Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam-Athyaayam 2-Paatham 4–(‘Indriya pada’)Summary-

The 4th quarter of the 2nd chapter is called Indriya pada,
because it deals with creation of Indriyas, Number of Indriyas, Creation of Mukya prana
(The air that we breathe) and some allied topics.

This Indriya pada settles the domestic quarrel that arose on account of the fact that there are upanishadic texts
which say there is no creation of Indriyas and in contradiction of the above
there are some other upanishadic texts which say that there is creation of Indriyas.

The dispute is also there regarding the number of Indriyas which are called senses, and their size.
Further the doubt regarding the creation of Mukya prana is cleared in this pada and finally
the Sutrakarar establishes the fact that Lord Sriman Narayana does the task of giving name and form for each substance
created after doing the mixing of the five bhuthas which is called Panchikaranam by being the antaryami
of the four headed Brahma after creating him from his navel.

The First Adhikaranam is named as “Prana utpaththi Adhikaranam”.
Prana means Indriya. The topic for discussion in this Adhikaranam is a text in Upanishads which says
before creation, there were only Rishis and for the question who are the Rishis, the Upanishad says Rishis are Pranas or Indriyas.
This upanishadic statement gives rise to the doubt whether Indriyas are created or not?.

The Sutrakara says in the first Sutra as “Thatha Prana:”.
The meaning of this sutra is just as sky and other elements are created so also the senses are created.
This is because of the fact that before creation there was only one entity that Lord Sriman Narayana
with his consort Mahalakshmi and these two together are called “Sath”.
The Mundaka upanishad also says that from the Brahman or Paramatma the Mukhya prana, the indriyas
and five Bhuthas are born or created.

But the question still remains that what exactly is the meaning of the upanishadic statement
which stated that Rishies which are Pranas or Indriyas were there before creation.

The Sutrakara says that Rishies mean Paramatma only and they do not refer to Indriyas.
Again the question arises how the word Rishies which is plural could mean Paramatma who is singular.
The Sutrakara in the second sutra says that no literal meaning need be attached to the words
Rishies and Pranas and they mean only Paramatma.

The Sutrakarar further says that the word Prana means Paramatma only because all the entities other than Paramatma
get their names only because of their creation.
Also there was no form and name to any substance or object before creation. So the senses are created.

The Second Adhikaranam in this pada is called “Sapthagathi Adhikaranam”.
In this adhikaranam the discussion is held regarding the number of Indriyas.
The doubt arises whether the number of Indriyas is seven or Eleven.

The opponent or purva pakshi says that the number of Indriyas is seven only.
This is according to a Sruthi in Taittariya upanishad which says that
Jiva moves from one body to the other along with seven Indriyas.
The seven indriyas are Mind, Buddhi, eyes, ears, noses, tongue and skin.

This view of the opponent is contained in the first sutra of this adhikarana and the Sutra reads as
“Saptha gathe: Visheshitatvachcha”. This sutra is called poorva paksha sutra.
The meaning of this sutra is that while Jiva enters in to one body at the time of birth and
departs from the body at the time of death, he is always associated with seven senses.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by the Sutrakarar in the second sutra which is called Siddhantha Sutra.
This sutra reads as “Hastha dayastu Stithe Athonaivam”.
The meaning of this sutra is when there are indriyas like hand etc, the number of indriyas is not seven only but it is eleven.
So the indriyas are as follows.
Mind – (Knowledge giving Indriyas):
1. Eyes
2. Ears
3. Nose
4. Tongue
5. Skin
Action oriented Indriyas:
6. Hands
7. Legs
8. Speech
9. Genital organ (Sexual organ)
10. Excretary organ.
Buddhi is not considered as an indriya because Buddhi is a settled state of mind on a particular object.

The third adhikarana in this pada is called “Prana Anuthvadhikaranam”
and in this adhikaranam the size of the Indriyas is decided.
The doubt regarding the size arises because of the fact there is one quotation in Brihadaranyaka upanishad
which says that all the senses are equal and endless. The word endless may imply that senses are everywhere
which means they are vibhu like paramatma himself.

