Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 2–(‘Ubhaya linga pada’)Summary-

The 3rd chapter is called “Sadhana Adhyaya” and this second pada is known as Ubhayalinga pada.
As already explained Ubhaya linga refers to two basic characteristics of Lord Sriman Narayana which are
(1) Blemishlessness (2) Repository of infinite number of auspicious attributes.
The blemishless ness is known as “Heya pratyanikatvam” and
the second characteristic is known as “Asankyeya kalyana guna mahodadhi” and
unless the above two characteristics are proved the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana over other Gods
like four headed Brahma, Siva, Indra cannot be established.
These other gods are called Devathantharas and Lord Sriman Narayana is called Para devatha.

It is said that four headed Brahma, Siva and Indra so on are afflicted by punya and papa karma like us
and they are all inauspicious lords or amangala devathas. Thirumazhisai Alwar declares or even swears that
the above inauspicious lords or devathas are Echchil devargal and Thiru illa devargal.
The meaning of Echchil devargal is that Lord Sriman Narayana who is the creator, protector and destroyer
of the universe at the time of deluge of this universe swallowed it and kept it safe in his stomach.
At the time of creation he spitted the universe from his mouth during which the devathantharas like
four headed Brahma, Siva and Indra etc appeared in this world. Hence they became Echchil devargal.
Lord Sriman Narayana alone has goddess Mahalakshmi who is called Thiru in Tamil and “Shri” in sanskrit as his consort.
The other lords cannot have Mahalakshmi as their consort and hence they are called Thiru illa devargal.

So it is said decisively that those who aspire for moksha should not have any kind of devotion towards
these devathanthras because the fruits granted by them are very limited and ending. They should not be saluted.
The fruit of moksha granted by Lord Sriman Narayana is infinite and never ending eternal bliss which in other words
means doing service or Kainkaryam to Goddess Mahalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka for ever,
everywhere and in all their phases. The phraseology for this kainkaryam in Sanskrit is
Sarva desha, Sarva kala, Sarva Avastha uchitha sarva vidha kainkarya.
So for the sake of the above the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana is to be established.
The main purpose of this pada is only the above.

As mentioned earlier the defects of an unliberated individual soul or samsari jiva in his phases of seeing dreams,
sound sleep and the coma stage are dealt with in this pada and at the same time the auspicious tributes of
Lord Sriman Narayana who helps the jiva in the above three phases are also inferred and proved.
The defects in the state of awakening were dealt with in the previous pada called Vairagya pada.

The first adhikaranam in this pada is called “Sandhyadhikaranam”
which deals with Svapna-avastha or the state (phase) of seeing dreams.
Sandhya means Svapna sthanam that is state of seeing dreams.
This is a state between the state of awakening and state of sound sleep.
The topic for discussion is a passage in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in which the sage
Yajnavalkya discusses the nature of Svapna avastha.

Here the sage Yajnavalkya says that in the state of dreams there are no chariots, there are no horses, there are no roads.
Then the chariots, horses and roads are created. Similarly there are no joys, delights and happiness
but there are joys, delights and happiness which are created.
Further Yajnavalkya says that there are no ponds, lotus ponds or rivers but they are created.
He is the creator. Here the doubt arises whether that “he” or Sa: in the upanishadic text is jiva or paramatma.
Similarly there is a statement in Kathopanishad which says that during sleep that is in the state of dreams,
whatever things are desired they are created.
The same doubt arises here also whether the creator of the objects in the dreams is jiva or paramatma.

The view of the opponent is that jiva is the creator of the objects which he enjoys in the dreams.
This view point of opposition is contained in the first two sutras of this adhikarana.
The sutras are
Sandhye Srishtir Ahahi
and Nirmataram cha Eke putradaya sha.

The meaning of the first two sutras is as follows.
In the state of seeing dreams which is called Sandhya the objects seen in the dreams are created by the
jiva or individual soul who sees the dreams. The view point is further strengthened in the second sutra
the meaning of which is that in the state of dreams
the jiva creates the objects like sons etc as per a statement in katopanishad.

In the remaining four sutras of this adhikarana which are called Siddhantha sutras,
the sutrakarar refutes the above view point of the opponent and states that
Lord Sriman Narayana is the creator of the objects in the dreams according to the
Punya papa karma of the seer of the dreams that is Jiva.

The first siddhantha sutra is “Mayamatram Thu kartsnyena Anabhivyaktha svarupatvath”.
This means the viewpoint of the opponent is rejected.
Mayamatram means that the entire creation of the objects in the dreams is really wonderful.
Karsnyena Anabhivyakthi means that the inpidual soul or jiva is totally incapable of creating the objects
in the dreams because event hough he is satya sankalpa (capable of willing and creating) this particular
attribute does not blossom or shine when he is in samsara.
So the objects in the dreams are created by parama purusha or paramatma.
Even the saying in Kathopanishad referred to above does not refer to jiva but it refers to paramatma only.
The word Sa: in the portion of Brihadaranyaka upanishad pertaining to the state of dreams refers to Paramatma only and not jiva.

The next question arises that when the attribute satya sankalpatva is inherent in the intrinsic nature
of jiva or jiva swarupa, Why the attribute satya sankalpatva did not blossom and remained dormant.

The reply to the above question that paramatma willed that the above attribute should remain dormant
in an unliberated soul because of his punya papa karma. So a jiva remains in samsara on account of his
punya papa karma the fruits of which he enjoys are granted by paramatma and the jiva gets liberated
from samsara by the will of the parama purusha only who grants the fruit of the Moksha to jiva
when he resorts to the means of Bhakthi yoga (Meditation) or Prapatti yoga which is Saranagathi or Surrender.

In this context Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja quotes a few quotations from Taittariya upanishad.
The dormance of the attribute of Satya sankalpa in the jiva takes place by his entering in to a mortal body
at the time of creation and by his contact with a non sentient being which will be in atomic (sukshma) form at the time of deluge.
The sutra which gives the above meaning reads as “Dehayogadva sopi”.

In the 4th Siddhantha sutra in this adhikarana,
the Sutrakara says that an individual sees both bad dreams and good dreams. These bad dreams are an indication of
bad omen and the good dreams are indication of good omen. Good omen leads to happy events in the life of the
individual who sees good dreams. Bad omen leads to unhappy events. So the objects of Good and bad dreams
are created by parama purusha Sriman Narayana which are the fruits of ‘punya’ and ‘papa karma’ respectively
of the person who sees the dreams.

In this context, it should be noted that the fruits of the ‘punya’, ‘papa’ karma of a jiva are enjoyed in the following ways.
(a)Fruits of a portion of punya and papa karma are enjoyed during the state of awakening of a jiva.
(b)Fruits of a second portion are enjoyed in the state of dreams.
(c)Fruits of the third portion are enjoyed in heaven or Svarga loka. Fruits of exclusively punya karma
are enjoyed in svargaloka. Fruits of exclusively papa karma are suffered in hell or naraka.
(d)The remaining punya and papa karma help the jiva to take rebirth in this world and assume a mortal body
and again enjoy the fruits of punya and papa by his continued existence in this world and again
do punya and papa in the life time and this cycle gets repeated until the jiva resorts to the means of attaining moksha.

The second adhikarana in this pada is called “Thadabhavadhikaranam.”
In this adhikaranam the state of the sound sleep of the jiva is discussed. This has two sutras.
There are three upanishadic texts that come up for discussion. These three texts pertain to the state of sound sleep.

The first text is from the 8th chapter of chandogyopanishad which says that the individual soul will have
sound sleep on the nadies (pulses or tubular organs in the heart).
The second text is from the 4th chapter of Brihadaranyaka upanishad which says that jiva sleeps on purithatha
(a red coloured piece of flesh in the heart) and there are 72000 nadies which are called “Hitha” and they go to-wards the purithatha.
The third text is from 6th chapter of Chandogyopanishad which says that jiva goes asleep on Paramatma
who is called “Sath” in this chapter of Chandogyopanishad.

From the above upanishadic sayings the doubt arises whether jiva sleeps on any of the above that is Nadis,
Purithatha or Paramatma arbitrarily as per his convenience or on all the above.
The first is called Vikalpa (on any of the above three) and the second is called Samuchchaya (on all the above three).

The opponent or poorva pakshi tells that it only vikalpa and not Samuchchaya.
The basis for his argument is that in the above three places where it is said that jiva can sleep,
one is independent of the other and the jiva cannot sleep on all the three simultaneously.
The Sutrakarar refutes the above view point of the opponent in the first sutra of this adhikarana
which reads as “Thad abhava Nadeeshu thath Sruthe: Atnanicha”.

The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Thad abhava:- In the absence of svapna or dreams that is in the state of sound sleep.
Nadeeshu Atmanicha – The state of sound sleep of jiva takes place on Nadis, Purithatha and Paramatma.
Here cha denotes purithatha because,
Thath Sruthe:- all the above three places of sleep have been mentioned in the above mentioned sruthies or upanishads.

Here Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja mentions of a maxim called Prasada, Khatvanga, Paryanka Nyaya.
Prasada means palace. Khatvanga means cot. Paryanka means bed.
Here Nadies are in the place of prasada. Purithatham is in the place of Khatvanga. Paramatma is in the place of bed.
Finally it is said the individual soul enjoys sound sleep on paramatma himself who is the bed
and paramatma is on puri thatha which is cot and and this cot is on the floor of the palace which is said to be nadies.

The exact reason for the rejection of the argument of the poorva pakshi (that is the opponent) is just like
there is difference in the functions of palace, cot and bed so also there is difference in the functions of
Nadis, Purithatha and paramatma and on account of this one should be above the other only.
So the vikalpa (alternative) that is either nadis or purithatha or paramatma as the place of sleep and
each place having the position over the other is most correct. There are several defects in vikalpa argument
and hence samuchchaya argument alone is correct. Vikalpa means either or (alternative) and samuchchaya means combined (all to-gether).

The second sutra in this Adhikarana says that
jiva after enjoying sound sleep on paramatma is woken up by paramatma only.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called Karmanusmrithi adhikaranam.
The doubt that arises here is whether the same person who slept on paramatma the previous night wakes up
in the next morning or another person wakes up and appears. Though this doubt is silly or foolish still
the poorva pakshi raises a valid point to justify the above doubt. His valid point is that Moksha or salvation
is the union of jiva with paramatma. When this union has taken place at the time of the sound sleep
he asks where is the question of that person coming back again and so another person alone should wake up and appear.

