Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 3–(Sadhana)Paatham 1–(‘Vairagya pada’)Summary-

The third chapter is called “Sadhana” Adhyaya dealing with means (upayam) of attaining moksha or eternal bliss.
The first two chapters exclusively dealt with the entity who is the cause of the universe
(material cause, operational cause and instrumental cause) and dealt with the objects created by him.
It was conclusively and irrevocably established that Lord Sriman Narayana who is called Brahman or even Para Brahman
is the cause of the universe in the first chapter known as Samanvaya Adhyaya and
in the first two padas of the second chapter which is called as “Avirodha Adhyaya”.
In the 3rd and 4th quarters in the 2nd Adhyaya the objects created by the Brahman and their nature were discussed and decided.

There are four padas in this chapter which are called
(1) Vairagya pada (2) Ubhaya linga pada (3) Gunopasamhara pada (4) Anga pada.
There are two essential prerequisites for a person to adopt the means for attaining Moksha.
The prerequisites are
(1) a sense of detachment from worldly pleasures which is called Vairagya
(2) an intense or extreme desire to attain the lotus feet of Lord Sriman Narayana in the super world called Sri Vaikunta pya loka.

If these two prerequisites are there then only a person resorts to Bhakthi yoga which is deep meditation
on the Lord Sriman Narayana which is having eight ancillaries and this bhakthi yoga is known as Ashtanga yoga.
An individual soul who is in the bondage of samsara has four phases or states of his remaining in a mortal body.
The four phases are
1)State of awakening: This is called Jagrath Avastha. Avastha means phase or state , Jagrath means awakening.
2)State of sound or deep sleep: This is called sushupthi Avastha. Sushupthi means sound sleep.
3)State of seeing dreams: This is called Svapna Avastha. Svapna means dreams.
4)State of unconsciousness or coma state: This is called MoorchaVastha. Moorcha means unconsciousness.

So the Sutrakarar who is the sage Badarayana felt if the drawbacks or defects in the above four phases
are highlighted in the first pada, then the person who hears these will develop vairagya or sense of detachment
in the worldly pleasures and then begins to do meditation or bhakthi yoga to attain moksha.
In this first pada the defects in the state of awakening are dealt with while
in the second pada the defects in the other three states namely state of sound sleep,
state of seeing dreams and coma state are dealt with.

The reason for this is that in these three states some auspicious attributes that is in other words
Kalyana gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana are also established.
The Kalyana guna in the state of seeing dreams is that Lord Sriman Narayana is creator of objects we see in the dreams.
The Kalyana guna in to state of deep sleep is that Lord Sriman Narayana allows the inpidual soul
to sleep on him only as he is antaryami and dwells in the heart of every body.
The Kalyana guna in the case of coma state is that Lord Sriman Narayana protects the individual soul from departing from the body.

In the second pada which is called ubhaya linga pada the Sutrakarar establishes two basic characteristics of Lord
Sriman Narayana which are (1) being blemishless and (2) repository of infinite number of Kalyana gunas.
These two characteristics are known as ubhaya linga.
Ubhaya means two and linga means basic characteristic or distinction.
This establishment of ubhaya linga of Lord Sriman Narayana became necessary because of the fact that
the object to be attained by a jiva by doing either bhakthi yoga or prapatti (also known as Saranagathi.)
in Sri Vaikunta pya loka, must be much superior to him in all respects.

In the third pada of this chapter which is called Guna upasamhara pada the various brahma vidyas in upanishads are discussed.
Vidhya is knowledge of meditation and Brahma vidya means knowledge of meditation on Brahman who is Lord Sriman Narayana.
Meditation is a mental activity based on knowledge of Brahman.
This Brahma vidya is nothing but Bhakthi yoga which is a means for attaining eternal bliss.

The last pada of this third chapter is called Anga pada. Anga means ancillary and this pada deals with
the essential ancillaries required for doing Bhakthi yoga.

