Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 2-(Avirodha )-Paatham 3–(‘viyath pada’)Summary-

After establishing decisively that Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe during the previous six padas
(Four padas of the first chapter, two padas on the second chapter),
the sutrakarar now begins the discussions on the objects created by Brahman
who is Lord Sriman Narayana in this 3rd quarter and 4th quarters of the second chapter.
The 3rd quarter is called viyathpada and the 4th quarter is called Indriya pada.
In these two quarters the sutrakarar settles the internal quarrel or domestic quarrel.
The reason for the domestic quarrel is the apparent internal contradictions in Vedas
regarding the objects of creation as detailed below.

1)There are some texts in Vedas which say that sky is not created and is eternal.
In the same Vedas there are texts which say that sky is created and not eternal.
2)There are some references in Vedas that jivas or individual souls are created and in contradiction
of these references there are upanishadic sayings that jivas are not created and they are eternal.
3)whether the jiva or inpidual soul has the consciousness. Here consciousness is Jnana or knowledge
which means the ability to perceive things. The size of the jiva is also discussed.
4)Some quotations are there in Vedas and upanishads that jivas are not doers of any activity which in other words
mean that a jiva is not a karta. Quotations are also there that jiva is a doer (kartha).
5)If it is established that jiva is kartha, the doubt has to be cleared whether this doing of an
activity is independent or subordinate to Lord’s or paramaatma’s will.
6)Again some references are there in Vedas which say that there is absolutely no relationship between jivatma and paramatma.
In contradiction of the above there are references in Vedas and Sri Bhagavad geetha, that jivatma is the body of the paramatma.
7)Some upanishadic texts say that senses or Indriyas are not created and there are texts which say that Indriyas are created.
There are some contradicting statements regarding the number of senses.
8) Mukyaprana is the air which all the living organisms breathe. There is one saying that this
mukyaprana is not created but there is another saying that this mukyaprana is created.
9) The doubt arises regarding the size of the senses and mukyaprana.
Some say they are of big size and some others say they are very near atomic size.
10) whether the task of giving name and form to every object of creation is that of four headed Brahma or
that of Lord Sriman Narayana by being the antaryami of four headed Brahma who is called Hiranyagarbha.
This act of giving name and form is known as Namarupa vyakarana.

The above contradictions which led to internal or domestic quarrel are settled in the
3rd and 4th quarters (third and fourth padas of the second chapter).
In the 3rd pada, there are seven adhikaranas.

The first adhikarana is called Viyath adhikarana. Viyath means sky or akasa.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is whether there is creation for akasa or sky.
The opponent says that the akasa is not created as its creation is unheard .
There are two reasons to support his view point.
(a) one of the upanishadic texts says that Anthariksha that is Akasa and vayu the air, are both eternal.
(b) In Chandogyopanishad, in the 6th chapter which deals with sadvidya, it is said that before the
creation of the universe there was one entity called “Sath”.
This sath obviously means Paramatma or Lord Sriman Narayana with his consort Mahalakshmi.
In our Visishtadwaitha system both Goddess Mahalakshmi and Sriman Narayana are always together and are inseparable
and both together constitute a single entity called Brahman. So Mahalakshmi has also involvement in the creation of the universe.

Now coming to the point, this “sath” who is Lord Sriman Narayana willed and created fire, then water and there after earth.
In this sequence of creation the Akasa (Sky) and Vayu (Air) are omitted. So this led to the doubt whether Akasa is created.
In this Adhikarana, the Sutrakara counters the above view point of the opponent
and gives several reasons to establish the fact there is creation for Akasa.

The reasons cited by Sutrakara to establish the above fact of creation of sky are as follows.

