics is taught to different batches of students
at different points of time at different places.
Even the Daharadikarana mentioned in Chandogya, Taittariya and Brihadaranyaka is one and the same.

2) The second adhikarana is called Anyathathvadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is udgeetha vidya. As already pointed out the udgeetha vidya and prana vidya
which are mentioned in the upanishads are to be discussed and interpreted here only.
This Udgeetha vidya has been mentioned in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka upanishads.
The doubt is whether this udgeetha vidya told in the above upanishads is one and the same.

In Chandogya, the object of meditation is an organ of udgeetha which has to be considered as mukya prana
(the air that we breathe) and meditated where as
in Brihadaranyaka the meditation is on the entire udgeetha considering it as Mukhya prana.

As there is difference in the objects of meditation the conclusion is the udgeetha vidya in chandogya is
different from that in Brihadaranya.

3) The third adhikaranam is Sarva abedhadhikaranam.
In this Adhikarana the Prana Vidya is discussed.
The prana vidya is told in Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka and Kaushithaki upanishads.
While in Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya the Prana vidya is identical and there is a slight difference in Kaushitaki upanishad.
So the doubt whether prana vidya in koushtaki is same as in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka or not.

The poorva pakshi says it is not because the gunas or attributes of mukya prana mentioned in koushitaki
are different from that in the other two.

The siddhantha is that prana vidya mentioned in all the three is one and the same as gunas mentioned in koushitaki
are not contradictory to these mentioned in the other two.

The sutra is sarva abhedath Anyatra Ime.
Which means that because of Abheda that is no difference in the gunas the prana vidya is one and the same
and the gunas mentioned in koushitaki are to be added (Upasamhara) to that in chandogya and Brihadaranyaka and meditated.

Here the upanishad narrates a story. The pranas or indriyas wanted to know who among them is superior.
They sent their spokes men to the Lord Brahma (Four headed brahma) to know the above.
The Brahma asked them to leave the body one by one stay outside for one year and watch the functioning of the body.
First the vagindriya that is speech left the body for one year and the person became dumb.
The other faculties of the body functioned normally.

Then the eyes left the body and the person became blind and otherwise the functioning of the body was normal
and all the parameters functioned normally except vision. Then the eyes returned back.
Then ears left and the person became deaf and the other parameters functioned normally.
Then the ears returned. Then mind left and the same thing happened.

But the question may arise as to how body could function without mind. The reply is that children do not do anything
with mental concentration as they are always playful. Likewise the body functioned. The mind came back.
When the Mukhya prana that is the air we breathe left the body it made all the other senses also to leave the body along with it.
The breath came to a stop and the body began to decompose.

Then all the Indriyas and Mukhya prana came back and all indriyas accepted the Mukya prana as their Chief or Leader.
Then Vagindriya told the Mukhya prana that just because it is vasishta the mukya prana is also vasishta.
The eyes told the mukya prana as prathishta, Ears told that it is sampath. Mind told that it is Ayathanam.

The gunas to be meditated in prana vidya
Jyeshtathavam – Elderliness
Shreshatvam – Superiority
Vasishtatvam – Superiority attained on account of Eloquence or oratorical skill.
Prathishtatvam – Even minded ness
Sampaththavam – becoming learned
Ayatanatvam – Body through which all pleasures are enjoyed.

The above story is called prana samvada in upanishads.
Udgeetha and prana vidyas are not Brahma vidyas and hence there is moksha palam for these two vidyas.

4) The next adhikaranam is Anandadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is the kalyana gunas to be meditated upon compulsorily in each Brahma Vidya.
These Kalyana gunas are called Svarupa nirupaka dharma:.

The poorva pakshi says when these kalyana gunas are not attached to any brahma vidya there is no need to meditate upon them.

Sutrakara says when Lord Sriman Narayana is the upasya (the object of meditation) in every brahma vidya
and when his intrinsic nature cannot be realised without thinking of some gunas, these gunas are to be
essentially meditated upon in every brahma vidya. These kalyana gunas are therefore called Svarupa nirupaka gunas or dharmas.
They are six in number which are, Satyatva, Jnanatva, Anantatva, Anandatva, Amalatva and Sriya:Pathitva.
Amalatva will be dealt with in another Adhikarana. Though Sriya:pathitva is not explicitly mentioned here it is implied.