So Summing up this third chapter mainly deals with Sadhana or means of attaining the eternal bliss.
As already said the first pada which is also called Vairagya pada highlights the defects in the state of awakening of jiva
who is struggling in this Samsara.
This deals with the process of reappearance of jiva in this world after his enjoyment in heaven or swarga loka or
after his suffering in the hell which is called naraka loka.

To explain this process a particular portion in the fifth chapter of chandogyopanishad is considered.
This portion is briefly dealt with here as this happens to be the basic upanishadic text for discussion in this pada.
Svetha kethu the son of the Sage Aruni was sent to a king named as Pravahana who was the son of the Jibila.
This King asks Svethukethu under whom he has received instructions or in other words he has been taught
for which Svethakethu replied that his father has taught him.
The King puts him the following five questions.
1) The place or destination to which a Jiva who has done yagas, goes after departing from the mortal body in this world.
2) The route in which the Jiva comes back to this world for rebirth after his enjoyment in Swarga loka.
3) The difference between Deva yana route and pithru yana route.

It may be mentioned in this context that there are three destinations for a Jivatma departing from the mortal body in this world.
The destinations are
(a) Sri Vaikunta pya loka and this destination can be reached by a Jiva who has done Bhakthi Yoga or Prapatthi.
The route for this destination is called Deva yana marga and it is also called Archiradi gathi.
b) Swarga loka or heaven which can be attained by a Jiva who does sacrifices like Jyothishtoma yaga etc.
The route to this loka is called pithru yana marga also called as dhoomadi marga.
This Jiva is called Ishtadhikari which will be elaborated later.
c) The third destination is the Naraka loka or hell which is reached by a Jiva who commits heinous crimes and sins in this world.
He is called anishtadhikari. The route to this Naraka loka is of a very difficult terrain and the route is called as Kashta marga.
4) 4th question – why the heaven or Svarga loka is not filled up by Jivas.
5) How the Jiva returning from heaven to earth assumes the body in a mother’s womb after he goes through four agnies or fire.

In this context it requires the mention of five agnies or fires through which a Jiva goes through
before entering the mother’s womb and then he comes out of the mother’s womb with a rebirth in this world
to again enjoy the fruits of the balance of his punya and papa in this world.
The five agnies are heaven, Rain, Earth, male person and female person.
The Jiva after his enjoyment of punya in svarga loka is poured in to the fire of heaven
Just like ghee is poured in to the Sacrificial fire.
From the heaven Jiva comes in to the rain which falls on to the earth.
When the rain falls on earth the crops are grown and then Jiva enters in to the grains of the crops like paddy wheat
or any other eatable crop. Then Jiva enters in to the body of a male person through the food which
the male person eats and lies within his semen who becomes father. Jiva enters in to the womb of the mother
through semen during the mating of father and mother. Then the Jiva assumes a body in the mother’s womb and dwells there
for ten months or little more or less and comes out of the mother’s womb, and takes a rebirth.
The child grows and enjoys the fruits of the balance of punya and papa and again does punya and papa
during his life time and again goes to the other world heaven or hell and again comes back,
in the process explained above and this cycle of birth and death continue till he attains moksha or Salvation
after doing Bhakthi Yoga or prapatthi. The five agnies mentioned above are not the real fires and
they are only compared to the agnies to drive home the point the process involved in the Jiva taking rebirth in this world.
The sanskrit names to the five agnies referred to above are Dhyu.(heaven) ParJanya (rain) , Prithivi (earth) ,
Purusha (male person) and Yoshith (female person).
The substances that are poured in these agnies are Sraddha, Somaraja, Varsham, Annam and rethas.
Sraddha is in liquid form, Somaraja is the beautiful body of Jiva in heaven. Varsha means rain. Annam means food, rethas means semen.