In reply to the above argument the Sutrakarar refutes his view point in the Sutra.
“Sa Eva, Karma, Anusmrithi sabala vidhibhya:” –
The meaning of this sutra is the person who woke up in the morning is the same person who went to bed the previous night.
This is the meaning of words sa Eva in the sutra.

The Sutrakarar cites four reasons for the same which are as follows.
(1) First is karma. Here karma means punya papa karma. The fruits of the balance of punya papa karma
have to be enjoyed by the same person who went to bed the previous night after getting up in the morning.
Here in Sri Bhasya Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja uses a word “Tatvagnanath Prak thenaiva Bhokthavyam”.
This means the person who slept in the previous night and gets up in the morning
he alone has to enjoy the fruits of the balance of punya papa karma committed by him before acquiring
the knowledge of Brahman or Paramatma till he resorts to Bhakthi yoga or does Prapatti.
At the moment of the person starting the Bhakthi yoga or doing Prapatti, the Lord Sriman Narayana wills that
the fruits of the Punya papa karma not enjoyed by the inpidual at the above moment be freezed and
the person need not enjoy its fruits. Subsequent to the commencement of Bhakthi yoga or doing prapatti
he will not commit sins knowingly or deliberately. Committing of sins in advertently will not affect him
in any manner and Paramatma pardons automatically.
(2) Anusmrithi – This Anusmrithi means re collection or recounting. The person who went asleep
the previous night recounts that he got up in the next morning.
(3) Sabda – Sabda means upanishadic saying. The Sutrakarar says that there is upanishadic saying
in support of his above contention.
In Chandogyopanishad there is a saying that the tiger, lion, a jackal or pig insect bird, fly or mosquito
which sleeps gets up in the same form. So the same jiva who slept gets up.
(4) Vidhibhya:- Vidhi means a command or order. If the person who slept on paramatma goes to mkosha or
attains salvation then all the upanishadic texts which prescribe bhakthi yoga or prapatti
as means for salvation become meaning less or purpose less.

This person who sleeps on paramatma is not yet liberated from the bondage of samsara and therefore
his going to moksha by his mere sleeping on paramatma is absurd or meaningless.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called Mugdhadhikarana
in which the unconscious state or coma state of a jiva is discussed.
The doubt that arises here is whether coma state is another form of state of sound sleep or
whether it is completely a different or separate avastha or state.

The poorva pakshi says that this coma state is another form of sushupthi avastha (state of sound sleep)
as there is the usual practice of calling Moorchavastha (Coma state) as another form of sushupthi avastha.

The Sutrakarar clears the above doubt in the sutra which reads as “Mugdhe Ardha sampatti:: Parisheshath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Mugdhe means in a person who is in coma state.
Ardha sampatti: – Half the death. Because
Parisheshath – As there is no sensual perception it is not the state of awakening.
As there is no mental activity it is not the state of the dreams.
As the person cannot be woken up, it is not the state of sound sleep.
As the breathing has not come to a stop it is not death. As the breathing is there, it is half the death.
So the conclusion is that coma state is half death.

So in the above four adhikaranas the states of seeing dreams, sound sleep and unconsciousness of a jiva
in samsara were dealt with to generate vairagya or a sense of detachment for adopting means to attain moksha or eternal bliss.

In the above three auspicious attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana (Kalyana gunas) were also established
which are creating of objects in the dreams of every person, allowing each jiva to sleep on his own
during the state of sound sleep and preventing the departing of the jiva or soul from the body
in the coma state as there is a chance for the survival.
The defects in the state of awakening were already discussed in the previous pada called Vairagya pada.
So a person after knowing the defects in all his four states will develop a sense of complete detachment
from the worldly pleasure becomes well poised for adopting Bhakthi yoga which is the means prescribed in upanishads for attaining moksha.

This complete detachment is an essential prerequisite for doing Bhakthi yogam.
The other essential prerequisite is unshakeable and intense desire to attain lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana
in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka and do eternal service to the pine couple there. This is infact called Moksha, Salvation or eternal bliss.

In this context a doubt may arise. Whether for a person who resorts to prapatti which is also called saranagathi
is it necessary to develop a complete sense of detachment for doing prapatti.
The essential prerequisites for doing prapatti are realisation of his utter and complete inability to do Bhakthi yoga
in other words upayantara sunyatva (upaya is prapatti. upayantara is Bhakthi yoga.
Sunyatva is the utter in ablity to do Bhakthiyoga) and prapyantara sunyatva that is realisation that
there is no object to be attained other than lotus feet of Sriman Narayana in Srivaikunta para loka.

The eight ancillaries of Bhakthi yoga and five ancillaries of Prapatti will be dealt with later.

Before resorting to the means of attainment of moksha, a person has to come to a definite conclusion that
the object he is going to attain after departing from this world should be superior to him in all aspects.
This superior object in all aspects is the supreme being who is Lord Sriman Narayana always associated
with his consort Goddess Maha lakshmi. In our Sri Vaishnava sampradaya, Lord Sriman Narayana together with
Goddess Mahalakshmi which is called “Mithunam” (always together) is a single entity called Divine couple.
It should be remembered always wherever there is a mention of Lord Sriman Narayana in any context or occasion,
he is associated with Mahalakshmi.

On account of the above eternal conjunction of Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi, the four-headed Brahma, Siva, Indra
and other celestial gods get automatically ruled out or eliminated from the status of being supreme being.
The above celestial gods are also like us enjoying the fruits of punya and papa.
Hence they are karma vasyas meaning being afflicted by punya and papa. So in the entire universe comprising
several crores of Brahmandas all living beings are karma vasyas except Lord Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi.
It should be noted that one single Brahmanda comprises of 14 lokas (worlds) right from Satyaloka upto Patala loka.
In every Brahmanda there are separate Four-headed Brahma, Siva, Indra and other Celestial Gods.

Now coming to the subject proper, there are two characteristics of supreme being
(Lord Sriman Narayana associated with Mahalakshmi) which are called Ubhaya linga.
Ubhaya means two and linga means characteristic.
The two characteristics are (1) Blemishlessness (2) Being the repository of innumerable auspicious attributes.
In Sanskrit they are known as Heyapratyanikatva and Kalyana Gunaa Karatva. So a Supreme being is identified by these two characteristics.

It is in this context that the fifth adhikarana in this pada which is called
Ubhaya Lingadhikaranam acquires relevence.
This Ubhaya Lingadhikaranam has 15 sutras.

The poorva pakshi contends that when the para brahman Who is Lord Sriman Narayana is antaryami (inner soul)
in every living being or even in inanimate object, he cannot escape from the suffering and enjoyment of
happiness just like jiva who also undergoes the same.
Even though in some of the previous adhikaranas, it has been said that paramatma is Apahatapapma which means
blemishless ness, still the punya papa karma of jiva confers a body to him and
Paramatma becomes antaryami controlling both jiva and body.
When jiva undergoes the sufferings as a result of his papa karma similarly Paramatma who is always with jiva
is also subject to the above. In the body there are nasty substances like pus, Blood, Urine, Stools etc
and Paramatma who is in contact with these is definitely feels bad about it and this itself is a blemish to him.
For example even if a person falls in to a gutter carrying sewage or dirty water knowingly or unknowingly,
he feels very bad about it and cleans the body afterwatrds. So also in the case of paramatma.
So the contention of purva pakshi is Paramatma is not blemishless. So Ubhaya lingatvam as explained above is not applicable to Paramatma.

In reply to the above or in refutation of the above the Sutrakara says in the first Sutra which reads as
“Na sthanathopi Parasya ubhayalingam Sarvatra hi”.
The meaning of this sutra is that paramatma always possesses ubhaya lingam irrespective of the place
where he is and his contact with nasty substances mentioned above does not cause any blemish to him.
He is always apahata papma. His ubhaya lingatvam which are being blemish lessness and
being repository of all auspicious tributes or in other words “Heya paratyaneekatvam” and “Kalyana gunakaratvam”
is always maintained everywhere without any change.

The Upanishadic authority and other scriptural authority on the basis of which
the Sutrakara has coined the above sutra are as follows.
(1) In the 8th chapter of Chandogyopanishad it is said that Paramatma is
Apahatapapma (being blemishless, or free from every type of defect and drawbacks),
Vijara (being from the defects of old age), Vi mrutyu (being free from death), Vishoka (being free from sorrow),
Viji ghatsa (being free from hunger) , Api pasa (being free from thirst).
Satyakama (capable of getting all his desires fulfilled) and Satya sankalpa (capable of carrying out anything which he wills).
Among the above the first six indicate that Paramatma is flawless (blemishless)
that is in other words heyapratyanika and the last two indicate that he is repository of all auspicious tributes.

(2)In Sri Vishnu purana sage Parasara says that Lord Sriman Narayana or paramatma is repository of all
auspicious tributes and he created this universe by exercising an infinitesimal quantum of his infinite strength or power.
Paramatma is the treasure house or mine of all kalyana gunas and he does not have any sorrow and other sufferings of jivas.
The supreme abode is free from all defects or flaws and the paramatma should also be free from all the above.

In the remaining 14 sutras the sutrakarar mentions
several interesting points which are worthy of knowing and they are as follows.

(a)To a query from poorva pakshi that when it is said that jiva also possesses the 8 attributes mentioned above
starting from Apahata papma in the same 8th chapter of chandogyopanishad in which the four headed Brahman
called Prajapathi preaches Brahma vidya to Indra and he is subject to sufferings when he is in the body
why not paramatma also subject to the above when he is antaryami,

the Sutrakara replies that in Antaryami Brahmanam of Brihadarayaka upanishad, Sage Yajnavalkya
identifies 21 objects in which paramatma is antaryami and says in every object the Paramatma is Antaryami and Amritha.
This word Amritha means that he controls all actions and functions of jivas and his bodies
and is free from the defects of the bodies and jivas.
In the case of jiva the above 8 attributes are dormant till he gets liberated from the bondage of samsara.
Again another objection is raised in this context.

Even though Paramatma does every thing on his own will, still he cannot escape from his contact with
nasty substances in the body. This objection is overruled by Sutrakara though not explicitely in the sutra,
But Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja gives a beautiful explanation to the above point citing several quotations from Sri Vishnu purana.
The explanation is that one substance or object is liked by one and disliked by the other.
For example a sweet is liked by a few where as the same sweet is not liked by a different set of persons.
The reason for this is that the fault is not in the object but it lies in the individual person
who likes or dislikes it. Liking or disliking of an object depends on the karma of the person.