5) The next adhikarana is called Karyakhyanadhikaranam.
This is in continuation of sarvabhedhadhikaranam in which the Prana vidya was dealt with.
When Indriyas accepted the Mukhya prana as their chief, Mukhya prana asks them what is my clothing.
They replied that water is its clothing and that is why people while taking food do achamanam
before taking food and after taking food. So those who practice Prana vidya should consider the achamanam they do
before food and after food as the clothing of Mukhya prana. This prana vidya is not in any way connected with Brahma vidyas.

6) The sixth adhikarana is called Samanadhikaranam.
This deals with sandilya vidya which is mentioned in Agni rahasya. This is again mentioned in Brihadaranyaka upanishad.
In the Kalyana gunas mentioned in these two upanishads vary to some extent. So the doubt arises whether
this Sandilya vidya in the above two upanishads is one and the same.

The opponent says it is different because the very structure of this vidya in one is different from the other.

The Sutrakara says in his judgement that this Sandilya vidya is one and the same in both.

7) The next adhikarana is called Sambandhadhikaranam.
In Brihadaranyaka the upasana (meditation) of the Lord Sriman Narayana in solar system (Aditya mandala)
and also right eye has been mentioned. This Brahman or Paramatma has been mentioned as vyahruthi sariraka
(having of vyahruthies which are Bhu, Bhuva, Suva, Mahr, Jana, tapa and satya lokas as his bodies)
and also he has been named as satya.

The doubt is whether meditation of Lord in Aditya is different from the meditation of the Lord in Right eye are one and the same.

There is purvapaksha sutra “Sambandadevam Anyatrapic which says that they are one and the same

while the siddanta sutra “Nava visheshath”, says there are different because the very characteristic (rupa) is different in both.

8)The next adhikarana is Sambruthi Adhikaranam.
In Ranayani sakha and in some khila sruthies the upasana is mentioned.
Khila sruthi is that portion of upanishad in which its preceding portion and succeeding portions are missing and not traceable.
It is said here that Brahman (Paramatma ) is superior and is known for his valour and he is supporting the entire universe.
This superior Brahman is encompassing the entire svargaloka (heaven also called as Dyuloka)

The doubt here is whether the above aspects (attributes) of Brahman are to be meditated in every Vidya.
The purva pakshi says that they are to be meditated because they are not attached to any particular Brahma vidya.

The Sutrakara in his judgement contained in the sutra “Sambruthidhyu vyapthicha atha” says that the above gunas or
attributes need not be meditated in vidyas called Alpasthaniya vidyas in which the
paramatma is meditated as Antaryami of upasaka (meditator). The antaryami dwells in a very small place in the heart
where as the above mentioned aspect or attribute is that paramatma encompasses the entire svarga loka or it may be even said as Akasa.
These two aspects are contrary to each other. The Alpasthana vidyas are sandilya vidya, Dahara vidya etc.
So in these vidyas the above aspect of dhyu vyapthi (encompassing of heaven ) should not be meditated.

9) The next adhikarana is Purusha vidyadhikarana which has been mentioned in Taittiriya upanishad and Chandogyopanishad.
The Purusha vidya in Taittiriya Upanishad is subordinate to Nyasa vidya and the Phalam is Moksha.
The Purusha vidya in Chandogya is for extending the longevity of the meditator.

The Purva pakshi says that just because the vidya in both the above upanishads bears the same name they should be one and the same.

The Sutrakara gives his judgement in the sutra “Purusha vidyayam Apicha itaresham Anamnanth”
and says that the above purusha vidya in Taittariya Upanishad is different from
the purusha vidya in chandogya because the phalas are different.

10) Next adhikaranam is Vedhadhyadhikarana.
At the commencement of the recitation of a particular branch of Veda, a Shanthi Pata which is an integral part
of that branch has to be recited according to a practice from time immemorial.
This shanti pata is very near the brahma vidya mentioned in those branches.
This Shanthi pata varies from branch to branch.
The doubt is whether the Shanthi pata of any particular sakha or branch is an ancillary or Anga of the Brahma vidya or not.

The poorvapakshi contends that the shanthi pata is a part and parcel or ancillary of Brahma vidya.
He further says that while some of the shanthi patas are used for other purposes, the mantras like
sanno mitra sam viruna; and sahanava vathu have no other use and hence they should be part of the vidya.

The sutrakara’s contention which is siddhantha says in his sutra
”Vedhadhi Artha bedath” that these shanthi patas are not ancillary (Anga) to Brahma vidyas.