(a) In Taittariya upanishad there is a clear mention of creation of akasa.
This upanishad clearly laid down the sequence of creation from paramatma, as
akasa, vayu, fire that is agni, water (AP), earth (pruthvi).
(b)In Mundaka upanishad, there is an unambiguous saying that from the Lord Sriman Narayana,
Mukhya prana the breath, Mind, the other ten senses akasa, vayu, fire, water and earth were born that is they were created.
(c)The opponent who still holds the view that there is no creation to akasa, says when chandogya upanishad omitted
the mention of sky and vayu in the sequence of creation, no literal meaning need be attached to the creation of sky
and vayu mentioned in the Taittariya upanishad.
(d)The question again arises how could be there no literal meaning to the words of creation of sky and vayu
when there is literal meaning in the same upanishad for fire, water and earth.
For this opponent replies that in Mundaka upanishad, the word Brahman has literal meaning in one context
and there is no literal meaning to Brahman in another context likewise in this case of saying in Taittariya upanishad also.
(e) This contention of the opponent was rejected by sutrakara who states that there is no exception to the pledge
made in the 6th chapter (Sadvidya) of chandogya upanishad in which the above pledge says as follows:
If the basic raw material is known then several products produced from this material are known.
According to this pledge when Brahman is the cause of the universe every object other than Brahman is created
and there is no exception to this pledge. If sky and vayu are not created then the above pledge loses its significance or validity.

So the Sutrakara finally establishes the fact that Akasa is subject to creation and not eternal.

The second adhikarana in this quarter is called Thejo adhikarana.
Here the doubt arises whether the creation of the five Bhoothas and the tanmatras in between them
takes place one after the other in a sequence like. Mahath from prakrithi, Ahamkara from Mahath,
Sabda tanmatra from Ahamkara, Sky from Sabda tanmatra, Sparsha tanmatra from sky, vayu or air from Sparsha tanmatra,
Rupatanmatra from Air, Thejas or fire from Rupa tanmatra, Rasa tanmatra from thejas, water from rasa tanmatra
and gandha tanmatra from water and finally earth from Gandha tanmatra.

In other words the doubt is whether the succeeding tatva or element is created directly from the
preceeding element or whether the succeeding element or tatva is created from the will of the paramatma
who is the inner soul or antaryami of the preceeding element or tatva.

The Taittariya upanishad says that the creation of the five Bhuthas takes place one after the other
without any mention of Tanmatra. There is also no mention in Chandogya upanishad of the antaryami (inner soul)
willing and creating the succeeding element or tatva. In subahopanishad, there is the mention of tat mantra.
Tanmatra is a stage between two consecutive bhuthas. This is similar to the stage in between Milk and curd.

The Chandogyopanishad says that thejas or fire wills, the water is created, the water wills the earth is created.
Since fire and water do not have consciousness or gnana, they cannot will that is in other words
inanimate objects cannot will at all. So it has to be construed that the inner soul or antaryami of each element
or tatva wills and the next element in the sequence mentioned in the preceeding para is created.

The Mundakopanishad clearly states the above fact that Paramatma who is antaryami in every tatva wills
and creates the next tatva or element. The upanishad says that from Lord Sriman Narayana
the Breath which is also called Mukya prana, Mind, the ten senses (Indriyas), the five bhutas are created.

So considering the statements of Taittariya upanishad, Chandogyopanishad, Subalopanishad, and Mundaka upanishad
the final conclusion with regard to the creation and its sequence is as follows.

Paramatma (Sriman Narayana also called Brahman)
Prakriti ( Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami in prakrithi wills)
Mahan is created (Antaryami of Mahan wills)
Ahamkara is created (This ahamkara is of three categories)
1) Satvika ahamkara – Lord Sriman Narayana who is the antaryami of satvika ahamkara wills
and then the eleven senses are created. Details of senses will be dealt with in the 4th pada of the 2nd chapter.
2) Rajasa ahamkara – The antaryami of this ahankara helps both satvika ahamkara and Tamasa ahankara for
creating senses and for creating the tanmatras and bhuthas respectively.
3) Tamasa Ahankara (Antaryami of this Ahamkara Lord Sriman Narayana wills)
Sabda tanmatra is created (Antaryami of Sabdatamatra wills)
Akasha or sky is created (Antaryami of Akasa wills)
Sparsa tanmatra is created (Its antaryami wills)
Vayu or Air is created (Its antaryami wills)
Rupa tanmatra is created. Rupa means colour or form (Its antaryami wills)
Tejas, Agni or Fire is created (Its antaryami wills)
Rasa tanmatra (Its antaryami wills)
Ap or water is created (Their antaryami wills)
Gandha Tanmatra is created (Its antaryami wills)
Bhoomi or Earth is created.