The punya papa karma of a person may makes him to like sweet.
The ‘punya papa karma’ of another person which is different makes him to develop dislike to sweet.
Similarly for the same person the sweet may be liked by him at one moment and the same may be disliked by him at an another moment.
This is also according to the vagaries of his punya papa karma. As paramatma is free from karma
there is no question of a substance being liked by him or disliked by him.
Hence the nasty substances in the body do not affect his ubhaya lingatvam.

(b) In Mundaka and Svetashvatara upanishads, it has been said that paramatma and jivatma are two birds
in the same branch of a tree (here body is the tree, heart is the branch) in which jivatma enjoys
the fruits of his punya and papa karma and paramatma shines without the enjoyment of fruits of punya papa karma.
Hence paramatma is ubhaya lingam.

(c) Here again the Sutrakara raises a doubt and clears the same.
It is said in chandogyopanishad that Lord Sriman Narayana who is the atma to jiva (Inpidual soul is the body of paramatma)
enters in to the body along with jiva and does both nama rupa vyakarana meaning allotment of body or form and also the name.
There are four types of bodies which a jiva can assume acording to his punya papa karma.
They are celestial body (Called Deva), human body ( Manushya), animal body (Called Thiryak) and inanimate object (Called Sthavara).
So paramatma who is the inner soul or supreme soul cannot escape from the vidhi nishedha sastra which is also applicable to him.
Vidhi nishedha sastra means scripture mandating the jiva do this (Vidhi sastra), do not do that (Nishedha sastra).
So the doubt is when paramatma is subject to vidhi nishedha sastra how can he be ubhaya linga.

The reply to this doubt is even though the paramatma dwells within a body along with jiva he is without a form
which in other words means that the four types of the bodies assumed by jiva according to his punya papa karma
are not directly that of paramatma who is free from karma. Further it is said that paramatma is the doer of
nama rupa vyakarana and when this unique feature is there he must be ubhaya linga even though he is antaryami.

(d) Here the opponent contends that paramatma is without any attribute and so
nirivishesha (Vishesha means attribute or virtuous quality) according to the upanishadic text
Satyam, Jnanam, Anantham Brahma.
According to them Satyatvam means not a satyam, Jnanam means not innocent or ignorant. Anantham means not limited.
So these three are not attributes and they are in the intrinsic nature or swarupa of Brahman.
Another text says that nethi nethi ( no, no) for the Paramatma and so the attributes which are
omniscient, possessor of the will which cannot be changed, the cause of the universe, antaryami in every object,
and fulfiller of all his desires should be false and when it is so how can he be ubhaya lingam.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by saying the text satyam, jnanam and anantham brahma
does not say that Paramatma is nirvisesha (without attribute) and on the other hand
it means that paramatma shines with the qualities of satyatva, gnanatva and ananthatva.
Satyatva means there is no transformation in his svarupa or intrinsic nature and hence he is different from
the non sentient body and from the un liberated soul within the body ( Non sentient body under goes continuous transformation).
Gnanatva means the consciousness or Dharma bhutha gnana which helps the perception is ever unlimited or infinite.
So he is different from Mukthatma or a liberated soul because his dharma bhutha gnana was limited
when he was in the un liberated state or samsara.
Ananthatva means paramatma is unlimited with regard to space, time and object. So he is different from Nityasuris.
Paramatma is unlimited with regard to space means he is everywhere. He is unlimited in respect of time means he is there always.
He is unlimited in respect of object means that he is the antaryami in both sentient and non sentient beings
and every thing is a body to him. In the same manner the other qualities like omniscience etc narrated above are also there.
So paramatma is ubhaya lingam. The meaning of the words Nethi, Nethi is different and it will be dealt with later.

(e)There are scores of upanishadic texts, texts in Bhagavad geetha and puranas that paramatma is ubhaya lingam.

(f) The illustrations of sun (Surya) and Akasha are mentioned by Sutrakara here to establish the fact that
paramatma is blemishless even though he dwells in every being or object as antaryami.
Akasa is in contact with every object because it is above every object and flawless.
The images of the sun are seen in every layer of water and images of objects are seen in mirrors.
The sun is free from flaws and so also Brahmam or paramatma is flawless and ubhaya lingam.

(g) In this context the opponent raises the point that the images are all illusory where as
the existence of paramatma is true in every being and so the above illustration does not hold good.
The sutrakarar replies to the above point as follows.
The Akasha or sky though in contact with every object is not subject to vagaries in the size of the object.
One object may be big and the other object is small.
Similarly even though sun whose image is seen in water is not actually there.
But the point is that the image of the sun is not subject to the size of container of water.
For example,. the image may be in water contained in a small vessel or a big tank or lake.
So also paramatma dwelling in all objects both sentient and non sentient beings is blemishless and
repository of auspicious attributes.

(h)The Purva pakshi raises another point which is replied by the Sage Badarayana (Veda vyasa Bhagavan)
who is the composer of Brahma sutras. The point is as follows.
In Brihadaranyaka upanishad (4th chapter 3rd sub pision) it is said that Brahman or paramatma has two forms or bodies.
One perceivable called Moortham and the other non-perceivable called Amoortham. Moortham means hard and Amoortham means soft.

The elements Earth, Water and fire constitute the moortham;
They are hard, perishable not pervading and they are perceived by our senses.
The Solar disc which is also called Surya mandalam is the essence of these three elements.
This solar disc can be seen by our eyes and it has to be meditated in the manner explained above.

The elements sky and air constitute amoortham which are soft , not perishable.
The essence of these two elements is in the purusha or paramatma who is at the centre of the solar disc.
He is to be meditated as such. This purusha wears yellow coloured dhothi, blanket having colour
similar to a red coloured insect, and his body is like a red coloured lotus flower (red colour similar to the flame of a fire)
and several lightnings taking place simultaneously. One who meditates on the above purusha
in solar disc or surya mandala also becomes shining like several lightnings that take place simultaneously.

Further to the above the upanishad says after preaching the above regarding the Brahman or Sriman Narayana
who is at the centre of the solar disc that the greatness of Brahman is not only that much explained above.
In fact his greatness is unlimited and there is no object or being superior to the above.
He is different from prakriti which is a non sentient being and jiva who is a sentient being in all aspects.

But the upanishad while telling the above uses the words “Nethi nethi”.
The poorva pakshi who may be an advaitin exploited the words Nethi Nethi (meaning No, No) in his favour
and said the above upanishad explained the greatness of Brahman after which it suddenly said
no-no meaning that Brahman is nirguna or Nirvishesha without any auspicious tribute.

The Sutrakara in this context refuted the above argument of the poorva pakshi in the sutra
“Prakrutha Eta vath vam Prathi shedathi thatho braveethicha bhuya:”.
The meaning is that the upanishad negated the limit of the greatness of Brahman and further said that
there is no object superior to the above Brahman in its nature and attributes.
So Sriman Narayana alone is the supreme being and ubhaya lingam.

(i)Brahman cannot be perceived by any other authority like pratyaksha and anumana.
(Pratyaksha is sensual perception and Anumana is inference) and he is to be perceived by scriptures only.
He can be perceived by intense meditation on him which is called Bhakthi yoga.
Sage Vamadeva by virtue of his doing Bhakthi yoga perceived the paramatma in his physical form.
Finally the Sutrakara concludes that Paramatma is Ubhaya Lingam only for the reasons explained above
and he is repository of all infinite auspicious attributes or kalyana gunas.

The sixth Adhikarana in this pada is called Ahikundaladhikaranam.
This has four sutras out of which
the first two are purvapaksha sutras
and the latter two are siddhantha sutras.

In this adhikarana the exact relationship between the Brahman and the non sentient being gets established.
It was proved before that Brahman (Sriman Narayana) who is antaryami and atma to both sentient and non sentient beings
in the atomic form (Sukshma form) which are his bodies. He wills to become upadana karana and nimitta karana
to the universe (Upadana karana is material cause and Nimitta karana is operational cause) and then
transforms to become the antaryami or Atma to sentient beings and non sentient beings.
Here it should be noted that though jiva a sentient being is of the size of an atom.
His body may be in the form of deva sarira (celestial) manushya sarira (human body),
Thiryaksarira (animal body) or sthavara (inanimate) according to his punya papa karma.
Even in human being it may be a male body or a female body.

There are certain upanishadic texts which say everything is Brahman, every thing is atma.
Here atma is paramatma. These two texts opine that Brahman himself is a sentient being and a non sentient being.
This is called Abheda sruti telling that Brahman himself is chethana (sentient) and achethana (non sentient)
and there is no difference. In the Chandogyopanishad it is said that Brahman or paramatma enters in to
every body along with jiva that is having jiva as his body to do nama rupa vyakarana by giving
name and form to every object in the universe and in this text, it is clear that Brahman is different from
jiva and jiva is different from his body which is inanimate. It is in this back ground,
the Sutrakarar in the first sutra which is a purva paksha sutra in this adhikarana which reads as
“ubhaya vyapadeshath Ahikundalavath”.

The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Brahman or paramatma is one single entity before creation
it assumes the forms of two entities which are sentient being and non sentient being at the time of creation.
This is said as Eka (one) before creation and Nana (many) at the time of creation.
The poorvapakshi contends that paramatma may be Eka (one) or Nana (many like chethana and achethana)
like a serpant assuming two different forms one Rujubhavam (real form or straight form)
and the other kundala bhavam (coiled form).
In the real form or straight form it is Eka (one) and in the coiled form it is nana (many).

So according to this Sutra Brahman himself assumes different forms of inanimate objects.

In the second purva paksha sutra it is contended that Brahman and non sentient being (Achethana or in animate)
belong to the same category like burning lamp and the light it emits. Lamp is different from light.
This is in contrast of the previous view that Brahman himself assumes two different forms.

In the third sutra which reads as “Poorva vadva” both the previous two different contentions are rejected
by stating that non sentient being is also a body of paramatma just like jiva is also a body
which was established in the Amsadhikaranam, the last adhikarana in the 3rd pada of the 2nd chapter.
Poorvavath means like before and “va” means the rejection or refutation of the views mentioned in the previous two sutras.

In the last sutra which reads as “Prathishedhachcha”.
It is said citing two upanishadic texts that Brahman is not subject to blemishes or defects of non sentient beings
which are old age for bodies and decaying for the other inanimate objects.
So Brahman can only be atma or soul to the inanimate objects which are his bodies.
The body and soul form is also known as visheshanaya. This is also termed as Amsamsibhava
(Amsa is visheshana or body and Amsi is visheshya or soul) and prakara prakari bhava (prakara is body and prakari is soul).
So this adhikarana further reinforces or strengthens the ubhaya lingam of paramatma
and his being material and operational cause of the universe.