11) The next adhikarana is Hani Adhikaranam”
In this adhikarana the final disposal of ‘punya’ and ‘papa karma’ of a Bhakthi yoga nishta or Prapanna
just before he leaves this mortal body and then goes to Moksha is discussed. There are several upanishadic texts in this regard.

(a)The Chandogya says that a person (Bhakthi yoga nishtha or Prapanna) sheds his karma or sins
(sins include punyas also because they also block the attainment of moksha) like a horse sheds its hairs
and he comes out of his mortal body just like chandra comes out of the clutches of Rahu after the eclipse
and them enters the vaikunta pya loka which is called Akritham (not created).
For the vaikunta para loka which is called nitya vibhuthi of Lord Sriman Narayana there is no creation or destruction.
The universe comprising of the worlds which constitute one brahmanda in which we are living is called Lila Vibhuthi
and this Vibhuthi subject to creation and destruction by the Lord Sriman Narayana.
Vibhuthi means wealth or aishwarya. Lord Sriman Narayana is called Ubhaya Vibhuthi Natha.

(b) In Mundaka upanishad it is said the vidwan who may be Bhakthi nishta or prapanna after shedding
punya, papa attains equality with paramatma after reaching Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

(c) The Satyayani branch of Vedas says the sons of a vidwan (Bhakthi nishta or prapannas) inherits the property of
their father and punya portion of his karma gets transferred to the friends of the vidwan and the papa portion
gets transferred to foes or enemies of the vidwan.

(d)The Kaushitaki upanishad says the vidwan sheds sukrutha (punya) and Dushkrutha (papa) and
while his friendly relatives get the punya his relatives who are his enemies get the papa.

Here shedding punya and papa is called hani and the transfer of the same to his friends and foes is called upayana.

While doing Bhakthi yoga by adopting any brahma vidya given in the list mentioned before,
this hani and upayana has to be thought while doing meditation.
This thinking forms an integral part of upasana or meditation in all brahma vidyas except nyasa vidya.
This thinking is an ancillary of Bhakthi yoga.

As narrated above some upanishadic texts mentioned only hani that is shedding of punya papa karma and
some other upanishads mentioned only upayana that is transfer of punya and papa to the friends and foes respectively
while some upanishads mentioned both hani and upayana.

The doubt that arises here is whether it is enough if hani alone is thought, or if
upayana alone is thought or whether both are to be thought during meditation.
Either hani or upayana is called vikalpa and both is called Samuchchaya.
The poorvapakshi says it can be vikalpa or samuccaya as per the dictates of the upanishad.

The Sutrakara gives the judgement stating that it is samuchchaya only and not vikalpa because
hani is always subject to upayana or sub ordinate to upayana.

The Sutra is “hanouthu upayana sabda seshatvath kusha chchanda, stuti upaganavath thaduktham”
The Sutrakara cites four maxims of purva mimamsa in this sutra the details of which are not required.

12) The next adhikarana is Samparayadhikaranam.
Here the topic for discussion is whether the bhakthi nishta or prapanna who goes to Moksha sheds the punya papa karma
at the time of departure from the mortal body or on the banks of viraja river which demarcates between
the prakrithi manlda and Sri Vaikuntha para loka. This doubt arose on account of a statement in kaushitaki upanishad,
where it is said that jiva who is going to become muktha comes near viraja where he sheds the punya and papa karma.
In another text it is said that at the time of death.

The Sutrakara says in the sutra which reads as “Samparaye Thartavya bhavath thathahi Anye”.

Samparaye means at the time of departure from the mortal body. So the conclusion that vidwan who is going to
become mukthatma sheds the karma at the time of death only because there is nothing for him to enjoy out of
punya papa karma after the death. What ever happens after death that is his going to Sri Vaikuntha
through the route of Archiradi marga by assuming a Sooshma sarira (miniature body not visible to any body) is
on account of the efficacy of bhakthi yoga or prapatti which he has done.
The Sookshma sarira is required for the vidwan for conversing with moon on the way to Moksha.

13) The next adhikarana is Aniyamadhikaranam.
In this adhikarana the topic for discussion is whether all the vidwans who have done either Bhakthi yoga or prapatti
go to Moksha through the same route of Archiradi marga or only those who have done Bhakthi yoga according to
Upakosala vidya or Panchagni vidya alone go to Moksha through the Archiradi marga.

This doubt arises on account of the fact that only in the case of upakosala vidya and panchagni vidya,
the Archiraadi maarga has been mentioned.