In the light of the above we can now take the adhikaranas in this pada for discussion and conclusion.
There are six adhikaranas in this pada.
The first adhikaranam is known as “Thadanthara Pratipatti adhikaranam”.
The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam is the particular portion of the upanishadic text in chandogya upanishad
which was dealt with above. The doubt that arises here is whether the Jiva who goes from one world to the other is
always associated with the five elements i.e Sky, Air, Fire, Water and Earth in their comic form.
These five bhuthas in cosmic form are called “Bhutha Sukshmas”. This mortal body is made up of five bhuthas
and hence this body is known as Pancha bhoutika Sareeram. These bhutha sukshmas, should always go along with
Jiva to facilitate him to assume a body in the mother’s womb for the sake of rebirth.

The opponent or poorva pakshi contends that Jiva becomes associated with bhutha sukshmas where ever he goes
because they are easily available. This contention is refuted by the Sutrakara in
the first sutra of this Adhikarana which reads as
“Thadanthara Prati paththan ramhathi Samparishvaktha: Prasna niroo panabhyam”.

The meaning of this sutra is when ever Jiva goes from one world to the other (from one body to other body)
he is always associated with the bhutha sukshmas because this fact is revealed in the questions
put by the king Pravahana and the answers he himself gave. As soon as Jiva enters in to the svarga loka
for enjoyment he assumes a beautiful body there for the enjoyment of the pleasures there and
this body he gets out of the “ Sraddha” poured in to the fire of heaven by Devas who are said to be Indriyas.
This “Sraddha” is in the liquid form which contains both Jiva and bhutha Sukshmas.

This Adhikarana has seven sutras.
In all these sutras the Sutrakara refutes the contention of the poorva pakshi based on some upanishadic sayings
in this context and establishes the fact that Jiva goes from one body to the other always associated with Bhutha sukshmas.
It is said that Indriyas also go along with Jiva. The points contained in the other sutras are briefly narrated as follows.

a) It is said in the upanishadic text that the semen from the body of the father which flows in to the mother’s womb
assumes a human body. So when the Jiva is in contact with the semen in the liquid form and enters in to the womb of the mother
it should be said that Jiva is in contact with the liquid which belongs to the Bhutha (element) of water.
Then the doubt arises whether the Jiva is in contact with the other bhutha sukshmas or not.
The Sutrakara clears this doubt by saying that the semen which is in liquid form comprises of all the five bhuthas
in minute form on account of Pancheekaranam explained earlier
(Pancheekaranam is called Trivrithkaranam in Chandogyo Upanishad) and in this liquid the water has a major component.

b)It is also said that when Jiva departs from the mortal body at the time of death, the mukya prana and
all the eleven senses go along with the Jiva. In Bhagavad geethaa Lord krishna says that when ever Jiva departs
from one body and enters in to another body after his sojourn in heaven as the case may be
he is always in conjunction with the indriyas and Bhutha sukshmas.

c) Again it is said in this portion of Upanishadic that when Jiva departs from the body his speech which is an indriya
gets absorbed in the Agni (fire) , the mukya prana gets absorbed in the air and the eyes get absorbed in Surya. (Sun god) .
The doubt arises in this context that when the senses get absorbed how it is possible for these senses to go along with the Jiva.
The Sutrakara clears this doubt stating that the literal meaning need not be attached to this upanishadic saying
because of the fact it is also said in continuation of the above, that hairs in the body get absorbed in plants
and the hairs in the head get absorbed in trees and this absorption is not true because we physically see the
hairs in the dead body and hence they do not disappear. Hence literal meaning should not be attached to the above.

d) Again the opponent contends that in the heaven which is mentioned as the first fire. Sraddha is poured into it
and not watery substance which is semen, how can jiva go accompanied with Bhutha sukshmas.
The Sutrakara says that Sraddha means water or watery substance and hence there is no inconsistency in the upanishadic statement.