The Seventh adhikarana in this pada is called “Paradhikaranam”.
In this adhikarana the supremacy of Lord Sriman Narayana is eatablished beyond any doubt and
further to prove that he is siddhopaya (ready means) and he is the object of attainment in Sri Vaikuntha para loka.
In other words prapya (object of attainment) and prapaka are one and the same.
Prapaka is also known as upaya and prapya is known as upeya.
Lord Sriman Narayana who is siddhopaya grants moksha after becoming pleased by the performance of sadhyopaya
which may be Bhakthiyoga or Prapattiyoga (Saranagathi) by a person.

The argument of Lord Sriman Narayana granting moksha by simply remaining siddhopaya without the performance of
Bhakthi or prapatti which is sadhyopaya is not correct. So the theory of “Nirhelutka kripa” means
less grace is completely ruled out.
This adhikarana has seven sutras out of which
one is poorva paksha sutra
and the remaining six sutras are siddhantha sutras.

The first sutra reads as “Paramatha: Sethu-unmana, Sambandha-bheda vyapadesebhya:”
In this sutra it is contended that there is an entity which is superior to Lord Sriman Narayana
on account of the following four reasons.
(1) Sethu – This means Bridge. There are two upanishadic texts which say that paramatma is the bridge
to cross the ocean of samsara. The term Bridge generally refers to means for going from one bank to opposite bank.
So it means that object attained after reaching the opposite bank should be different from the bridge
which takes him from one bank to the other. When paramatma is the bridge, it leads to the view that
there should be some one superior to paramatma after reaching the opposite shore.
Sethu is prapaka and the entity on the other shore is prapya.
(2)Unmana – This means limited size. It is said in chandogyopanishad that paramatma has four legs and sixteen organs.
Pada in the upanishad is called leg and kala is said to be organ. When the supreme being is said to be of infinite size,
it leads to the view that there should be a different supreme being other than paramatma having a limited size as mentioned above.
(3)Sambandha – This means relationship. When there is a relation ship between prapya and prapaka
they should be different which in other words means prapya is different from prapaka.
(4)Bheda – This means different. In mundaka upanishad it is said that jiva attains an object which is superior to supreme.
In taittariya upanishad it is mentioned that which is superior to supreme is bigger than big.
This contends that supreme is Lord Sriman Narayana and there is some body else superior to or bigger than him.

Further in Svetashvatara Upanishad it is said that purusha who is Lord Sriman Narayana has pervaded
the entire universe and that there is an object which is superior (Uttarataram) to Sriman Narayana which is blemishless.
So the conclusion that on account of the above four reasons there is some one superior to Lord Sriman Narayana.

The Sutrakara in the six sutras that follows the above sutra gives satisfactory and convincing replies
to the points mentioned above and affirms that Lord Sriman Narayana is supreme being and no body else is above him.
(a)To the point that Paramatma is sethu or bridge and there is some one above him on the opposite shore
the Sutrakara in the sutra “Samanyaththu” says that the word sethu is not used to give the meaning that
there is some body else to be attained. The word sethu actually means that Lord Sriman Narayana has
in him the entire universe comprising both sentient and non sentient beings. Without any mixing or linking between them.
The word sethu arises out of the word “Sinothi” which means binding or tying together.
Further sethu which generally means crossing means attaining in this context.

Without any mixing or linking actually means that the characteristics of sentient beings
which are jivas are exclusively different or separate from those of non sentient beings.
Even though the sentient beings which are jivas dwell within non sentient beings which are mortal bodies,
there is no question of mixing or linking of their exclusive and intrinsic characteristics.
The exclusive characteristics of jiva are
i) of micro atomic size (Anuthva)
ii) realising his own self without any external aid. This is called pratyaktva. Being conscious in his intrinsic nature or swarupa.
iii) possessing Dharmabhutha jnana through which the objects are perceived
(iv) doer of virtuous and sinful deeds (v) These deeds subject to overall control of paramatma.
(vi) doing prapatti at the lotus feet of Sriman Narayana through an Acharya and attaining Moksha.
These characteristics are not there in the non sentient beings.

b) Regarding the limited size of paramatma the sutrakarar says that
it has been mentioned so in upanishads for the sake of meditation. This does not however affect
the characteristic of paramatma in being infinite in his svarupa (intrinsic nature) and in his kalyana gunas.
c) To the query that how an infinite Paramatma could be finite for the sake of meditation it is said that
Paramatma becomes finite to occupy a limited space available. This is just like an infinite sky
occupying a limited space when viewed through a window. The limited space occupied is called upadhi.
d)Regarding the point that the object of attainment which is called Amritha in the relevent upanishadic text is
different from the or superior to paramatma who is called sethu or bridge in the same upanishadic text
the sutrakarar in the sutra which reads as “Upapaththesha” says that
it is only appropriate that the object of attainment is called prapya and which is referred to as sethu in this context.
So as already mentioned in the beginning of this adhikarana Lord Sriman Narayana along with his
consert Mahalakshmi is Siddhopaya (ready means) or prapaka and he himself with Mahalakshmi is upeya or prapya.
Moksha or eternal bliss is granted by both (Divine couple) after they become pleased with the person or inpidual
doing prapatti (Saranagathi) at their lotus feet. In the moksha or in Sri vaikunta pya loka, both are to be attained
and eternal service has to be done to both (Divine couple).
So in our Swami Desika Sampradaya the Siddhopayatvam being means for moksha lies in both and upeyatvam also lies in the both.

The Saranagathi done at the lotus feet of the consort Mahalakshmi is called “Purushakara” prapatti.
Purushakara means recommender (mediator) unless goddess Mahalakshmi recommends to Lord Sriman Narayana
to accept the prapatti done at his lotus feet by a person (jiva or inpidual).
Lord Sriman Narayana does not grant moksha because he is the holder of the stick (Dandadhara – Danda is stick)
for punishing the person for his committing sins. So the aspect of danda dharatva in the Lord is changed
on account of the consort Mahalakshmi being purushakara.

So Lord Sriman Narayana has three aspects which are Danda dharatva, Upayatva and Upeyatva and the consort
Mahalakshmi has also three aspects which are purushakaratva, upayatva and upeyatva. This is called “Akarathraya”

This is why it is said about consort Mahalakshmi as
Akara traya sampannam Aravindanivasinim Asshesha jagath Ishatram vande varada vallabham”.
Incidentally though out of context it is said that Goddess Mahalakshmi pervades the entire universe
by her svarupa itself like Sriman Narayana and this is said on sage parasara’s sloka in Sri Vishnu purana which reads as
“Yatha sarvagatho vishnu: thathaiva eyam dvijothathema”.
So Mahalakshmi is also vibhu or omni present that is she is every where along with Sriman Narayana.
She is not of atomic size or anu as opined by a few.

(e) Regarding the point mentioned that there is someone superior or supreme to Lord Sriman Narayana
based on a text in Svetasvathara upanishad (Thatha: Yaduththara tharam) the Sutrakara says in the sutra
“Thatha Anya prathishedhath” that there are several upanishadic texts which proclaim that
Lord Sriman Narayana is the supreme being and there is none else who is supreme to him.

This adhikarana gets concluded with the sutrakarar saying in the sutra
“Anena sarvagathatvam Ayama sabdadibhya:”. Which means that Lord Sriman Narayana is all pervading
and omni present according to several quotations in the upanishads and hence he is the supreme most being.

The last adhikarana in this pada is called “Phaladhikarana”.
In this it is eatablished that Lord Sriman Narayana alone grants fruits for all the karmas done by
persons (jivas) including moksha. In this world people can be divided in to three categories.
I)Aisvaryarathi – One who has desire in attaining worldly pleasures like be getting children,
acquiring wealth and higher positions in the professional career etc., and also attaining pleasures in the svarga loka.
In Vedas several means are prescribed for acquiring worldly pleasures and heavenly pleasures.
Some of these are listed below.
(a) Putrakameshti yaga – For be getting children
(b) Vayavya ishti – For acquiring wealth
(c) Rajasuya yaga – For becoming king or monarch
(d) Kareeri ishti – for getting good rains which is called suvrishti and not under rains called
Alpavrishti and not over rains called Athi vrishti.
(e)Jyothishtoma yaga and other yagas – For acquiring heavenly pleasures
(f) One hundred Ashwamedha yagas – To become Indra or Thrilokadhipathi
And so on.

II) Kaivalyarthi – A desire to enjoy his own soul or atma.
This is possible by meditation of his own self subject to the grace of paramatma.

III)Moksharthi – A desire to attain moksha (gets liberated from the bondage of samsara) that is reaching
Sri vaikunta pya loka through Archiradi marga ascending the throne there (Divya paryanka)
where the pine couple are seated and do eternal service there. This can be attained by doing Bhakthi yoga or prapatti.

The point for discussion in this adhikarana is as who is to grant fruits for various means explained above.
This adhikarana has four sutras in which
the first two are siddhantha sutras,
the third one is poorva paksha sutra and
the 4th one is siddhantha sutra in reply to the argument of the poorva pakshi.
In this adhikarana sage Jaimnin is the purva pakshi who is the composer of sutras for poorva mimamsa or karma kanda.

It is reminded in this context that mimamsa satra which is one of the universally accepted
fourteen branches of learning is a single sastra having three portions.
It should also be remembered that Mimamsa sastra is basically meant for proper interpretation of vedic texts and deciding their meanings.

The first portion of Vedas is called karmakanda comprising of Vedic texts dealing with the performance of yagas
and other karmas which are in the form of worship of Lord Sriman Narayana and please him to grant fruits.
Sage Jaimini who is the disciple of Sri Vedavyasa Bhagavan who is also called Sage Badarayana directed jaimini
to compose sutras for the proper interpretation of vedic texts of karma kanda.
Accordingly he composed sutras grouped in to 12 chapters, 60 padas and 907 adhikaranas.
These are called Karmakanda sutras or poorva mimamsa sutras.

The second portion of Vedas is the devatha kanda dealing with the nature and form of various celestial gods
like Prajapathi (four-headed Brahma) Pasupathi (Rudra or siva), shachi pathi (Indra), Surya, Soma (moon),
Vayu, Agni, Varuna and others. For the interpretation of these vedic texts sage Badarayana directed
his disciple the sage Kasakritsna to compose sutras. These sutras are again grouped in to 4 chapters.
There is some doubt in the authorship of these sutras and one school of thought says that
the author is Jaimini and the other school of thought says the author is Kasakritsna.
Sri Swami Desikan says in Sri Adhikarana saravali that if Jaimini has been the author then
kasakristna would have composed vritti. If Kasakritsna is the author than Jaimini would have composed vritti.