It should be noted in the above that Apa or water is always plural that is according to sanskrit grammar
and hence it was mentioned as their antaryami. Further also it should be noted that Sabda or sound is
the attribute of Akasa, Sparsha or touch is the attribute of Vayu, Rupa or colour is the attribute of
Tejas, Rasa or taste is the attribute of water and Gandha or Smell is the attribute of Earth.

Incidentally it may be noted that sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha are objects of enjoyment.
They are called vishayas. Sabda is the object of enjoyment of ears, sparsha is the object of enjoyment of
skin, Rupa is the object of enjoyment of eyes, Rasa is the object of enjoyment of tongue, Gandha is the object of enjoyment of nose.

Finally in this Adhikarana the opponent’s (Purva pakshi) point of view is that the creation is sequential
and there is no question of Lord Sriman Narayana remaining Antaryami in each and willing.

The Sutrakara who is the sage Badarayana refutes the opponent’s view and says that the paramatma is
the Antaryami in every thing who wills and creates the bhuthas. Willing is called Sankalpa in sanskrit.

In this Adhikarana there are 8 sutras out of which
four sutras narrate the viewpoints of the poorva pakshi
and the latter four sutras are the viewpoints of the sutrakara as detailed above.

In the last sutra of this Adhikarana the Sutrakara establishes a very important maxim of Visishtadwaitha philosophy
which is called “Aparyavasana vritti”.
This means the name of any object in this world finally refers to the lord Sriman Narayana
who is the antaryami because every object is his body and any reference to the body finally refers to Sriman Narayana only.
In other words both words referring both sentient and non sentient beings finally refer Lord Sriman Narayana only.

The third Adhikarana in this pada is called Atma adhikarana.
In this adhikarana the doubt whether the inpidual soul who is jiva is subject to creation or not.
The opponent’s view is that jiva is also created because anything and everything other than Brahman
is subject to creation as Lord Sriman Narayana is the creator of both sentient and non sentient beings in the universe.
There are two statements one in Taittariya upanishad and another in Yajur veda samhita
which support the viewpoint of the opponent that inpidual souls are created by Brahman because
he is the cause of the entire universe. Also there are two more statements in the upanishads that jivas are created.

In Taittariya Upanishad it is said that Brahman (Lord Sriman Narayana) is the entity from whom the universe is born,
who sustains or protects this universe and who causes the annihilation of the universe at the time of deluge.
In another context in the same upanishad it is said that the universe was born from Brahman who created jivas along with water.

In the yajurveda samhitha the prajapathi who is Lord Sriman Narayana created the prajas who are the jivas.

In Chandogyopanishad it is said that these prajas or individual souls are born from sath who is the Lord Sriman Narayana.

Another view point in this context that the same chandogyopanishad says as
“Tatvamasi” which mean jiva himself is Brahman, when jiva himself is Brahman, he is eternal.
This point is countered by saying that the same chandogyopanishad says that everything in this universe is Brahman.
If it is so then the sky which is also Brahman becomes eternal but it has been established that Sky is subject to creation.
So on the same analogy jiva also cannot be eternal.

This viewpoint of the opponent is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra
” Natmasruthe: Nityatvachchachathabhya:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that Jivatma or simply Atma is not subject to creation because of two reasons.

i)The Kathopanishad clearly says that jiva is neither created nor destroyed.
Further it is said that Paramatma and Jivatma who are the Supreme soul and inpidual soul respectively
are both eternal and not subject to creation.
ii) Further the same Katho upanishad says that individual souls who are infinite in number are eternal
and the supreme soul who is also eternal fulfills the aspirations of the people.