The Sutrakara clears this doubt by saying that all the Brahma vidya nishtas that is those who have done Bhakthi yoga
or done prapatti go to the Moksha through the Archiradi marga only as there is no other route for going to Moksha.
There is no rebirth if the vidwan goes to Moksha through Archiradi gathi only.

The Sutra is “Aniyama: Sarvesham, Avirodha: Sabda Anumanabhyam”.
This means that there is no rule that only those who have done Bhakthi yoga adopting
upakosala vidya or panchagni vidya should go through Archiradi marga.

14) The next adhikarana is Aksharadhya dhikarana.
In this adhikarana the svarupa nirupaka kalyana guna that is Amala is prescribed to be meditated upon in all the Brahma vidyas.
Amala means blemishless ness or Heya prathi bhadathvam. Heya means blemish.
This guna is the essence of the upanishadic text in Brihadaranyaka upanishad in which
the sage Yagnavalkya replies to Gargi a woman for her question.
One of the replies is as follows.
The brahmins who have understood or realised paramatma who is called Akshara in this context say or declare
that the intrinsic nature of paramatma which is called Divyatma swarupa is as follows.
Asthulam – Not massive or big in size
Ananu – Not atomic in size
Ahrasvam – Not short
Adirgham – Not long
Alohitham – Not reddish
Asneham – Not oily
Achchayam – Not shadow
Athama – Not darkness
Avayuh – Not air
Anakasam – Not ether
Asangam – Without attachment
Arasam – Without taste
Agandham – Without smell
Achakshusham – without eyes
Asrotram – without ears
Avak – without the organ of speech
Amanah – without mind
Athejaskam – without light
Apranam – without breath
Amukham – without mouth
Anantharam – not interior (not inside)
Abahyam – Not outside
That nakinchana asnathi – does not eat anything
Nathat ashnathaa kaschana – nor can anybody eat it.

The sum and substance of the above narration is that there is no blemish in pyatma svarupa.

The sutra is “Aksharadhiyam thu Avarodha Samanya that bhavabhyam oupasadavath thadukthi”.
Akshara dhiyam is the above which is to be meditated in all vidyas.

15) The next adhikarana is Antharatvadhikarana.
The topic for discussion is a passage in Brihadaranyaka upanishad in which the sage Ushastha puts a question
to sage yagnavalkya and sage Kohola puts an identical question and sage ygana valkya replies.
The question by ushasti is as follows. Please tell me who is the direct and perceivable brahman
and who is the inner soul in all beings?.
Similarly Kahola puts the same question. But the yajnavalkya’s replies were different.
There are two brahma vidyas in this context. One is that of Ushadstha and the other of Kahola.
The question whether these two vidyas are one and same or they are different.

Poorva pakshi says that these two vidyas are different as the replies are different.

The sutrakarar says that these two vidyas are one and the same, because both the replies refer to the same paramatma.

16) The next adhikarana is Kamadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion is Dahara vidya which has been mentioned both in Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka.
The doubt is whether this Dahara vidya is different in these upanishads or it is one and the same in both.

Poorva pakshi says it is different because in chandogya the paramatma who is called akasa is associated with
eight kalyana gunas where as in Brihadaranyaka it is said paramatma is sleeping on Akasa
and is associated with the kalyana guna vashistva. Vasitva means controlled.

The Sutrakara delivers the judgement saying that Dahara vidya is one and the same in both the upanishads.
So the attributes like vashitva have to be added to 8 attributes mentioned in chandogya and then meditated.

17) The next adhikaranam is Thannirdhanadhikarana.
This deals with udgeetha vidya. This vidya is meditation on pranava. This vidya is adopted as an ancillary of yoga
to get exalted or superior fruits and to remove the impediments for getting quick fruits.
The doubt that arises here is whether doing udgeetha vidya is compulsory or optional.

There are two maxims in Poorva Mimamsa. The first is called “Godhanena pasukama: pranayeth”.
In this maxim it is said that if a person likes to be gifted with cows, he should prepare what is called
purodasha which is a paste of rice flour or wheat flour which is offered to sacrificial fire
and the paste is prepared by pouring water on the flour from the vessel used for milking.
Pouring water to flour and preparing the paste is called pranayanam.
This maxim is mentioned in the context of doing a thing which is optional.

There is another maxim called “Parnamayee juhuu”. Juhu is a spoon like thing with a long hand
which is used to offer ghee to the sacrificial fire in a yaga.
This is made up of a particular type of wood. This is compulsory and not optional.