The third portion is upanishads which constitutes Brahmakanda.
This is head portion or last portion of Vedas and hence called Sruthi siras, Vedantha, Thrayyantha Nigamantha.
It is needless to repeat here that Sage Badarayana is the composer of Brahma sutras numbering 545 and
grouped in to 4 chapters and these Brahma sutras are being dealt with now.
Sage Bhodhayana wrote an elaborate vritti for these Brahma sutras.
Vritti is a work which explains the meanings of the sutras concisely or elaborately.
Now in the first sutra of this adhikarana, the sutrakarar that is sage Badarayana says that
the fruit for any karma (yagas) and upasana (Bhakthi or meditation) is granted by Lord Sriman Narayana
who was proved beyond doubt as the supreme most being in the previous adhikarana.

The first sutra is “Phalamatha: uppaththe:”
Phalam is fruit,
Atha means from Sriman Narayana
upapaththe: means that Lord Sriman Narayana alone is omniscient, and omni potent and very liberal
and hence it is only appropriate that he grants fruits for yagas, danas, homas and upasanas.

In the second sutra upanishadic texts are quoted to establish the above.

In the third sutra which is the poorva paksha sutra
sage Jaimini says that Karmas and not upasanas directly grant fruits.
Jaimini says that there is an imaginary Apoorva which confers fruits for yagas.

It should be noted that virtuous acts or punya karmas are classified as yagas, danas and homas.
Yagas are sacrifices in which an animal (goat) is sacrificied and juice of soma latha (latha means creeper) is drunk.
In yagas the words uttered for offerings various things to the sacrificial fires which are three
in number named as Dakshnagi, Ahavaniya agni and Garhapatya agni are he Yaja, he Yajamahe, Asthu vonshat, Ashravaya and voushat.

Danas are offerings given to the needy. Homas are those offerings made to Agni without animal sacrifice.

In the last sutra which reads as Poorvanthu Badarayana hethu vyapadeshath,
the sutrakarar refutes the argument of sage jaimini and establishes the fact that
Sriman Narayana grants fruits to karmas done in the form of yagas.
He grants moksha to the person who has done prapatti instead of upasana or Bhakthi yoga.
Sri Vedanta desika says and upasanas.
All the upanishads say in one voice that Bhakthi yoga is the means for attaining Moksha.
Bhakthi basically means devotion towards elders.
Intense meditation with single minded devotion on Lord Sriman Narayana is Bhakthi yoga.

Before dealing with the eight ingredients of Bhakthi yoga its ancillaries are to be clearly under stood.

The two basic ancillaries are (1) Karma yoga and (2) Jnana yoga.
The nature of Karma yoga and Jnana yoga have been dealt with in detail in Sri Bhagavad gita.
This karma yoga is basically meant for the purification of mind which helps concentration of mind
on Lord Sriman Narayana which is an essential prerequisite for deep meditation which is called Samadhi.

In the chapter 9 of Srimath Rahasyatrayasara, Sri Vedanta Desika (reverentially known as Sri Swami Desikan)
explains the nature of Karma and Gnana yoga as follows in precise terms without much dilation or elaboration.

Karmayoga:- After acquiring the knowledge of the true nature of the individual soul that is
jiva (one’s own self) and supreme soul who is paramatma one has to resort to any of the karma yoga
which is possible for doing by him (Jiva). This karma yoga has to be done without expecting any fruit out of it.
The various classifications of karma yoga are
(a)Devarchana Rupa – Worship of Lord Sriman Narayana utilising money earned by righteous means.
(b) Doing yaga or sacrifice like Jyothishtoma yaga, Vajapeya yaga etc in which animals like goats are sacrificed.
(c) Controlling our senses by perting from the objects of sensual pleasures like sabda, sparsha, Rupa, Rasa
and Gandha and directing them to-wards Lord Paramatma.
(d) Controlling our breathing by doing pranayama
(e) Offering of the alms to the needy.
(f) Doing the daily rituals of oupasina, Agnihotra and Panchamaha yagnas.
(g) Doing tapas. Tapas means penance.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in Sri Geetha Bhasya explains Tapas as krichchra, Chandrayana etc.
The activity which is done with difficulty and with a vow is called Krichchra. It includes fasting.
Anything which is done with a vow is called vrata.
In the chandrayana vrata, taking of food is to be regulated. One mouthful of food is grasa.
The regulation of taking food is as follows.

From the beginning of Sukla paksha ( a fortnight that gets concluded with full moon or poornima)
up to the day of full moon, the quantum of food has to be increased by one grasa every day and on
the full moon day there will be full square meals.
From the beginning of krishna paksha that gets concluded on the new moon day, the quantum of food
has to be reduced by grasa every day such that it becomes virtually nil on the new moon day (Amavasya)
and the fasting has to be done on that day.
The above is called Tapas.

h) Taking holy dip in sacred waters is also a form of Karma yoga.
i) Learning Vedas
j) Knowing the meaning of Vedic texts

The above all are the difficult forms of karma yoga and a person can adopt any one of them.
By doing this karma yoga, the mind gets purified for realising one’s own self.
It should be remembered that this karma yoga is besides doing daily rituals of sandhya vandana
three times and other allied karmas which are called as Nitya Naimittika karmas.

Jnanayoga:- After getting the mind purified by doing karma yoga as explained above and
after winning over the mind, the inpidual soul that is jiva who is different from the body and
after realising that jiva is supported and controlled by paramatma and is subordinate to him.
The person should meditate on his own self always without break.
When the person realises his own self by karma yoga and gnana yoga and if the person is not caught
in the pleasure of the enjoyment of his own self, then he gets down to Bhakthi yoga which is the direct means
for the attainment of supreme goal of enjoyment of paramatma in Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

Sri Swamy Desikan cites a beautiful example. There is a jewel and jewel box containing jewel.
To see the jewel inside the jewel box, first jewel box has to be seen.
So also here paramatma who is the antaryami or inner soul in every being is the jewel and
the inpidual soul that is jivatma is the jewel box. After seeing jewel box that is after realising
his own self which is called Atma avalokanam, it is but natural or obvious or even sequential to get a desire
to see the antaryami who is the supreme soul and jivatma is the body to him.
So this atma avalokanam confers the basic eligibility on a person who wants to resort to Bhakthi yoga to attain eternal bliss or Moksha.
The details of Bhakthi yoga will be dealt with later.

In practicing Karma yoga and Jnana yoga the following seven ingredients also form an integral part.
These seven ingredients are called Sadhana sapthaka which Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja mentions
in the Laghu siddhantha in the beginning of Sri Bhasya.
The sadhana saptaka or the seven ingredients are as follows.
In this context the Bhakthi yoga is called Dhruva smrthi or Dhruva anusmrithi.
Smrthi or Anusmrithi is meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami or the inner soul of the meditator.
Dhruva means deep concentration of the mind that is in other words not allowing any other thought to come
in between during meditation. This state of mind is possible only by sadhana sapthaka which has been referred to above.

The details of Sadhana Sapthaka are as follows.
1)Viveka – The food we take should be free from three defects.
The three defects are Jathidushtam, Ashraya dushtam and Nimiththa dushtam.
Jathidushtam – defects arising out of the prohibited categories to which they belong like onion, potato, cabbage, drumstick, etc.
Ashraya dushtam – defects arising out of the connection of the food with some unholy substances like hair etc.
Tender coconut in a brass or bronze vessel, Honey kept in a copper vessel, Ghee and milk served by using an iron vessel.
Nimiththa dushtam – Under some special or peculiar circumstances the prepared food should not be taken.
These circumstances are known as Nimiththam.
Food touched by people belonging to inferior castes.
Milk sold by brahmins, Food touched by dogs, crows, cock, rats, cats and young children.
Food smelt by human beings and cattle. The balance of water in the vessel after washing of our feet etc.
It is said in the chandogyopanishad that if the food we take is pure then the satva guna in our mind
will increase which helps the meditation in Bhakthi yoga.

2) Vimoka – Free from desires especially sexual. Meditation has to be done with a peaceful mind.
There should not be any desire in the mind to enjoy the objects like sound, touch, beauty, taste and smell.
If the desire is not fulfilled it leads to anger. If the anger is there there will be no peace of mind.

3) Abhyasa – This means repetition. In other words the mind should meditate on an auspicious form of Lord Sriman Narayana.
This also means choosing suitable place and time for meditation, so that concentration becomes possible.

4)Kriya – Kriya means performance of daily rituals to the extent possible especially,
Pancha maha yagnas like Devayagna, Pithru yagna, Bhutha yagna, Monushya yagna and Brahma yagna.
It is said that those who perform the daily rituals including the above pancha maha yagna are the best among
brahma viths. Brahma vith means person having complete knowledge of Brahman that is Lord Sriman Narayana.

5) Kalyana – Possession of virtuous qualities that is satya, Arjava, Daya, Dana, Ahimsa and Anabhidhyaah.
Satyam means compassion towards living beings, Arjavam means complete synchronisation of mind, speech and action
that is what we think that should be spoken and what we speak should be put into action.
Daya means mercy or compassion which in other words means a sincere desire to remove the distress
of others without expecting any return or reward out of it.
Ahimsa means complete nonviolence that is not causing suffering to others in mind, speech and action.
Danam means without being greedy or avaricious. This also means offering of any thing to the
deserving and needy person which he has acquired by righteous means.
Anabhidhya means not aspiring to possess another man’s property and wealth.
It also means not thinking of harming the others. There should be no intention to cheat others.
It also means possession of qualities told by the Lord Krishna in the 13th chapter of Bhagavad gita
and also eight qualities of the inpidual soul mentioned in the Gauthama dharma sutra.

6) Avavasada – Avasada means distress, sorrow or grief. Anavasada means just opposite of it that is being
without distress. A person who resorts to Bhakthi yoga should be without any mental grief.

7)Anudhdharsha – Udhdharsha means excessive happiness or pleasure. Anudhdharsa means just opposite of it
that is being without too much of happiness. This also should not be there for a person to do bhakthi yoga.

The above sadhana sapthaka (Seven point means) should be there along with karma yoga or along with both
karma yoga and gnana yoga as explained above and these are essential prerequisites for a person to do Bhakthi yoga.