Now the question arises that when the jiva is not subject to any creation how the pledge or vow that
Eka vijnana sarva vijnana ( by knowing the cause, knowing all the things created becomes possible)
will be valid and true. This question is answered as follows.

Except Lord Sriman Narayana the Brahman or Paramatma, all the sentient and non sentient beings are created.
The creation is said to be of two types.
1) Physical transformation which takes place in non sentient beings and this is called Swarupa Anyatha Bhava.
Anyatha bhava is the physical transformation. Clay becoming pot, pot becoming kapala that is pot broken to pieces and so on.
This is the physical transformation.
2) Transformation in the nature or attribute and this transformation takes place in sentient beings which are jivas.
The jiva possesses consciousness or knowledge. This consciousness is known as Dharma bhootha jnana
by means of which a jiva is able to perceive objects. This knowledge undergoes a transformation
( By contraction or expansion) contraction means sankocha and expansion means vikasa.
This quantum of Dharma bhootha gnana varies from one jiva to another jiva depending upon his past deeds.
This Dharma bhootha gnana varies from zero in the case of an inanimate object to infinity in the case of paramatma,
Nityasuries and Mukthatmas (liberated souls). This transformation in the dharma bhutha gnana of a jiva is called Svabhava Anyathabhava.
Because of this transformation Jiva also gets included in the category of creation though his intrinsic
nature is not subject to creation and destruction. So the pledge of Ekavijnanana, Sarva vijnanam continues to be valid and true.

The opponent’s view that there is creation and destruction to jiva based on some afore said upanishadic texts
is replied by saying that though jiva is eternal, the body he assumes in every birth borns and dies and this is not applicable to jiva.

The Fourth Adhikarana in this pada is called the Gnadhikarana.
From this adhikarana onwards the remaining four adhikaranas of this pada basically deal with
the nature, size and attributes of jiva and the relationship between paramatma and jeeva.

In this adhikarana it will be established that the jiva is self luminous and it does not require the aid of
anything else to know his own self. Self luminousness is also a form of consciousness and this is called Dharmijnana.
Dharmi is jiva and his luminousness is called Gnana. Jiva requires Dharma bhutha Jnana to perceive objects other than his own self.
So there are two gunas to jiva one is Dharmi jnana and the other is Dharma bhuthai jnana.
It should be noted that “I” it self is the jiva or individual soul and to know him as “I” is Dharmi Jnana.
This Dharmi Jnana is there even in darkness and even in dreams. Even in the case of deep and sound sleep
there will be realisation of his own self because he says after waking up I had a sound sleep.
He will also say that he did not know himself. The meaning of this statement is that even though
he had the consciousness of “I” during the sound sleep he did not know to which varna (case) and to which Ashrama his body belonged to.

The Dharmi jnana is one and the same to both paramatma and jeevatma since both have self luminous conscience of “I”.
The difference between them is only in respect of Dharma bhutha jnana. As already mentioned it is infinite
in the case of paramatma and it is very limited in the case of unliberated souls like us and its quantum varies
according to our past deeds that is punya and papa karma.

In this Adhikarana the points for discussion are
(1) whether the jiva is self luminous only according to Buddhism and Sankya
(2) whether the jiva is just like a stone without any consciousness according to sage Kanada
(3) whether the consciousness in jiva is not there always and consciousness comes to him periodically.
Another school of thought is whether jiva is gnatha and he is able to perceive things.
There is one more school of thought in which if it is said that Jiva’s self luminous ness and consciousness
are natural and accepted then jivatma is everywhere and his consciousness is always there.
Then there is no need for him to have senses or indriyas to have sensual perception.