e) Once again the opponent contends that there is no mention of jiva in this upanishadic statement
and hence he does not go associated with bhutha sukshmas.
For this, Sutrakarar replies saying that in the very next upanishadic saying it is said that the Ishtadhikari
who is a jiva and who has done yagas goes to heaven to assume a beautiful body there for the enjoyment of pleasures
there and at the conclusion of enjoyment there he comes back to this world for rebirth.
The beautiful body he assumes there is called Somaraja. This body called Somaraja he assumes after pouring of Sraddha
in the first agni or fire called heaven and finally the jiva comes back to earth for taking a rebirth
after the same “Snaddha” which in liquid form or watery substance and which in other words
called “Semen” enters in to the mother’s womb. So there is the mention of jiva in this context
and he goes there and comes back associated with bhutha sukshmas.

f) The opponent took advantage of another saying in the upanishad relating to this context to reiterate his point
that jiva does not go associated with bhutha sukshmas. The saying is that jiva is an eatable substance to
devas or celestial people in heaven when he goes there. The opponent says that as jiva cannot be eaten,
the somaraja the name given to jiva and his beautiful body in the svarga loka cannot be a jiva.
This view of the opponent is countered by Sutrakara by saying that jiva is not eaten there but
his enjoyment there is equal to that of devas and he also becomes an aide to them there.
So there is no literal meaning to the statement that he is eaten there by Devas.

Hence Jiva goes to heaven accompanied by “Bhutha Sookshmas”.

The Second adhikaranam in this chapter is called “Krithathyadhikaranam”.
Here the topic for discussion is whether the jiva who after the enjoyment of pleasures in the svarga loka
reborns in this world with the balance of punya and papa or without any balance of karma.
The opponent or the poorvapakshi is of the view that jiva returns to earth with the nil balance of karma
which comprises both punya and papa. In support of his contention he cites an upanishadic text which says
that jiva will remain in svarga loka till his punya karma is exhausted and then he will return to this world
without any balance of karma. There is also another Upanishadic statement which also confirms his above view point.

The Sutrakara refutes the above contention of the poorva pakshi in the sutra which reads as
“Krithathyaye Anusayavan rishtasmrithibyam Yathetham Anevamcha”.
The meaning of the above sutra is that Jiva returns back to this earth with a balance of punya and papa karma
and takes a rebirth because of some special statements in upanishads and smrithis and
also he takes a slightly changed route while descending from heaven to earth.
The upanishadic statement is that those who have done good deeds and acquired punya will born here in
superior castes and those who have done bad deeds or who have committed sins and acquired papam will born here
in inferior castes and even as animals. Those who have done virtuous deeds are called Ramaniya charana,
while those who have committed sins are called Kapuya charana. Charana means deeds.

The route taken by a jiva during his ascending to heaven which is called dhoomadi marga is as follows.
This route is also called pithru yanamarga. Dhooma (Smoke), Rathri (night),
Aparapaksham (Krishna paksha or fortnight ending in Amavasya), Dakshinayana and then Pithruloka,
Akasa, moon and then heaven. The route while descending is Moon, Akasha, Vayu, Dhooma, Abhram, Megha.
Abhram means water borne cloud, Megha is also cloud which is about to rain.
The difference in the above two routes is in the ascending there is pithru loka and no vayu loka and
in the descending there is vayu loka and no pithru loka.

The above mentioned names in the route are all lokas as well as names of celestial gods and
each of them conducts the jiva through each one’s territory and the next in the order takes charge of the jiva.
The view point of the poorva pakshi countering the sutrakarar’s above statement is That charana referred to
above in the upanishadic text, means only righteous conduct or Achara which is also synonimous with words
like Seelam and Vrittam because it is said in Taittariya Upanishad that doings or activities which are
flawless alone are to be done and also it is said that good deeds alone are to be performed.

Here in this context the viewpoints of the two disciples of the sage Badarayana are mentioned.
The Names of the disciples are Sage Karshna jini and Sage Badari.
Therefore the above sage namely Karshna jini contends that righteous conduct alone is responsible
for the jiva to take rebirth in superior castes and not Anushaya which meant balance of punya and papa karma.