Bhakthi yoga:- Again Sri Vedantha Desika in the Upaya Vibhaga Adhikara of Srimad Rahasyatraya sara
explains beautifully the nature of Bhakthi yoga which is as follows.
Bhakthi yoga is deep meditation with excessive devotion on Lord Sriman Narayana who is the supporter of meditator,
who is not under the control of any body else and who is also not subordinate to any body else.
This meditation is continuous flow of thought like the flow of oil leading to a state of realisation of the Lord
in the mind which is almost equal to external and full realisation.
This has to be done every day till the day of his journey to the supreme abode Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka
and ends with the remembrance of the Lord just before the departure of the soul from this mortal body.
This is called Antima smrithi. As already said the performance of daily rituals according to
one’s varna (Caste) and Ashrama (Stage of Life) along with karma yoga.
With Sadhana Sapthaka and realisation of one own self that is atma or along with karma yoga, jnana yoga
combined with sadhana sapthaka and realisation of one’s own self which was mentioned as atmavalokana before.

The four castes are Brahman, Kshatriya, Vysya and Sudra.
The four stages of the life or the four ashramas are Bramacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Samyasa
(Bachelor, Married, Living in forest and ascetic).

Bhakthi yoga has to be done only by those belonging to Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya castes only.
(This bhakthi yoga is there fore called Trivarnikadhikara or confined to three varnas).
Ladies are also not eligible to do Bhakthi yoga because both sudras and ladies are not eligible to recite Vedas.
This in other words mean Vedas are not accessible to them.

This Bhakthi yoga which is prescribed as means for moksha or salvation is called parabhakthi.
This parabhakthi generates a deep desire to realise Lord Sriman Narayana. When this realisation is achieved
at the time of meditation this state is called paragnana. This paragnana leads to the development or
generation of a deep and devoted desire to enjoy the supreme being continuously and this is called parama bhakthi.
This parama bhakthi makes Sriman Narayana to expedite the granting of moksham to the concerned person
who has crossed the three stages (States) which are parabhakthi, paragnana and parama bhakthi.

To attain the state of deep meditation which is called “Samadhi” which is the highest state
there are seven lower steps and these seven steps together with the state of samadhi is called Ashtanga yoga.
The eight angas or ancillaries (components) of Bhakthi yoga are
1)Yama – This means of controlling senses. This is possible if only five sub ancillaries of this
are practiced and achieved. The five sub ancillaries are
(a)Brahmacharya or celibacy – One should not aspire women other than his own wife. He should be devoted towards his wife.
(b)Ahimsa- One should not think, talk or do harm to others.
(c)Astheya – One should not steal other man’s belonging or property. Also one should not think that
his soul which is ever sub ordinate to and exclusive property of Lord Sriman Narayana as quite independent and not subordinate.
If he thinks like the above he will be charged as Atmapahari (One who has stolen his soul).
After all stealing means of thinking of one substance belonging to the other as his own.
The atma pahara is the gravest crime in this world.
(d)Aparigraha – Not accepting any gift for the sake of his own self.
(e) Satyam – One should speak truth which is palatable to others and which will be well taken by them.
An unpalatable thing though a fact or true should not be spoken.

2)Niyama – Bringing all the senses under one’s direct control and not allowing to run after any
material pleasure giving object. This has again has five sub ancillaries which are as follows.
(a) Santhosha:- having contentment with what one gets and enjoying the objects of material pleasure.
(b)Saucham – Saucham means purification. This purification is of two types. The first is external purification
which is the purification of body with mud and water and the second type is the internal purification
that is the purification of mind. There should be purity in the food one takes.
If should not be jathi dushta, Ashraya dushta and nimithth adushta as explained earlier under sadhana sapthaka.
Any food one takes should have been offered to Lord Sriman Narayana after worshipping him in
archa form which may be in the form of salagrama or consecrated idol form or both.
(c) Tapas – This means fasting on special days like Ekadasi, Sravana dwadashi, Sri Jayanthi, Sri Ramanavami,
Sri Narasimha jayanthi days. Tapas also means avoiding overeating or undereating is always enemy to meditation.
(d)Svadhyaya – Reciting of Vedas after leaning it under the feet of a preceptor. It also means uttering the names of Lord Sriman Narayana.
(e) Pranidhanam (Brahma pravanyam) – making the mind rest on Lord Sriman Narayana.

(3) Asanam – Being seated. The meditator should get seated at a purified place.
The purification of the place should be done by smearing with water along with gomayam (cow dung)
on this dharbam (Kusa grass) should be spread over. Over this Aginam (Skin of the deer) should be placed.
Over the above cloth should be placed and this arrangement gives a cushioning effect.
Over the above a wooden board in the shape of any of the following.
Chakra, Padma, Kurma, Mayura, Kukkuta, Veera, Svasthika, Bhadra, Simhasana, Mukthasana, Gomukha
should be kept over which the meditator should get seated facing the east.

(4) Pranayamam – This means controlling the breath. This has three stages of operation.
The first stage is called Rechaka in which the left nose is closed by the shortest finger and next to it
and exhaling the air from the right nose with eyes closed.
The second stage is called Puraka in which the right nose is closed by the thumb and air from outside is
inhaled through the left nose. The third stage is called kumbhaka in which both the noses are closed by
the three fingers as mentioned above and the breath is controlled and maintained at that level
for about 36 seconds which is the best period, 24 seconds which is next best or for at least 12 seconds.
One second can be considered as Mathra the duration required to pronounce a short alphabet like
the first alphabet Aa. During the period of holding the breath the ashtakshara mantra or
dvaya mantra has to be recited with in the mind for 25 times. This pranayama is required for keeping the body healthy.

(5) Pratyahara – This means dragging the mind which is after senses and senses are after the objects of enjoyment,
towards the Lord Sriman Narayana by developing a sense of detachment and by realising drawbacks or defects in the sensual pleasures.

(6) Dharana – After getting detachment in the sensual pleasures and after developing love or devotion
towards auspicious and beautiful form of Sriman Narayana which in other words called Divya mangala vigraha
(auspicious means subhashraya) the meditation should get his mind constantly and continuously
on the lotus feet of the supreme being and seeing that the mind does not move away from the above.

(7) Dhyanam – This means deep meditation on Lord Sriman Narayana along with the auspicious attributes
as enunciated in the upanishads in the contexts of various brahma vidyas the details of which will be dealt with after this.
This dhyanam is always compared to the flow of oil to indicate that there is no break.
So this meditation is continuous thought which will not be interrupted with any other thought.
When this meditation is undertaken the mind should constantly be thinking of Divya Mangala vigraha of
the supreme being who is adorned with five weapons and ornaments. The weapons are
Sudarsana chakra- Disc – This represents the mind of a human being.
Panchajanya – Sankha- Conch shell – This represents Sathvika ahamkara which is one of the 24 tenets.
Kaumodaki – Gada – Mace – This represents Mahan.
Sarngam – Bow – This represents Ahamkara
Arrows – These represent ten senses.
Khadga – Sword. This represents the Gnana or conscious ness.

The ornaments are
Kireeta – Crown
Makuta – Ornament of head
Chudavatamsa – a garland worn on head.
Makara kundala – Ear rings in the shape of a crocodile.
Graivayakahara – Neck lace
Keyura – Arm let
Kataka – Bracelet
Srivatsa – hair on the chest of the lord
Kousthubha – Gem on the breast of the Lord. This kousthubha represents jivatma.
Muktha – Single string of pearls.
Peethambara – Yellow garment
Kanchee guna – Golden waist belt.
Nupura – An anklet.

(8) Samadhi – A state that is reached after the daily practice of dhyana in which the intrinsic nature or
swarupa of the supreme being is meditated upon. Samadhi also means full mental realisation of the Lord
even after getting up from dhyana.

Thirtytwo Brahma vidyas:
Vidya means knowledge. The basic root of this word is “Vid jnane”. This knowledge is of two types which are
(1) ordinary knowledge (2) Meditatory knowledge. Brahma means the supreme being Lord Sriman Narayana.
So Brahma vidya means meditation on Brahman for liberation from bondage of samsara and attainment of eternal bliss.
So this Brahma vidya is Bhakthi yoga the details of which were dealt with in the preceeding paragraphs.

These Brahma vidyas, each of which is an independent means of attaining moksha are thirty two in number
and each one of them is a form of Bhakthi yoga excepting nyasa vidya which is saranagathi or prappaththi
which is also an independent means of attaining moksha.
As explained earlier Karma yoga and Jnana yoga are ancillaries to Bhakthi yoga (Brahmavidya).
In addition to this Prapatti or Saranagathi has to be done at the lotus feet of the Lord Sriman Narayana
to wash off sins (both punya and papa) which are blocking a Traivarnika man from doing Bhakthi yoga
(Trivarnika means a person belonging to Brahmana, Kshatriya or Vaisya castes).
This Prapatti done to remove impediments for starting Bhakthi yoga is called as Anga prapatti.
Anga means ancillary. The sequence of commencement of Bhakthi yoga or Brahma vidya is as follows.
There are two alternative sequences.

I – First Sequence:
(a) Karma yoga and practicing of Sadhana sapthaka
(b) Realisation of one own self (Atma sakshatkara or Atma avalokana)
(c) Anga prapatti
(d) Bhakthi yoga – Choosing any one of Brahma vidyas whose names will be mentioned below adopting Ashtanga yoga.

II-Second sequence:
(a) Karma yoga and practising of Sadhana sapthaka
(b) Jnana yoga
(c) Atma avalokana
(d) Anga prapatti
(e) Bhakthi yoga choosing any one of the Brahma vidyas adopting Ashtanga yoga

While doing Bhakthi yoga adopting Ashtanga yoga Three things are to be essentially meditated upon which are
(a) Meditating upon Lord Sriman Narayana having a Divya mangala vigraha and always associated with his
consort Mahalakshmi and both together becoming one single entity who is the inner soul or antaryamin of
the meditator who is his body that is the meditator or jivatma is the body of paramatma or paramatma is the soul of jivatma.
While meditating on the supreme soul or paramatma as mentioned above two categories of the auspicious attributes
of the Lord Sriman Narayana are also to be meditated.
They are (I) Six basic auspicious attributes which are called Svarupa nirupaka dharmas (here Dharma is Kalyana guna) and
(ii) The auspicious attributes which are exclusively related to the particular brahma vidya which the meditator chooses to meditate.

(b) Meditating on his own self as knower, doer, enjoyer, always subordinate to Sriman Narayana,
of atomic, knowing his own self (called Pratyaktva)

(c) Thinking of Brahmavidya which one has adopted for attaining salvation.