The conclusion in this adhikarana is that doing udgeetha vidya as an ancillary or adjunct of a yaga
is optional like Godohana nyaya or maxim.

18) The next adhikarana is called Pradana adhikaranam.
In Dahara vidya it is said that besides meditating on Lord Sriman Narayana with the
svarupa nirupaka gunas or dharmas, his eight gunas are also to be meditated.
The eight gunas are,
Apahatha papma – The paramatma is without any sin or blemish.
Vijara – There is no oldage to him.
Vimrutyu – No death to him.
Vishoka – No sorrow or grief to him.
Vijigitsa – No hunger to him.
Apipasa – No thirst to him
Satyakama – capable of attaining or acquiring any thing which he desires.
Satyasankalpa – capable of doing any thing which he wills.

The doubt that arises here whether it is enough to meditate merely on the above 8 gunas after meditating
on the Lord and is it necessary to think of him again associated with these 8 gunas.

The Purva pakshi says it is enough to think of 8 gunas only.

The Sutrakara in his siddhantha says that paramatma should be meditated again associated with the above 8 gunas.

19) The next adhikarana is called Lingabhuyasthavath Adhikarana.
In this adhikarana only after a long suspense the sutrakarar tells who is the supreme being to be meditated upon.
The upanishadic passage that comes up for discussion is the Narayana Anuvaka in Taittariya Upanishad.
This anuvaka appears in the upanishad immediately after the narration of Dahara vidya.

The purva pakshi contends that this Narayana Anuvaka is subordinate to Dahara vidya and
therefore Sriman Narayana is to be meditated upon in Dahara vidya only.

The Sutrakarar gives his decision in the sutra “Linga Bhuyastvat thath hi badliyas thadapi”.
Linga means indication or symbol.
In this Anuvaka there are words like Akshara, Sambhu, Indra, Brahma, etc are mentioned and
they are said to be Sriman Narayana. This means Lord Sriman Narayana is the antaryami to all like
Indra, Siva and four-headed Brahman and others.
Certain words like Akasha, Parajyothi directly refer to Sriman Narayana.

So the Sutrakara says that in all brahma vidyas Lord Sriman Narayana alone has to be meditated upon.

20) The next adhikaranam is Purva vikalpadhikarana.
This adhikaranam is out of context.
However the Sutrakara discusses a passage in Agnirahasya which is not of much importance and
relevance to the theme of this Gunopasamhara pada. So the details of this adhikarana may be skipped.

21) The next adhikaranam is Sarire Bhavadhikarana.
In every Brahma vidya the following three things are to compulsorily known.
(a) The nature of upasya that is that of Lord Sriman Narayana
(b) The nature of upasana or Brahma vidya
(c) The nature of upasaka or the nature of person (Jiva) who does upasana.

This is as per a sutra in Anumanikadhikaranam as “Thrayanam Evacha upanyasah prasna:cha”.
Thrayanam means three points as mentioned above.
Also the nature of the individual soul has to be known as it is said the Lord is soul of the jiva who is his body.
There are two sets of characteristics of jiva one set while he is still in samsara and another set while he is in vaikunta pya loka.
The set of characteristics while he is in still in this world or samsara are (a) Knowing (b) Doing (c) Enjoying.
While in moksha the characteristics are eight gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana which blossom soon after
he climbs Divya parryanka or Simhasana in which the pine couple are seated.
The eight gunas are Apahathapapma, Vijara, Vimrutyu, Visoka:, Vijigitsa, apipasa, satya kama and satya sankalpa.

Now the doubt arises whether during upasana or meditation the meditator should think of himself as
knower, doer and enjoyer or he should think of himself as possessor of the above eight gunas.

While the poorva pakshi says that jiva is to be thought with the first set of characteristics

the sutrakarar tells in the sutra “Vyathireka: Thadbhava bhavitvat Nathu Upalabdhivath”.
Vyathireka means different which again means that jiva is to be thought with a different set of characteristics
from the one in which he is during the meditation.
So it is clear that he is to be thought with eight gunas only which blossom in Moksha.

22) The next adhikaranam is Angavabaddhadhikarana.
This again relates to Udgeetha vidya and not directly connected with Brahma vidya.
So the details of this adhikarana could be skipped.

23) The next adhikarana is Bhumajyayasthvadhikarana.
This refers to Vaisvanara vidya. There are two types of upasanas in vaisvanara vidya.
(1) Upasana of each organ of vaisvanara purusha which is called vyastha upasana.
(2) Upasana of the entire vaisvanara purusha which is called Samasthopasana.