In this context I think it is necessary to keep you all informed regarding what we have to do daily
in keeping with the preachings of our ancient Rishies contained in Smrithies and scriptures.
What we have to do daily comprises of two important components namely (1) Nityakarmanushthana and (2) Naimiththika Karmanushthana.
I. Nithya Karmanushthana(Obligatory rites)
Nithyakarmanushtana refers to what we have to do daily which is elaborated below sequence wise one after the other.
(a)Taking bath after doing Sankalpa for the same. This sankalpa has to be done after doing Achamana and Pranayama.
(b) After the bath the dhothi has to be worn. A married person should wear the dhothi with a Kachcha which is most important.
Kachcha means the hem of the lower garment tucked in to the waist band. Without having a kachcha a married is not fit
to do any Vaidika karma like Sandhyavandanam and every other thing there after. A bachelor should not wear the kachcha.
(c) Having Urdhvapundras at 12 places in the body if Pancha Samskara has been undergone.
Otherwise a single urdhvapundra on the forehead (Face) will do.
(d)Doing Snananga devarshi tarpana.
(e) Doing Pratha sandhyavandanam with Gayathri japa atleast 10 times.
(f)Those who have undergone Panchasamskara, should ashtakshara manthra japam.
(g) Adhara sakthi tarpanam.
(h) Devarshi Kandarshi tarpanam
(i) Brahma yagnam.
(j) Madhyanhikam with atleast 10 times Gayathri japam.
(k) Worshipping or doing Thiruvaradhanam to Salagrama murthi and then Vaisvadeva and Pancha maha yajnam.
(l) Doing Sandhyavandam in the evening with atleast 10 times Gayathri japam and Vaishvadeva in the evening.
Important Note: – Doing Sandhyavandam thrice a day is the most essential pre requisite for doing any Vaidika karma.
Without sandhyavandana no brahmin in general and Sri Vaishna in particular has no basic eligibility to do any other karma.
It is said that “Sandhyaheena : Asuchi : nityam. Anarha : Sarva Karmasu.”
The body of one who does not do sandhyavandanam is always polluted (impure) and unfit for doing any other karma.

II. Naimiththika Karmanushthana (Occasional rituals)
The Naimiththika karmas have to be done only on special days as detailed below.
(a) Upakarma on full moon day in the month of Sravana.
(b) Gayathri japam on the next day of Upakarma
(c) Special pujas on the days of Sri Jayanthi, Sri Rama navami and Narasimha jayanthi and also on the day of Thirukkarthigai.
(d) Father ceremony and mother ceremony to be performed by those whose parents are not alive.
They have to do the following Tarpanas. Amavasya tarpana, Tarpana on the Sankramanam days (Commencement of Solar month),
Mahalaya Tarpana, Tarpana on the days of Ashtaka and Anvashtaka in the month of “Masi” (Kumbha month).
Tarpana on the occasion of Solar and Lunar eclipses.

If the above things are performed without lapse then only a person is said to possess Achara.
It is said that Vedas do not purify a person without having Achara.
The viewpoint of the Sage Karshnajini in this context is that the upanishadic text Ramaneeya charana
must be construed as Nitya and Naimittika karma performed by an individual soul as elaborated above and
he is said to be associated with Achara or righteous conduct.
The punya karma is the yaga and the yaga can be performed by observing the basic principles of Achara as explained above.
The Kapuya charana in the upanishad refers to papakarma or sinful acts and obviously the above basic principles
of Achara are given a go by. The enjoyment of Sukha is the result of the punya karma and suffering is the result of papa karma.

The poorva pakshi raises the doubt in this context that righteous conduct or Achara prescribed in Vedas
and smrithies become purposeless if they are not of any use to jiva and this doubt is cleared by the
Sage karshnajini who says that if there is no Achara to a person he does not get the basic eligibility to do a punya karma.

The sage Badari expresses his viewpoint in this context that charana mentioned in the Sruthi or upanishad means
only the performance of good or bad deeds Punya or Papa Karma. So the upanishadic statement Ramaniya charana :
and Kapuya charana means the Punya, Papa Karma and a Jiva descends to earth for a rebirth with the balance of
punya, Papa karma. Doing SandhyaVandana is a must and there is no relaxation in this point.