Because of this doubt the sutrakarar says in the Sutra “Anuvasha”
which means all the senses are of very limited size.
Even though the sutra says that the size is “Anu” (atomic) the size of the indriyas cannot be of
atomic size because of the fact in the case of the skin which is there throughout the body,
it cannot be said that the skin is of the atomic size.
Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja says in the Sri Bhasya in this context, that the senses have a very limited size
such that their exit or departure from the body cannot be realised by those who are very close to the body
at the time of the departure of the individual soul from the body.

The composing of the sutra “Anavashcha is based on the upanishadic saying
which states that when the jiva departs from the body, his breathing comes to a stop that is
in other words the breath which is called Mukhya Prana also departs from the body and following
the departure of the Mukhya Prana the eleven senses also quit.
The quitting and entering are possible only when the senses are of very limited size.

In this Adhikarana itself the Sutrakara says that even Mukhya Prana or Breath is created.
The specific mention of its creation had to be mentioned because the doubt that arose in the upanishadic saying
which states that Mukya prana which is in the form of Air was there even at the time of great deluge ( Maha pralaya).
The mahapralaya takes place after the tenure of office of four headed Brahma ends.
The tenure of office of four headed Brahma is 2 x 10 to the power of 17 years (two Parardhas).
One parardha is 10 to the power of 17 years as per our reckoing of years.

It is the contention of Sutrakara that the above upanishadic saying which is in Rig Veda
does not specifically mention the existence of Mukhya Prana at the time of deluge but it tells that
Lord Sriman Narayana alone was there along with Goddes Mahalakshmi because the word Svadha
in this upanishadic saying refers to Mahalakshmi.
In our Siddhantha Lord Sriman Narayana and his consort Mahalakshmi together constitute one single entity
as both are inseparable from each other. This single entity alone was there before creation of universe.
As Mundaka upanishad un ambiguously mentions the creation of Mukhya prana (breath) and hence it is not without creation.

So the Sutrakara clearly states that Mukhya Prana is subject to creation in the Sutra
“Sreshtashacha”. Mukhya prana is also known as “Shreshta prana”.

The fourth Adhikarana in this pada is called “Vayukriyadhikaranam”.
In this adhikaranam the exact nature of Mukhya prana and its function are dealt with.
This Adhikarana has four sutras.
There are three fold doubts regarding the nature of Mukhya Prana.
They are 1) Whether the Mukhya prana is the second Bhutha that is Vayu
2) Whether it is the movement or action of vayu itself
3) Whether it is a special type of Vayu or Air.

The Sutrakara dismisses the first two views and says that the third view is correct in the first sutra
which states “Navayukriye Prithak upadeshath”.
The Mukhya prana is not the function or action of Vayu and it is a special type of vayu
because the Mundaka upanishad says that from Lord Sriman Narayana, Mukhya Prana, Mind,
Ten senses and five Bhuthas or elements are born.
In this saying it is clearly mentioned that vayu which is the 2nd bhutha is different from Mukhya prana.

The Sutrakara in the second sutra in this adhikarana dismisses the view that Mukhya prana is a transformed
form of vayu or air and it is just another bhutha like fire.
It is further said that this Mukhya prana is an aid to Jiva just like eyes.
Though the functioning of Prana is not exactly like eyes and other senses still it helps jiva to support the body and Indriyas.

In the Chandogyopanishad there is a story regarding Mukhya Prana.
In the body of Jiva there are Paramatma as antaryami, Jivatma, Mukhya Prana, Mind and Ten senses.
A quarrel arose among the senses in which each sense claimed superiority over others and all the senses
went to four headed Brahma to act as a mediator and arrange an amicable settlement.
Lord Brahma asked each sense to leave the body and remain outside for one year and watch
the functioning of the body one after the other. First the speech left the body and remained elsewhere
and the person became dumb and this did not hamper the functioning the body, later speech returned.
Then the eyes left the body and remained outside and the person became blind.