Obviously the consciousness is not there at the time of sound sleep and in coma stage and therefore it cannot be there always.
In the stage of awakening the jiva becomes conscious provided he has all the requisite aides
like light, object and dharma bhutha gnana. So the opponent belonging to the above school of thought
contends that neither jiva is self luminous nor has dharma bhutha gnana. So it has to be accepted that
the consciousness of jiva is only periodical and it has also to accepted that jiva is everywhere because
work is turned out everywhere. There is also no authority or testimony to prove that jiva turns out work only by the movement of his body.

There are upanishadic texts which say the absence of consciousness during sound sleep and also in the state of Moksha or liberation.
In the light of the above pergent views on the intrinsic nature and attribute of jiva
the sutrakarar says in the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as “Gnotha Eva”.
This Adhikarana has 14 sutras.

The meaning of first sutra is that jiva besides being self luminous he has dharma bhutha gnana
that is in other words he is gnatha that is he is having inherent nature of consciousness.
Several upanishadic texts support this view.
One of the upanishads says that the inpidual soul is the seer, listener, smeller, taster, thinker, knower, doer, conscious.
This means he is able to perceive objects through his senses by virtue of his dharma bhutha gnana.

The sum and substance of the remaining 13 sutras is as follows.
(1) This jivatma is of atomic size as it moves out of this mortal body at the time of death and
enters into another body at its subsequent birth.
(2) So going out and coming back has to be done physically by the jiva on account of his good and bad deeds
(Punya and papa) and going out and coming back is not possible by the mortal body as it perishes soon after death.
(3)The upanishadic text clearly tells regarding the size of the jivatma.
The Svetashwatara upanishad in this context specifically mentions the size of the jiva as follows.
The size of the jiva is 1/100 th pision of the 1/100 th pision of the end of one of the hairs in the tail of the horse.
This jiva’s dharmabhutha jnana becomes infinite after his attaining salvation.
Another upanishadic text says that the size of the jiva is that of the tip of a needle which is used for
stitching leather bag or footwear. This says he is of micro size.
(4) Now the doubt arises that when the jiva is of macro size and is in the corner of the heart of the body
how he will be able to feel the pain or pleasure that takes place at another place in the body.
This doubt is cleared by an illustration. The illustration is that when a moist sandal paste is smeared
at a particular place of the body the jiva in the heart feels the pleasure of the cooling.
In the same manner the jiva feels the sensation.

(5)Even though the jivatma is in the heart of the body of an inpidual he is able feel the sensations taking place
in the different parts of the body on account of the dharma bhutha gnana and to explain this point
the sutrakara gives another illustration in which he says that even though the light or lamp burns
at one particular point its light is spread all over the place in which it is placed.
(6) In one sutra the sutrakarar draws a clear distinction between Dharmi gnana that is “I” and dharma bhutha gnana.
Here the dharma bhutha gnana is clearly the attribute of the jiva and not jiva himself.
Another illustration to explain this point is that smell is the attribute of the earth and not earth itself.
There is a clear distinction between them.
(7)Another doubt that arises in this context is cleared when the vignana or consciousness which is dharma bhutha gnana
is different from jiva how could jiva be called as vijnana himself in two different upanishadic texts
That Lord Sriman Narayana stands always by the side of viguana (jiva) and vignana does yaga (jiva does yaga).
The sutrakarar clears this doubt by saying that there is always the practice calling the noun by its attribute.
A parallel illustration is mentioned in this context that “Ananda” the meaning of infinite bliss is the name of
paramatma himself even though Ananda is an attribute of the Lord Sriman Narayana.
Another reason for this is dharma bhutha gnana which is a permanent and eternal attribute of jiva and so he can be called “Vijnana”.

(8) One more doubt arises in this context when dharma bhutha gnana is a permanent and ever attribute of jiva
why its presence is not felt in the state of sound sleep. Dharmabhutha jnana is also very much
contracted or restricted in the case of a child and it expands as the child grows.
This doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar by another illustration. In a male child the masculinity or potency
is dormant in the childhood and it blossoms at the time of the child attaining the age of youth.
So also dharma bhutha gnana is dormant in the state of sound sleep and it blossoms in the state of awakening.