(d)The sequence of fruits one is going to enjoy at the conclusion of Brahma vidya which are Antima Smrithi (last memory),
departure of the soul with a miniature body or sooshma sarira from the mortal body, reaching the bank of viraja river,
along the Archiradi marga or route and there deserting the sookshma sarira, crossing the Viraja river
and reaching the opposite bank and entering in to the territory of Sri Vaikuntha para loka, getting Brahmalankara,
being conducted to para paryanaka or throne where the pine couple are seated, ascending the throne
and reporting to Divine couple, blossoming of Eight attributes called Gunashtaka,
getting ordained or initiated into the eternal service to the pine couple there by attaining moksha samrajya.

The thirtytwo Brahma vidyas are as follows.
This is narrated below in the sequence of the Adhikaranas in Sri Bhashya.
(1) Sadvidya: This brahmavidya is taught to Svethakethu by his father sage Uddalaka in the 6th chapter of Chandogyopanishad.
(a) The six attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana which are to be meditated upon and which are called svarupa nirupaka dharmas are,
i) Satyatva – By virtue of this attribute the supreme being is different from the unliberated soul
who is called Baddha jiva and also different from the mortal body in which the baddha jiva dwells.
Satyatva also denotes being free from transformation both in the intrinsic nature which is called
svarupa and ordinary nature which is called Svabhava.
ii)Jnanatva- Always omniscient. By virtue of this attribute the paramatma is different from muktatma (liberated soul)
iii) Anantatva- Paramatma is limit less or infinite with regard to space, time and substance which in other words
he encompassess the entire universe both externally and internally
He is antaryami to both sentient and non sentient beings. This aspect makes him different from Nitya suries.
iv)Anandatva – Always with Infinite bliss.
v) Amalatva – blemishless ness
vi)Sriyahpativa- Consort of Goddess Mahalakshmi.
The above six attributes which establish the svarupa or intrinsic nature of Lord Sriman Narayana
are to be meditated upon in every brahmavidya without exception including nyasavidya.

(b) The exclusive attributes or Kalyana gunas which are to be meditated upon in this vidya only are as follows:
i) Jagad upadanatvam – Material cause for this universe
ii)Jagan nimitatvam – Operational cause for this universe.
iii)Sarvajnatva – Omniscient
iv) Sarva sakthi yoga – Omnipotent
v) Satya sankalpatvam – Possessing unshakeable will.
vi) Sarva antaratvam – being inner soul or antaryami in everybeing.
vii)Sarva tharatvam – Supporting the entire universe.
viii)Sarva Niyanthrutvam – Controlling or ordaining every thing.

(c)Specific mention of Moksha phala in this vidya : In the sixth chapter of the chandogyopanishad
it is said that who practices this Brahma vidya (Sath vidya) and meditates attains moksha on the expiry of Pra rabya karma.

2) Anandamaya vidya:- This brahmavidya is mentioned in the Anandavalli of Taittariya upanishad.
(a) The six svarupa nirupaka dharmas as mentioned above are to be meditated upon while meditating
on Lord Sriman Narayana who is Anandamaya.
(b)Exclusive attributes to be meditated upon in this vidya are
i)Creator of five elements or Bhuthas which are Akasa, Vayu, Thejas, Water and earth
ii)He is antaryami to Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya and vignana maya
iii) He wills and creates the universe
iv)He has entered in to all the sentient and non sentient beings as antaryami and they have become bodies to him
v) He confers happiness on all jivas and without his grace none can survive.
vi) He is a terror to Sun, Moon, Vayu, Indra, Agni, Yama and other celestial gods who perform
their duties correctly and promptly on account of fear towards Sriman Narayana who is Anandamaya.
(c)Mention of Moksha phala to one who resorts to this Brahma vidya

At the conclusion of this Anandavalli it is said that Brahmananda which is eternal and infinite bliss
in Sri Vaikunta Divya Loka is also attained by Akamohata Sratria which means a person who has vairagya
and who has meditated upon Anandamaya who is paramatma.

Note : Knowing the names of all the Brahma Vidyas and exclusive auspicious attributes relevant to
each and every Brahma Vidya to be meditated is of academic interest and it will be a very elaborate and lengthy affair.
No body in this Kaliyuga resorts to Bhakthi yoga which is very difficult to practice.
It is said even sage Nathamuni who was a yoganishta and who chanted “Kanninun Siruth thambu” a Tamil deivatamil
composed by the Sage Madura kavi Alwar in praise of Nammalwar 12000 times with deep concentration
to see or realise Nammalwar to get the preaching of 4000 verses called Divya deivatamil did not practice Bhakthi yoga.
In Bhakthi yoga it cannot be precisely said that Lord Sriman Narayana will grant Moksha at the end of that birth or janma
in which one may resort to Bhakthi yogam. He may have to take several births before the supreme being grants him moksha.
So nobody will dare to practice Bhakthi yoga in this Kaliyuga.

So in this lecture I will mention merely the names of 32 Brahma vidyas and the name of the upanishad
in which it is mentioned. This information will suffice.
I have already dealt with Sadvidya and Anandamaya vidya. For the sake of the completeness of the list
I repeat their names here and try to give some details of Nyasa vidya at the end.

Name of Brahma Vidya–Name of the upanishad in which it is mentioned–Phala or fruit for Name of the adhikarana in Sri Bhashya in which this vidya is discussed or dealt with.

1-Sadvidya. Uddalaka preaches to Svethakethu–Chandogya – 6th chapter–Moksha phalam–Ikshathyadhikarana
2-Ananda vidya or Anandamaya vidya. This is not preached to anybody.–Taittariya upanishad. Anandavalli–Moksha phalam–Anandamayadhikarana
3-Antharaditya vidya–Chandogya Ist chapter, 6th khanda, 6th Mantra–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Antharadhikarana
4-Akasha vidya–Chandogya Ist chapter, 9th khanda–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Akasa adhikarana

5-Prana vidya–Chandogya 1-11-5–No moksha phalam as this is a part of Udgeetha vidya.–Pranadhikaranam
6-Gayathri Jyothir vidya–Chandogya 3-12–Moksha phalam. Here the attainment of Svarga loka means Moksha–Jyothiradhikaranam
7-Prathardana vidya–Kousithaki upanishad 3rd chapter–Moksha phalam. The person who resorts to this vidya first attains svarga loka abode of Indra and stays there for a considerable period and then goes to Sri Vaikunta–Indra pranadhikaranam.
8-Sandilya vidya–Chandogya 3-14– Agnirahasyam Brihadarayanaka upanishad 7-6-1–Moksha phalam–Sarvatra prasiddhi Adhikaranam

9-Nachiketha vidya. Lord Yama preaches this vidya to Nachi kethas–Kathopanishad–Moksha phalam–Attradhikaranam
10-Upakosala vidya. Sage Satyakama preaches this vidya to upakosala.–Chandogya 4th chapter. 10 to 15 Khandas–Moksha phalam–Antharaa adhikaranam
11-Antaryami vidya–Brihadaranyaka 5th chapter and 7th Brahmanam subalopanishad–Moksha phalam–Antaryami adhikaranam
12-Akshara para vidya–Mundaka upanishad–Moksha phalam–Adrasyatvadi Adhikaranam

13-Vysvanara vidya. King Ashwa pathi teaches this vidya to six sages–Chandogya – 5-11-24–Moksha phalam–Vysvanadhikaranam
14-Bhooma vidya. Sage Sanath kumara preaches this vidya to sage Narada.–Chandogya 7th chapter–Moksha phalam–Bhooma adhikaranam
15-Gargi Aksara vidya–Brihadaranyakam 5-8-8–Moksha phalam–T
16-hrimatra pranava vidya–Prasnopanishad 5-5–Moksha phalam–Ekshathikarmadhikaranam

17-Dahara vidya–Chandogya 8th chapter–Moksha phalam–Daharadhikaranam
18-Angushtha pramitha vidya–Kathopanishad–Moksha phalam–Pramithadhikaranam
19-Jyothisham jyothir vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 6-4-16–Moksha phalam–Madhvadhikaranam
20-Madhu vidya–Chandogya 3-1–Moksha phalam–Madhvadhikaranam

21-Samvarga vidya. Sage Raikva preaches this vidya to king Janasruthi.–Chandogya 4-3–Moksha phalam–Apa sudradikaranam
22-Akasa vidya–Chandogya 8th chapter–Moksha phalam–Arthantara vyapadesadhikaranam
23-Balaki vidya–Kausitaki upanishad. Brihadaranyaka upanishad–Moksha phalam–Jagadva chitvadhikaranam
24-Maitreyi vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 4-4–Moksha phalam–Vakya Anvayadhikaranam

25-Panchagni vidya. King pravahana preaches this vidya to sage Aruni.–Chandogya upanishad 5-3–Moksha phalam enjoing his ownself first and then doing service to the pine couple in Sri Vaikunta para loka.–Tadanthara pratipatti adhikaranam
26-Purusha vidya–Taittiriya upanishad–Moksha phalam–Purusha vidyadhikarana–
27-Akshistha Satya Brahma vidya–Brihadaranyakam upanishad 5-7–Moksha phalam
28-Isavasya vidya–Isavasya upanishad–Moksha phalam

29-Ushasthikahola vidya. Sage Yagna valkya preaches this vidya to ushastha and kahola.–Brihadaranyaka 5-4 and 5-5–Moksha phalam–Antharatvadhikaranam
30-Paryanka vidya–Kaushitaki 1st chapter–Moksha phalam–
31-Vyahrithi vidya–Brihadaranyaka upanishad 7-5-1–Moksha phalam
32-Nyasa vidya–Taittariya upanishad, Svethashwara upanishad–Moksha phalam

Details of Nyasavidya:
Of all the Brahma vidyas listed above, Sri Nyasa vidya is superior most and Sri Swamy desikan in Rahasyatrayasara
says that Bhakthi yoga cannot be even equal to 1/107 Nyasa vidya and this Nyasa vidya is prapatti or saranagathi.

The Taittiriya upanishad says that this Nyasa vidya is superior to all forms of Tapas.
Svetasvara upanishad says that I will surrender at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana who created the
four headed Brahma and preached Vedas to him and by whose grace his knowledge is acquired.
Here surrender means entrusting the responsibility or burden of protecting the soul of a person who does prapatti.
This is called Bhara samarpanam. Protecting the soul means Lord Sriman Narayana granting moksha to him
and he makes him render all service and at all times to him and to his consort Mahalakshmi.

In Sri Bagavad geetha Lord Gitachaarya stipulated to Arjuna to do prapatti at his feet to wash of all his sins
(Punya and Papa) which are standing in the way of his attaining moksha.
This is applicable to all of us while arjuna did not do prapatti and attain Moksha.
The above stipulation is called Charama sloka in Sri Bhagavad geetha. All of us are getting the benefit of the above
stipulation and we are doing prapatti through an Acharya and we will certainly attain Moksha, which is eternal bliss.