The doubt arises here whether vyastha upasanam is to be done or samasthop asanam only.

The purva pakshi opines that vyastho pasanam has to be done.

Sutrakara says that samastha pasanam has to be done which is much better than Vyastha upasanam.
In fact the fruits of vyastha upasanam are very dangerous to the souls of the upasakas and
the fruit of moksha or eternal bliss can never be attained by them.

24) The next adhikaranam is called Sabdadbhedadhi karanam.
Here the doubt arises whether the 32 brahma vidyas listed earlier are one and the same or they are different.

The purva pakshi contends all the vidyas are one and the same because of the object of meditation
who is Lord Sriman Narayana is one and the same.

The Sutrakara’s decision is all the vidyas are different because the attributes or kalyana gunas
to be meditated vary from vidya to vidya.

25) The next adhikarana is called Vikalpa dhikaranam.
The doubt arises here whether a person who aspires to attain Moksha should do upasana or meditation
adopting all the 32 brahma vidyas or is it enough if he does upasana adopting any one of the vidyas.

The Sutrakarar delivers the judgement in the Sutra “Vikalpa: A Visishta phalath vath”
that it is enough if the upasaka adopts any one vidya for meditation because the fruit of moksha or
eternal bliss is one and the same in each brahma vidya.
There is no special attainment in case all the vidyas are adopted for upasana and on the other hand
it is practically impossible to a person to do upasana adopting all the vidyas.

26) The last adhikarana in this pada is called Yathasrayabhavadhikarana.
This adhikarana is practically a repeat of the Thannirdhana niyamadhikarana 17th in this pada
in which it was said the performance of udgeetha vidya in a yaga is optional according to the maxim of godohana nyaya.
The repetition became inevitable because of the fact the purva pakshi raised some more points in his favour
to emphasize that Udgeetha vidya is to be performed compulsorily in every yaga.

The Sutrakara gives fitting replies to all the points and confirms the judgement delivered earlier.

The 3rd chapter is called Sadhana Adhyaya which in other words means chapter dealing with means for attaining Moksha.
It was established in the 3rd quarter of this chapter that means of attaining moksha is Bhakthi yoga
which is intense meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana which is an eight staged exercise called Ashtanga yoga.
This Bhakthi yoga which is also called Brahma vidya which in upanishads is said to be of 32 different forms.
Out of 32 forms of Brahma vidya 31 brahma vidyas are directly related to Bhakthi yoga which is otherwise called Ashtanga yoga.
The 32nd Brahma vidya is called Nyasavidya which is otherwise called Prapatti or Saranagathi which has five ancillaries or angas.

Even among 31 Brahma vidyas there is one Brahma vidya which is called Panchagni vidya.
In Panchagni vidya the object of meditation is his own self who is to be meditated as having
Brahman (Sriman Narayana) as his soul. This is called Brahmatmaka Svatma upasanam.
This means that Paramatma is the soul or atma and jivatma is his body.
In the other 30 Brahma vidyas, the object of meditation is Lord Sriman Narayana
having the meditator or individual soul as his body. This is called Svatma Sariraka paramatma upasanam.
So it is clear from the above that there is a difference in the mode of meditation between
the Panchagni vidya and the other 30 brahma vidyas.
There is no meditation in the Nyasavidya or prapatti in which the soul is surrendered at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana
and this prapatti comprises of three samarpanas which are Svarupa samarpanam, Bhara samarpanam , Phala samarpanam.
Offering the basic and intrinsic nature of his own self to paramatma is called Svarupa samarpanam.
The Bhara samarpanam is entrusting the responsibility of protecting his own soul by liberating him
from the bondage of samsara at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana.
Phala samarpanam is the offering of the fruit to Lord Sriman Narayana.
After attaining moksha the liberated soul or Mukthatma does eternal service to the divine couple in Sri Vaikunta para Nagara.
The divine couple become pleased with this service and they become the fruit enjoyers of the individual soul attaining moksha.
Mukthatma also enjoys this eternal bliss by doing service. The intrinsic and natural characteristics of the individual soul are
(a) Knowing (b) Doing (c) enjoying (d) Self luminous (e) Knowing his own self without any aid
(f) being atomic in size (g) being eternal (h) inpisible (I) different from the body (j) different from the senses.

In the background of the above and picking up the thread from the previous Guna upasamhara pada
the last pada of this chapter commences.
This pada is known as Anga pada that is dealing with ancillaries required for Bhakthi yoga.


ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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