(9) Finally the Sutrakara refutes the argument that jiva is omni present and jiva is self luminous only.
He says if he is omni present then Dharmabhutha jnana should blossom for ever or should not blossom at all.
The same is the case if jiva is self luminousouly. So the final conclusion is that jiva has both Dharmi jnana and Dharmabhutha jnana.

The fifth adhikarana is karthru adhikaranam.
It is stablished here that jiva is kartha or doer. The doubt regarding the above arises on account of
two statements one in katopanishad and the other in Bhagavad geetha.
The statement in katopanishad says the killer of a person says that he has killed a person and both
the killer and killed do no know that one can be a killer and the other can be killed.
Similarly in Bhagavad geetha Lord Krishna says Arjuna, that it is an illusion that jiva is a doer
where as in reality the attributes of the prakrithi. Satva, Rajas and Tamas are the doers.
So the contention of the opponent is that jiva is not the doer.

This contention of the opponent is refuted by the sutrakarar who says in the first sutra as
“Kartha sastrartha vatvath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that jivatma is the doer or kartha because the jiva is the enjoyer of the fruits of his doing.

It is said that one who aspires the svargaloka or the heaven should do jyothishtama yaga.
Similarly one who aspires to attain Moksha or salvation he has to meditate on Lord Sriman Narayana.
So if the inpidual soul does yaga he will be the enjoyer of the fruit of the yaga which is the svargaloka.
Similarly if a jiva meditates on paramatma then he will enjoy the fruit of the meditation which is moksha.
When it is so how can the three attributes of prakrithi (primordial matter) could be the doers.
There are six more sutras in this adhikarana in which the Sutrakara cites several upanishadic texts
to establish the fact that jiva is the doer. In one of the statements of the Taittiriya upanishad,
it is said that viguana does the yaga.
According to the opponent viguana is the buddhi which may be called as a steady state of mind.

But Sutrakara says that viguana is jiva and not buddhi. If it were buddhi the upanishad should have stated as vignanena.
The third case which is in Sanskrit called as Thruteeya vibhakthi. So jiva is the doer as he is the enjoyer of the fruit.

The next adhikarana is known as “Parayattadhikaranam”.
In this adhikarana it is established that the actions or doings of jiva are controlled by Paramatma.

The opponent says that if every action of an individual soul is controlled by paramatma or Lord Sriman Narayana
then the scriptures which say “do this” and “do not do that” become meaningless.
The shastra which says “do this” is called vidhisastra and shastra which says do not do that is called nishedhasastra.
Shastra means scripture.

The sutrakarar says in the first sutra of this adhikarana that actions and doings are controlled by
paramatma because of some statements in the upanishads. The first statement in the upanishad is that Lord Sriman Narayana
who is the antaryami or the inner soul of every being controls every action of every being or inpidual soul.
Paramatma is by the side of the jiva in the heart of every being, he is different from jiva,
jiva is his body, and he controls every action of jiva.

In the Bhagavad geetha also Lord Krishna says that he dwells in the heart of every being
and he directs the actions of the jiva. In another sloka also Lord Krishna says Arjuna that Eswara or paramatma
is in the heart of every being and makes every bhutha or jiva rotate in a wheel like machine.
The first sutra is “Paraththu Thath Sruthe:”