The third AdhiKaranam in this pada is called as “Anishta dikarya dhikaranam”.
In this world there are only three categories of human beings. They are
(1) Ishtadhikari – one who does only good deeds or Punya karya as per scriptures.
This includes performance of Yagas besides Nitya, Naimittika, Karmanushtanas. These ishtadhikaries go to heaven.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja in Saranagathi gadya mentions five categories of sinful acts.
They are (a) Akrithya karana which means doing a thing which should not be done.
(b) Krithya akarana – not doing a thing which should be done.
(c) Bhagavada apachara – Apachara means misconduct. Bhagavath apachara means misconduct towards the Lord Sriman Narayana.
This means not being devotional to-wards Sriman Narayana and at the same time remaining dis respectful to-wards him.
(d) remaining disrespectful towards Bhagavathas who are extremely devoted to-wards Lord Sriman Narayana.
(e) Committing of heinous crimes. This is called Asahya Apachara.

So Ishtadhi Karies are those who do what is to be done (Kritya Karana ) and who will not do
what is not to be done ( Akrithya Akarana) and who will not commit Bhagavadapachara, Bhagavathi Apachara and Asahya Pachara.
These ishtadhikaries attain heaven through the route knowns dhooma dhi marga as already mentioned.

The second category is
2)Anishta dhikaries – Those who do what should not be done ( Akrithiya karana),
Those who do not do what is to be done, commit Bhagavathapachara, Bhagavathapachara and Ashyapachara are the Anishtadhi karies.
They go to hell through the route of a difficult terrain which is called kashta marga.

3) The third category is Mokshadhikaris – Those who desire to attain eternal bliss by developing
a sense of detachment from wordly pleasures and also from heavenly pleasures which do not last long are mokshadhikaries.
They do Bhakthi Yoga or do Saranagathi at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana and attain Moksha
( Sri Vaikunta pya loka) through the route called Archiradi marga or Deva yana marga.

The topic for discussion in this Adhikarana whether these Anishtadhikaris go to Moon before going to hell.
The room for this doubt arises out of a statement of Kawshitaki Upanishad which says that
those who depart from this world would invariably go to moon and converse with him.
According to this statement all the three categories of human beings go to moon before reaching
their respective destinations. This statement is a very general statement.

This Adhikaranam has ten sutras out of which
five sutras are Purva Paksha Sutras
and the remaining five sutras are siddhantha sutras.

In the first five sutras the opponent or Poorva pakshi is assertive of the fact that even Anishtadhikaries
go to moon after undergoing punishment awarded to them for their sinful acts in narakas or hells.
The first sutra reads as “Anishthadhikarinamapicha Srutham”.
The meaning of this Sutra is that we hear in the Kausitaki upanishad that even anishtadinakaries
as explained above go to moon because the upanishadic statement is general in saying that
all those who depart from this world go to moon without any distinction.

In the second sutra, to Sutrakara clears the doubt that both Ishtadikaries and anishtadi karies go to moon
in the same route by saying that going to moon by anishtadikaries is after undergoing punishment
in hells which are under the control of Lord Yama.

In the next Sutra , the Sutrakara reminds of a sloka in Vishnu purana in which the sage Parasara says
that all those who depart from this world will be under the control of Yama.

In the sutra next to the above it is said that there are seven hells or narakas to which those
who commit sinful acts go for undergoing punishment.
The names of the seven hells are Rourava, Sukara, Rodha, Thala, Vishasana, Mahajwala, Taptha kumbha.
Actually in Vishnu purana, sage Parasara identifies twenty eight hells and gives the names of them.
Sage parasara also elaborates by saying the various sins that could be committed by the human beings
and the name of the hell to which a particular jiva goes after committing a particular sinful act.

In the next sutra it is said that all the hells are under the control of yama and therefore
what ever may be the name of the hell to which a sinner goes, he goes to yamasadana or house of yama
because all hells are within the jurisdiction or control of yama. The sinner goes to the hell under
the orders of yama only just like an offender is remanded to a jail by a judge.