Even though be became blind the functioning of his body remained normal. Then eyes returned back.
Then by turn, Ears and Mind left the body and the functioning of the body was not affected much
then the Mukhya Prana left the body and the other indriyas followed it.
Then the body became dead and began to decompose.
So the Lord Brahman told the senses that Mukhya Prana is superior to all the senses and it is the leader of all the senses.
This is called Prana Samvada in the Chandogyopanishad. According to this Mukhya Prana helps the jiva to support the body and senses.

This Mukhya prana functions throughout the body with five different names at five different places.
Prana in the heart, Apana in the excretory organ, Samana in the Navel, Udana in the neck and Vaygana operates throughout the body.
This is just like several stages of mind like desire, will, doubt sincerety, not being sincere in sincerety,
Boldness, fear, shyness, etc. So also the Mukhya prana with the above five names functions within the body
at different places and helps the inpidual soul to remain in the body.

The fifth adhikarana in this fourth pada is called “Sreshta anuthvadhikaranam”
in which it is established that this Shreshta prana or mukhya prana is of a very limited size.

The doubt that arises in this context is that there are some statements in the upanishads saying that
this prana is every where which means vibhu or Anantha that is without end.
In one statement it is even said that everything is within prana and the whole thing is encompassed by prana.

The above doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar in the sutra “Anushcha” which means that
this mukhya prana (breath) is of very limited size or of cosmic size because of the fact that
it also departs from the body along with jiva. The exit from the body is not possible
if the shreshta prana is every where or vibhu. There is a clear cut upanishadic text
which says the departure of this prana from the body along with the jiva.

The sixth adhikarana in this pada is called “Jyothiradi Adhikaranam”.
So far Sutrakara established that Indriyas and Mukhya prana were created from paramatma
who is Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) and they are of very limited size and the number of senses got fixed at eleven.

In the first pada of the second chapter there is one sutra which states
Abhimani vyapadesasthu vishesha Anu gathibhyam” the Sutrakarar established the fact
that every inanimate object which has no knowledge or consciousness is controlled by a celestial god called Devatha.
This celestial god is called Abhimani devatha of a particular object or even called Adhishtana devatha.
Even in Pranasamvada which was mentioned previously that all senses went to four headed Brahma
to decide who is superior most among them the speaking of the senses with Brahma was done only by
their respective abhimana devathas or Adhishtana devathas. This is similar to the statement that
India tells pakisthan which exactly means that the spokes person of India tells the spokes person of pakisthan.
So Abhimana devatha also means spokes person.

There is an Upanishadic text which says clearly that Agni devatha (Fire god) who is the messenger of devathas is
the abhimani devatha or the controlling person of the sense ““speech and entered in to the tongue of a person.
Similarly The Sun god (Surya) is the abhimani devatha or the controlling devatha of the sense “eyes”
entered in to the eyes in the body of a person. So also the Vayu devatha who is the abhimani devatha or
the controlling god of Mukhya prana entered the noses of an inpidual person for the sake of breathing.

On the same analogy, jiva is the Adhishtana Devatha or controlling entity for all the indriyas in the body
which are there for his enjoyment. Jiva enjoys sound or music through his ears by being its controller.
He enjoys colour or Rupa through his eyes by virtue of being their controller. He enjoys the pleasure of touch
through his sense of skin in the capacity as its controller. He enjoys the taste of an eatable through his tongue
which is controlled by him. He enjoys the sweet smell of an object through his noses which are under his control.

So it is clear from the above that mukhya prana and the other senses are controlled by their respective
celestial gods and jiva for his or her enjoyment by being their abhimana devathas or Adhishtana devatas.

In this context the doubt arises whether this act of controlling or being adhishtana is on account of
his own or her own volition of a jiva (Volition of a celestial god also) or this act is controlled by the will or
sankalpa of paramatma who is Sriman Narayana. The room for the above doubt whether controlling is on the own
volition of jiva because that jiva who is also in the list of being meditated upon or worshipped can also grant fruits.

This view is dismissed by the Sutrakara in the sutra
“Jyothiradi Adhishtanam thu thadamananath pranavatha shabdath”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Jyothiradi adhishtanam pranavatha means the controlling of mukhya prana and other senses by celestial gods
like Agni devatha and so on along with jiva is on account of the will or sankalpa of paramatma.
Here pranavatha means by jiva.
Thandamananath means the will of the paramatma. That means paramatma, Amananam means his will or sankalpa.