The basic definition of prapatti according to Bharatha muni is when any person desires to attain any thing and
when it is not possible by any other means the person makes a prayer to Lord Sriman Narayana to be the means
for the above and make him to attain that thing.

Just like Bhakthiyoga has eight ancillaries and it is called Ashtanga yoga, this prapatti has
five ancillaries and this is called Panchanga yoga.
The basic eligibility factors to do prapatti are Akin chanya and Ananya gathikatva.
Akin chanya is utter in ability to do bhakthi yoga and becoming miserable on account this inability.
Ananya gathikatva means there is no object other than the pine couple Lord Sriman Narayana and Mahalakshmi
(both constitute a single entity) to attain.

This Prapatti can be done by all without distinction of caste, creed, colour or sex.
Prapatti can be done even for animals, trees and non sentient beings because there are jivas (Souls) in all these things.

In prapatti yogyadhikarana of Srimad Rahasyatraya sara Sri Swamy desikan mentions the following four factors
for becoming eligible to do prapatti or Nyasavidya. They are
i) Uttar physical inability to do Bhakthi yoga. This tells inability to do karma yoga which is prerequisite to Bhakthi yoga.
ii) Not possessing the requisite quantum of knowledge to do Bhakthi yoga. This tells in ability to do gnana yoga which is also a prerequisite to Bhakthi yoga. It may also refer to inability to get the concentration of mind required for meditation which is also a form of knowledge.
iii) Being born in a caste inferior to Brahmana, Kshatriya or Vysya or belonging to fair sex.
iv) not being able to bear the delay in attaining moksha because in Bhakthi yoga there is no guarantee that the
individual who does bhakthi yoga attains moksha at the end of that janma or birth itself.
But in prapatti attaining moksha at the end of that birth itself is guarandeed or it is cent percent certainly.

There are fifteen categories of persons who become eligible to do prapatti.
i) Four categories of persons having any one of the above four factors.
ii) Six categories of persons having any two of the above four factors.
iii) Four categories of persons having any three of the above four factors.
iv) One category of persons having all the above factors.

Doing Prapatti is a very very simple affair and it will not last for more than 30 minutes and an one time affair
where Bhakthi yoga has to be repeatedly done for several years and during several births.
Obviously some doubts arise regarding the efficacy of prapatti as to how a short duration prapatti can confer
the same moksha to its doer when it is conferred on a person resorting to Bhakthi yoga for several years and births.
Sri Swami Desikan raises five doubts and gives convincing clarifications or replies.
This is called Sanka panchakam which is as follows.
Doubt I:
When the mean minded gods like Siva, Indra, Four-headed Brahma, Ayyappan, Mariamman etc grant fruits
to persons who make prayers very quickly and when Lord Sriman Narayanan grants fruits after considerable delay
how can he grant fruit or Moksha to a person who does prapatti within the time prayed by a person at the time
doing prapatti and when the person who does prapatti has committed countless number of sins.
Added to this Lord Sriman Narayana is omniscient and knows the sins committed by persons
and he is capable of awarding punishment to persons who have committed sins because he is danda dhara holding the stick always.
Also he gives the fruits of sorrow and happiness according to the deeds (Papa and Punya karmas) of a person.

Reply: Lord Sriman Narayana who has neither equal to him nor superior to him ignores all the sins of the persons
and extends a gracious look at those persons on account of purushakara or recommendation made by a person to him
for condoning all the sins. In the case of prapatti done for Moksha, Goddess Mahalakshmi becomes
purushakara and recommends to the Lord to condone the sins and extend a gracious look.

Doubt II:
How can Lord Sriman Narayana confer the Moksha fruit which is infinite bliss on an individual who has committed
countless sins for his short durationed prapatti?

Reply: There is the relationship of “Seshi Sesha” between Lord Sriman Narayana and the inpidual soul.
“Seshi” is Swami or Master who expects service from Sesha or servant. So the Lord wants persons to come to him
to do service to him and Mahalakshmi eternally. This aspect makes him grant infinite eternal bliss to that person who does Prapatti.

Doubt III:
Still the doubt arises as to how the Supreme Lord Grant moksha for a too small and insignificant act of Prapatti?

Reply: Lord possesses virtuous and auspicious qualities Daya and Vatsalya etc.
Vatsalya means unlimited affection shown to an inpidual like a cow towards a just born calf.
Daya or Karunya is the quality by virtue of which the Lord exhibits limitless compassion towards a person in
distress and sincerely wants to relieve the distress without expecting any return out of it.
Vatsalya also means ignoring the drawbacks of an individual.
These qualities make the lord to grant moksha for the too small act of prapatti.

Doubt IV:
How can the Lord grant moksha without delay?

Reply: The supreme being has the vyapara or action (business) of willing and his strong and unshakable will
cannot be changed by any body. This is called satya sankalpa. This makes him grant Moksha without delay
at the time prayed by an inpidual soul while doing prapatti. In this context it should be noted that
there are two categories of prapannas (one who does prapatti is called prapanna).
The categories are Driptha prapannas and Arthi prapannas. A driptha prapanna wants Moksha at the end of his life or janma.
Arthi prapanna who gets disgusted or vexed with samsara wants Moksha soon after doing prapatti.
Lord accepts both druptha prapatti and artha prapatti and grand us moksha at the time prayed during Prapatti without any delay.

Doubt V:
How can the Lord grant moksha without any descriminating among the persons who do prapatti?

Reply: There is a purpose or prayojana derived by the lord in accepting Prapatti.
Any person who takes refuge under him becomes a true devotee or Ashritha. His main purpose is to protect
the individual who becomes a true devotee. So there is no question of any descrimination in granting moksha to persons who do prapatti.

The five ancillaries of Prapatti Yoga
As already said prapatti is a panchanga yoga. The angas or ancillaries are
i)Anukulyasya sankalpa:- This means that person who does prapatti at the feet of the Lord should always be favourable to the Lord.
This in other words mean that he should always act according to sastras which contain the dictates of the Lord.
It also means kritya karana that is what is to be done has to be done that is doing Nitya naimittika karma anushtana.
Also sentient and non sentient beings are the bodies of paramatma. Acting favourable to them
ii) Pratikulyasya varjanam:- This means refraining from doing things which are not to the liking of the Paramatma.
This also means Akritya Akarana that is not doing things which are prohibited.
Paramaatma’s mandates or dictates are contained inscriptures or sastras and we should not go against them.
Also refraining from thinking that one is a master of one’s own self is also pratikulyasya varjanam.
This also implies that one should be harm less to-wards sentient and non sentient beings.
iii)Rakshishyathi Iti Vishwasa:- This is also called Mahavishwasa which is the most important anga of prapatti.
Vishwasa is faith. One should have absolute and un shakeble faith in the supreme being and his granting the fruit after accepting our prapatti.
iv) Gopthritva varanam:- This means requesting the paramatma to be the protector of our souls (Jivas)
by granting moksha in response to our prapatti. It also means making a humble submission to the
Lord Sriman Narayana what we actually desire.
v) Karpanya:- This indicates our humble ness. That is our uttar inability to do Bhakthi yoga which is called
upaayaantara and realising that the object to be attained cannot be anything other than Lord Sriman Narayana
and his consert Mahalakshmi. Not having means other than prapatti is called upaayaantara sunyatva which is called Akinchanya.
Not having object to be attained in the Moksha other than the pine couple is called Prapyantara sunyatva which is called
Ananyagathi katvam. So Karpanyam denotes the above.

After thinking of the above five ancillaries the angi of samarpanam should be done which is also a mental activity.
There are three samarpanas which are
i)Svarupa samarpanam – The intrinsic nature of jivatma was given by paramatma and it has to be offered back to him.
ii)Bhara samarpanam – Placing the responsibility or the burden of the protecting the jivatma (Soul) at the lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana.
iii)Phala samarpanam – After reaching Sri Vaikuntham the mukthatma does eternal service to the Divine Couple there
and the divine couple become pleased with this service.

The actual enjoyers of the moksha phalam are divine couple and this enjoyment makes the muktatma attain the eternal bliss.
So the fruit of moksha should also be offered to the divine couple and this is called Phala samarpanam.

Some important points in this prapatti are
i)Lord Sriman Narayana is suddho paya or ready means. So he is the granter of moksha to a person
after getting pleased with his prapatti done at his feet.
ii)Because a person cannot do Bhakthi Yoga which is the established means in the upanishads, the person
who does prapatti places paramatma in the place of Bhakthi yoga and does bhara samarpanam.
This is called upayantara sthana nivesha that is requesting paramatma to be in the place of Bhakthiyoga.
iii) The auspicious attributes to be thought while doing Prapatti. Firstly the Purushakara (recommendor) prapaththi is done at the feet of Goddess Mahalakshmi for catching the attention of Sriman Narayana towards the person.

For doing Purushakara prapatti, the attributes of Goddess Mahalakshmi are
(a) Satyatva, Gnanatva, Ananthatva,anandatva, Amalatva and vishnu patnitva. These are the svarupa nirupaka dharmas (attributes) of Mahalakshmi.
(b) Attributes which are helpful for doing Prapatti. These are called upayatva upayuktha guna:
without which neither Mahalakshmi nor paramatma cannot be siddhopaya or ready means.
They are twelve in number.
1-Vatsalya – Ignoring or not seeing the blemish of the inpidual who does prapatti.
2-Svamitva – Being master
3-Sausilya – Free mingling with devotees.
4-Saulabhya – Easy accessibility
5-Sarvajnatva – Omniscience that is knowing everything.
6-Satya sankalpatva – Strong and unshakeable will.
7-Paramakarunikatva – having deep mercy with an intention to relieve the suffering of the devotees without expecting any return or reward.
8-Kritagnatva – Possessing a sense of gratitude.
9-Sthiratva – Strong desire in protecting devotees.
10-Paripurnatva – having all desires fulfilled.
11-Sarvasakthitva – Omnipotent.
12-Paramodaratva – deep desire to offer any thing and every thing to the devotees.

The above attributes are also applicable to Lord Sriman Narayana and they are to be thought while doing
Prapatti at his lotus feet. Instead of Vishnu patnitvam, Sriyapatitvam is to be considered in the case of Paramatma.
An important point to be noted in this context is that Lord Sriman Narayana will cancel prapatti done by a person
if he continuously devoted towards a Devatantara like Siva, Murugan, Ganesha, Ayyappan and others and
if a person commits sin or apachara with Brahmavits and Bhagavathas who are extremely devoted to-wards Sriman Narayana, the supreme being.


ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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