After expressing the views of purva pakshi by five sutras in which he argued that even an
anishtadhikari goes to moon after his punishment in hell
the sutrakarar in the next five sutras refutes the above viewpoint and gives some additional information in this context.

The first of these five sutras reads as “Vidyakarmanorithi thu Prakrathathvath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Anishtadhikaries do not go to moon and going to moon is confined to only
ishtadhikaries and mokshadhikaries. The word “Thu” in the sutra means the viewpoint of the opponent is refuted or rejected.
This is a convention in Brahma sutras that wherever there is word “Thu” in any of Brahma sutras
it means the viewpoint of the opponent is rejected.

The word “Vidya” in the sutra refers to mokshadhikaries who practices Brahmavidya which is Bhakthi yoga.
Even the saranagathi or prapaththi done at the feet of the lord instead of Bhakthi yoga is called Nyasa vidya.
The word “Karma” referred to in the sutra means ishtadhikaris.
The reason given by the Sutrakara is that in the chandogyopanishad in which king Pravahana tells the sage Aruni
that in the Devayana marga or route through which the mokshadhikaries go to Sri Vaikuntam meet the moon and converse with him.
As already mentioned Devayana marga is also called Archiradimarga.

He further tells in the pithru yana marga through which ishtadhikaris go to heaven, they meet the moon
and converse with him. This Pithru yana marga is called Dhoomadi marga as already mentioned.
So the position of the moon in these two routes is a junction point. So two separate routes mentioned above
starting from Agniloka in Deva yana marga and starting from Dhoomaloka in pitru yana marga converge
at the position of moon and again perge one leading to Sri Vaikuntam and the other leading to heaven.

It should be noted here that narakas (hells) are located below the Bhuloka or earth where as
heaven and Vaikunta pya loka are above earth. Moon are above earth. So the possibilities of the
anishtadhikaries who go to hell below earth meeting the moon is completely ruled out.

In the sutra next to the above, another doubt is cleared.
The opponent says when there is no question of anishtadhikari going to moon, how can the jiva of this anishtadhikari
who is also called papa karmi take rebirth in this world without the jiva entering the mother’s womb from the father’s body.
This process of the jiva entering into mother’s womb from the body of the father is called “Panchama Ahuthi”.
The king Pravahana asked Svethakethu as told in the beginning whether he knows how a jiva assumes a body
in the mother’s womb after the pancham ahuthi.

This doubt is cleared by the Sutrakarar by saying that for the third category of Anishtadhikaries
(the first two category are Ishtadhikaries and Mokshadhikaris) no Panchamahuthi is required for those jivas
to take rebirth in this world. These jivas of Anishtadhikaries who return from hell after undergoing punishment
there are born as creatures and insects. These creatures and insects born and die at very frequent intervals.
These insects and creatures can born as human beings if they have done punya during any of their innumerable previous births.
Lord Sriman Narayana alone who is omniscient and who alone grants fruits for punya and papa karmas
knows who has done punya karma to take birth as a human being.
Pravahana tells gowthama (another name of Svethakethu’s father that on account of these
Anishtadhikaris not going to heaven it is not getting filled up.

The Sutrakara in the further sutras says that in the case of jivas who have done extraordinary punya karmas
can take birth in this world without Panchamahuthi just like Draupadi the wife of Pandavas who appeared in this world
from the sacrificial fire or Agni kunda.
The Sutrakara further says that in the upanishads it is said that there are three
categories of living beings or organisms in this world. There is a fourth category also.
These categories are,
(1)Jivajam also called as Jarayujam – These are the living beings who are born on account of the
mating of male and female partners. They are human beings, animals like cows, goats, dogs etc.
All these require panchamahuthi.
(2)Andajam – These are living beings appearing in this world from eggs.
They are snakes, birds etc. Panchamahuthi is required.
(3)Svedajam – Insects or organisms appearing on account of heat. For example if rice or any other food grain
is kept without exposure to the air or sun, some insects appear in them. These are called Svedajas.
(4)Udhbijjam – These are the plants emerging above ground on account of the sowing of their respective seeds.