The reason for the above conclusion is “Sabdath”, here sabda means “Upanishadic quotation”.
In antaryami Brahmana of the third chapter of Brihadaranyaka upanishad sage Yajnavalkya in reply to sage Uddalaka
identifies twenty one objects and says that Paramatma is there in every substance or object and
he is different from that object, this object does not know that Paramatma and this object is the body of the
paramatma and Paramatma is the inner soul or Antharyami of that object and controls its activities
from within and he is also the Antaryami of the questioner that is Uddalaka.

These objects are five elements, senses, jiva, sun, moon and stars, All bhuthas that is creatures, Darkness,
light, Directions etc. According to this Antharyami Brahmana, every activity of every being including jivas,
celestial gods and every object in the universe is controlled by paramatma and subalopanishad says that
this antaryami is Lord Sriman Narayana himself who is blemishless and resides in Sri Vaikuntha pya loka.
He encompasses the entire universe both inwardly and outwardly. This nature of paramatma being antaryami
in every thing and controlling its activity is eternal.

The seventh adhikarana in this pada is called “Indriyadhikaranam”.
The doubt that arises in this context is whether the mukhya prana is in the category of the senses or Indriyas or
whether it is outside this category. The room for this doubt is that mukhya prana which is breath is also
called prana and Indriyas are also called pranas and all are aids of the jivatma within the body.

To clear this doubt the Sutrakara composes the sutra “Tha Indriyanithath vyapadesath Anyathra shreshtath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that all eleven indriyas are senses and mukhya prana is not an indriya.

The Sutrakarar cites another upanishadic text in the second sutra in this adhikarana which reads as
“Bheda sruthe: vailakshnyachcha”.
This means that in the upanishadic text which the sutrakarar cites, it is said that
Mukhya prana and eleven senses are born from Paramatma.

So this Sruthi or upanishadic saying draws a clear distinction between Mukhya prana and the senses.

The last and eighth adhikaranam in this pada is called Samgna murthi klipthi Adhikaranam.
Samgna means name, Murthi is form. Every substance or object in the universe has a definite name and form.
This definite name and form distinguishes one object from the other.

The creation of the universe takes place after the deluge. The deluge takes place after the expiry of the
tenure of four headed Brahma, According to the calculation of human years, the tenure of office of
four headed Brahma is 2 x 1017 years that is the at the end of two parardhas. One parardha is 1 x 1017 years.
Incidentally For Chathurmukha Brahma one kalpa is day which is called svetha varaha kalpa and
another kalpa is night which is known as padma kalpa. One kalpa is 1000 chathur yugas.
One kalpa is 4320000000 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 4320000000 end_of_the_skype_highlighting human years.
Duration of one chathur yuga is 4320000 human years.
Duration of Kaliyuga is 432000 years. The duration of Dwapara yuga is 864000,
Duration of Tretha yuga is 1296000 years where as duration of Kritha yuga is 1728000 years.
Duration of deluge is also two parardhas that is 2 x 1017 years.

The creation of the universe is having the following stages.
a)Samasutisrtshti – Lord Sriman Narayana creates the five Bhuthas or elements.
b)Tri vruth karanam also otherwise called Panchee karanam
c)Anda Srshti – Creation of Anda. Anda is in the form of egg and it comprises of fourteen worlds or lokas
which are called Chathur dasa Bhuvana.
The names of the fourteen lokas are 1) Bhuloka 2) Bhuvarloka 3) Suvarloka 4) Maharloka 5) Janoloka 6) Tapoloka 7) Sathya loka.
Bhuloka is the world in which we are living now. Below Bholoka, There are seven lokas
which are 1) Athalam 2) Vithalam 3) Suthalam 4) Thalathalam 5) Mahathalam 6) Rasathalam 7) Pathalam.
In all fourteen lokas, The head of each Anda is called Andadhi pathi who is the four headed Brahma.
There are infinite number of Andas and hence Lord Sriman Narayana is Ananthakoti Brahmanda Nayaka.
In each Anda therefore there is one Chathurmukha Brahma, Siva, Indra and so on.
d) After doing Anda Srishti (Srishti means creation) chathur mukha Brahma of each Anda is born from the navel of Lord Sriman Narayana.
e)Lord Sriman Narayana by being the Antharyami of Chathurmukha brahma does the nama rupa vyakaranam
which is also called Vyashti Srishti. In this context Chathurmukha brahma is called Samashti Purusha.