In the second sutra the sutrakarar replies to the opponent’s viewpoint that vidhi nishedha shastra becomes
meaningless if jivatma does not have freedom for his action and without the body and senses a jiva by himself cannot do anything.
Depending upon the punya papa karma of a jiva, paramatma gives jiva a body and senses.
Jiva’s actions and doings are through only body and senses. When a jiva attempts to do a particular thing
good or bad paramatma gives basically his consent for the same. If after paramatma giving the consent,
jiva resorts to do bad deeds or sinfull acts on his own it cannot be said that paramatma is merciless
and he is responsible for the bad and good deeds of the individual.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja gives a beautiful illustration in this context.
When the body and senses given by paramatma belongs to both paramatma and jivatma one cannot attempt
to do a particular thing without the consent of the other. It is just like a father signing a blank cheque
and giving it to his son for drawing the amount and utilising the same in any manner he likes.
He may use it for a good cause or for a bad cause. In either case he has to enjoy the fruit of his own action.
He will be happy if he has used it for a good cause and acquired punya and he will regret if he has used it
for a bad cause and acquired papa. So Paramatma’s grace will be there for a person who continuously engages himself
in doing good deeds and he is lifted upwards even upto Moksha. Paramatma’s disgrace is there for a person
who continuously resorts to do bad deeds and he is pushed downwards even to the hall.
So the vidhi Nisheda sastra is not meaningless inspite of the fact that jiva’s actions are controlled by paramatma.

The last adhikarana in this 3rd pada is called Amsha adhikaranam.
The question that arises here is what exactly is the relationship between paramatma and jivatma.
Is it that both these two are entirely distinct identree? Or Is paramatma himself assuming jiva form
on account of the illusion which is called Avidya. Does Paramatma become jiva after being affected by upadhi
which is the mortal body or is jiva a part of the paramatma.
Upadhi means reason Paramatma or Brahman assumes jiva form after entering in to several mortal bodies.

This four fold doubt arises on account of some upanishadic texts which superficially appear to express
pergent views on the axact relationship between jivatma and paramatma.
One upanishadic text says that paramatma is Sarvajna that is omniscient and jiva is ignorant.
This means that jiva and paramatma are two distinct entities.
In another upanishadic saying Brahman is jiva and this jiva is Brahman.
According to these sayings Brahman can become jiva on account of Avidya or illusion.

In the background of the above doubts the Sutrakarar who is the sage Badarayana says in the first sutra as
“Amsonana vyapadeshath Anyatha chapi dasakitha vaditvam Adheeyatha Eke”.
This sutra means that jiva is a part of Brahman. Amsa is part.
Brahman is called Amsi where as jiva is called Amsa. So this relationship is called as Amsamsi Bhava
which is same as sarira Atma Bhava”. This is in other words means that paramatma is the soul and jivatma is the body.
There is a statement in Atharva veda that Brahman or paramatma is a fisherman, and he is a rogue so on.
This actually means that Brahman is the soul for the jiva in the body of fisherman, rogue etc.

So every jiva in every body without any distinction is the body of paramatma.
Even Lord Krishna tells the same thing to Arjuna in Bhagavad Geetha.
Now the doubt arises in this context that when all the jivas are alike and are bodies of paramatma
how could there be a difference between one jiva and other jiva based on the caste, creed, colour or sex.
This doubt is cleared by the sutrakarar himself by stating that there is no difference in the nature of
one jiva and that of another jiva but the difference basically lies in the body in which the jiva dwells.
So caste, creed, colour or sex applies to the body and not to jiva who resides in the body.

To explain this viewpoint the sutrakarar gives a beautiful illustration.
Fire or Agni by itself is pure of course. But could it be said that fire in the cremation ground is same as
the fire in the kitchen of our house. Nobody agrees that the fire in the above two places is one and the same.
So the difference basically lies in the substance with which the fire is in contact.
In the cremation ground the fire burns in contact with a dead body.
In the house the fire burns in contact with the hearth. So also the difference between one jiva and other jiva
lies in the body of one jiva and the body of the other jiva.
One body may belong to superior caste and the other body may belong to inferior caste.
So the jiva in the body of a brahman should do all rituals like sandhyavandana etc prescribed in the scriptures
where as jiva in the body of an inferior caste say fourth caste is not expected to do the rituals as there is no upanayana samskara.

This adhikarana has eleven sutras.
In the remaining sutras the Adwaitha system, Bhaskara system, dvaitha system philosophies have been refuted.
The 3rd quarter of second chapter concludes with this Adhikarana.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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