Among the above categories, panchamahuthi is not required in the case of svedajam and uthbijjam categories.
So jivas who have committed only sins will not go to moon.

The fourth adhikarana in this pada is called That Svabhavyapaththi adhikaranam.
Now it is eatablished that Ishtadhikaries return to this earth with balance of punya and papa karma after meeting moon.
While descending from heaven it was also said that jivas come in contact with
Akasha (Sky), Vayu (Air), Dhooma (Smoke), Abhram (Water bearing cloud), Megha (Cloud which rains)
and they fall on earth through rain water.

The doubt arises here that whether the jivas are merely in contact with the above while returning to earth or
whether they enjoy anything there like soma bhava in heaven or human bhava in this world.

This doubt is cleared by Sutrakarar in the sutra “Thath Svabhavyapatti: upapaththe:”.
The meaning is that jivas become similar to the above and there is no question of any enjoyment there.
There is only enjoyment in the case of a soma bhava in heaven and manushya bhava in this world.

The fifth adhikarana is called “Nathichiradhikarana”.
The doubt that arises here is whether jivas stay in the lokas like Akasha, Vayu etc.
and up to their entering into the food grain like paddy for a long time or for a short time.
The Upanishad says that the exit of jivas from out of the food grains and entering in to the bodies of
male beings is rather very difficult. When the Upanishad says this particularly in the case of jivas
in the food grains like paddy etc. it should be constructed or inferred that jivas do not stay
for a long period in Akasha, Vayu, dhooma, abhram and megha and they come out quickly from the above.

The last adhikarana in this pada is called “Anyadhisthitha adhikarana”.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is whether the jiva who has descended from the heaven
for rebirth and who has entered in to the food grain like paddy assumes the paddy grain as his body
for enjoyment or merely gets associated with it.
The room for this doubt is the upanishadic statement which says that the jivas who fall on earth
through the rains are born in the form paddy and other food grains.
Because it is said as born the above doubt arose. The opponent says that literal meaning should be attached
to the word “born” and just as we say the man was born it should be said the jiva is born assuming the body of paddy grain.

This contention of the poorva pakshi is countered by the Sutrakara who says in the first sutra
which reads as “Anyadhishtithe Poorvavath Abhilapath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. The paddy grain is the body of another jiva who has specifically assumed it
on account of his papa karma and he is subject to suffering in this where as the jiva who has come down
from heaven for rebirth in this world in superior caste, inferior caste or any animal or creature
according to his Anusaya which is the balance of his punya, papa karma gets merely associated with
the paddy grain as in the case of Akasha, Vayu, dhooma etc.

The poorva pakshi contests the above contention saying that jiva is subject to the suffering
by assuming the body of paddy grain on account of the sin committed by him by killing an animal
in the yaga and offering the same to the celestial gods through the sacrificial fire.
It is said that animals and creatures should not be harmed, hurt or killed.
If the animal is killed it is a sinful act.
But at the same time the veda says that a yaga has to be performed by killing the animal.
As this is a sinful act the jiva under goes punishment by assuming the body of a paddy grain
even though prior to this the jiva attained heaven and enjoyed all the pleasures there.

This argument of the purva pakshi is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra, “Asudda mitchenna sabdath”.
“Asuddhamithi ceth” means the killing of the animal is a sinful act which the opponent says.
The Sutrakara says by the words “Nasabdath” refutes the above and asserts that animal killing is not a sinful act
because the jiva in the animal killed during the performance of yaga goes to swarga and
assumes a beautiful body there and enjoys all the pleasures there.
The jiva enters in to the body of a male member through the food he eats and assumes a body
in the mother’s womb after entering in to the mother’s body from the body of the father.

The first pada of the third chapter concludes with this Adhikarana.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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