Details of Trivruth karanam otherwise called Panchee karanam are as follows.
f) After Samashti srishti was done by Paramatma, no work took place. There is a saying in Sri Vishnu purana in which
it has been clearly spelt out that though the five bhuthas created are having potential, no work could be carried out
and creation of devas, human beings, animals, creatures and inanimate objects could not take place
because these bhuthas were not mixed with one another. This mixing of bhuthas with one another is called Panchee karanam(Quintuplication).

This is something similar to saying that cement is there, sand is there, water is there, jelly is there, steel is there
still there is no construction. It is therefore clear that mere procurement of materials will not cause any construction.
The reinforced cement concrete structure can come in to being by mixing of cement, sand, jhelly with water which constitutes
the cement concrete and which when poured on steel reinforcement and cured produces a stable reinforced cement concrete structure.
So for any work to be turned out mixing of the constituent materials is essential.
So also in the case of the universe work could be turned out and further creation can take place
only if the bhuthas(elements) are mixed with one another.

Lord Sriman Narayana does the panchee karana even before the creation of Anda and Andadhipathi chathur mukha Brahma.
The manner in which the Panchee karanam is done is as follows. As already said the Panchee karanam means the mixing of Bhuthas with one another.
Panchee karana of Akasha (Sky)
Akasha – 50 %
Vayu (Air) – 12.5 %
Thejas (Fire) – 12.5%
Water – 12.5 %
Earth – 12.5 %
That is 50 % of Akasha gets mixed up with 12.5% of each of the remaining four Bhuthas and the sky we are seeing now
is the mixture of all the five bhuthas as per the above mentioned percentage.

Similar is the panchee karanam of the other bhuthas which is as follows.
a) Vayu (Air)
Vayu – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
b) Thejas (Fire)
Thejas – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
c) Water
Water – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Earth – 12.5%
d) Earth
Earth – 50%, Akasha – 12.5%, Vayu – 12.5%, Fire – 12.5%, Water – 12.5%

So in the universe the ingredients of any object or substance are five bhuthas.
Similarly the human body also consists of five bhuthas and hence it is called pancha bhutika sareeram.

In Chandogyopanishad, it is said as Trivrithkaranam only because it mentioned the creation of only three bhuthas
which are fire, water and earth. So the mixing of these 3 bhuthas is known as Trivrithkaranam.
Sage Uddalaka tells about this Trivrithikaranam to his son Svethakethu by an illustration.
Uddalaka tells Svethakethu that the flame has three colours Red, White and Black.
The Red colour confirms the presence of the bhutha thejas in the flame and the white colour confirms
the ingredient of water in the flame and the black colour confirms the presence of earth in the flame and so on.

But in Taittariya upanishad, the creation of all the five bhuthas is mentioned and hence pancheekarana. Pancha is five.
The chandogyopanishad says that Lord Sriman Narayana who is called sath in this upanishad entered into the body of
samashtijiva who is Hiranya garbha (Chathurmukha Brahma) and allotted names and forms to various objects in the universe.
In fact every substance or object in the universe gets a name and form on account of the Paramatma entering into
every object along with a jiva. So there is no substance in which there is no jiva and his antaryami, Paramatma.
In the case of inanimate objects the existence of jiva and its antaryami is dormant where as in the case of
animate objects the existence of jiva and paramatma is evidently clear.
So it is clear from the above that all sentient and non sentient being are the bodies of paramatma.

The first sutra in this adhikarana is “Samjna murthi klipthisthu Trivruth kurvatha upadeshath.”
This sutra means that Lord Sriman Narayana who does the Trivruth karana earlier also does
nama rupa vyakarana that is allotment of names and forms.

With this the second chapter gets concluded.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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