Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,–Athyaayam 2-(Avirodha )Paatham 2–(‘Tarka pada.’)Summary-

The second quarter in this second chapter is known as Tarka pada, in which the sutrakarar
who is sage Badarayana goes on offensive
attacking the systems of philosophy opposed to Sri Vishishtadwaitha system.

The systems of philosophy that are attacked and denounced are the following.
1) Nirishwara Sankhya system of Lord Kapila.
2) Vaisheshika system of Kanada
3) Four classifications of Buddhism.
4) Jaina system.
5) Pasu patha system.
After refuting the above the sutrakarar finally establishes the authority of Pancharatra sastra
which is also known as Bhagavath sastra.

Out of these systems mentioned above, the Nirishwara Sankhya system accept the authority of Vedas
and the others do not accept the authority of Vedas.
There are eight adhikaranas in this pada.

The first adhikarana is “Rachana Anupapaththi Adhikaram” in which the Nirishwara sankya system is refuted.
The basic text for them is Kapila smrithi, which is not available now.
Eshwara Krishna a follower of kapila has composed a work called sankhya karika which is the available basic text for this system.
Lord Kapila is an incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana as mentioned in Srimad Ramanayana of Sage Valmiki.
His main contention is Prakrithi which is the primordial matter is the material cause of the universe
and not Brahman. Prakrithi is also known as Pradhanam, Anumanikam or Asabdam.
This prakrithi creates the universe in the presence of Jiva who is called Purusha in this context.

There are nine sutras in this adhikarana.
Each sutra is a refusal of a viewpoint of the Sankhya system.
The first viewpoint is that this universe is a peculiar structure comprising of attributes satva, rajas and tamas.
Satva causes happiness, Rajas causes material desire and Tamas causes illusion.
The sequence of transformation of the prakriti is mahat, Ahankara, Tanmatras and Bhutas.
This system further says that Prakriti creates the universe on its own.

1) This viewpoint is refuted by Sutrakarar who says in the first sutra which reads as
“Rachana Anuppaththeshacha nanumanam pravrutteshacha”.

The meaning is that prakrithi without having the omniscient brahman or paramatma as inner soul(Antaryami)
cannot be the cause of the universe which is having a wonderful structure.
The inner soul paramatma wills and causes the transformation of prakruthi in to the universe.

2) In the second sutra the opponent or poorva pakshi contends that
(a) the milk becomes curd on its own.
(b) Water poured at the root of a coconut tree becomes a tender coconut containing tasty water on its own.
(c) Water poured at the root of a mango tree becomes a mango fruit with a tasty juice on its own.
So in all the above cases it is not necessary that paramatma should be the inner soul to will that the above things should happen.
The reply of the sutrakarar for the above is that Brahman is the inner soul in all the above cases and wills and the above things happen.

In the 3rd sutra the sutrakarar says, If the Brahman is not the inner soul and wills, the creation and deluge
will take place very often as it cannot be controlled by any body.
Only when paramatma wills from within then only there will be creation and deluge at regular intervals.

3) The Sankhya who is the poorva pakshi further contends that just as a cow after grazing the grass
gives the milk which is a natural process so also the prakrithi creates the universe on its own.
The sutrakarar’s reply to the above contention is that bull which also grazes the grass does not give the milk,
which means that paramatma is the antaryami in the grass grazed by the cow and
this antaryami wills and produces the milk through the cow.

4) The opponent gives another illustration to drive home his point of view that Pradhanam (prakriti) creates the universe.
Just as a lame person makes a blind person to move about in his presence and a magnet attracting iron materials,
so also pradhanam creates the universe in the presence of jiva.

The sutrakarar says in reply to the above that the creation of the universe is not possible without
the antaryami that is paramatma willing because of the fact that the lame person sitting on the neck of the blind person
gives directions to the blind person regarding the route in which they have to go which means that
paramatma is the antaryami to the lame person.
In the case of the magnet paramatma is the antaryami to the magnet which attracts the iron materials.

5) The next contention of the sankhya that deluge takes place at the time when the attributes
satva, rajas and tamas are of equal percentage and creation comes when they are of unequal percentage.
Even if it is argued that uneven percentage occurs during the time of deluge then there should be creation always.
Therefore it is not possible for pradhana to become cause of the universe without paramatma being its antaryami.

6) The Sutrakara further says that even if it is accepted with great difficulty that pradhana is the cause of the universe
in the presence of jiva, then jiva can never attain moksha or salvation which is the purushartha or supreme goal.
As jiva has to attain moksha, some time or other pradhana cannot be the cause of the universe
without paramatma controlling it from inside in the form of its antaryami.

7) Finally Sutra karar says that sankhya system cannot be accepted
because of many internal contradictions in that system itself.

The second adhikarana in this pada is called Mahath deerghavadtvadhikarana
and this adhikarana is devoted for the refutal of vaisheshika system founded by Kanada,.
He is Kanada because he was eating only grain of paddy.
His main contention is that atoms are the cause of the universe and not pradhana.
He further says that two atoms become diatomic and from diatomic, triatomic is produced.
His technical term for diatomic is hrasva and for triatomic is Parimandala.
The argument in this context is that the tri atoms join together on all the six faces and become a
bigger object and so on. Such joining of triatoms is the cause for becoming a small object
like mustard and a very big object like a mountain.

In the background of his above contention, the Sutrakara refutes this system by
seven sutras.
1) In the first sutra which reads as “Mahath deergavadva hrasva parimandalabyam”.
The Sutrakara who is sage Badarayana says that what Kanada says that this universe is made up of
diatoms and triatoms by their joining together and becoming big and lengthy is not correct.
This is because of the fact any object like a cloth comes to existence on account of the threads producing
the cloth get weaved together on all the six sides both length breadth wise and then become the cloth.
This form of joining with one another is not possible in the case of diatomics because they are invisible.
Invisibility is called Niravayava. If atoms which are called paramanus are accepted as having six faces
and this goes on without an end which is called anavastha. So the Sutrakara contends that universe cannot be created by atoms.

2) In the second sutra, Sutrakara refutes another contention of the Vaisheshika mmatha.
The contention is that the movement of paramanus is on account of the past deeds which is called karma or Adrishta.
The doubt arises whether this adrishta is in paramanus or in jiva. Both these two cannot be there because
the adrishta is eternal and if the karma or adrishta is eternal then there should be creation for ever.
So the universe cannot come into existence from out of atoms.

3) In the third sutra another contention of the Vaisheshika is refuted.
The contention is that relationship between the objects is called Samavaya.
This is different from the Aprithak siddha sambandha as in the case of the object called
guni and its attribute Guna and category called Jathin and the inditual called vyakthi.
If samavaya relationship is accepted then the cause for one Samavaya has to be traced and hence
another samavaya has to be created and so on without end.

4) In the 4th sutra, another contention is refuted. It is said that samavaya relationship is eternal.
If this is so then the pot and its support which is ground become eternal and there will not be any creation and destruction.
As this cannot happen the Vaisheshika system is not correct.

5) In the 5th Sutra of this adhikarana another contention of theirs is refuted.
They say because the mud pot has a definite colour, this colour is there in the atoms which produce it.
This is in contradiction to their original stand that atoms are eternal, very minute and impossible
and cannot possess colour. Hence the vaisheshika system is not correct.

6) In the 6th sutra, the Sutrakara says even if Kanada says he will not accept colour to the atoms,
then also he cannot escape from his inconsistency because of the fact when there is no colour in the karana (cause)
there cannot be any colour in the karya and so his system is not correct because it is not based on any sound logic.

7) In the 7th sutra, the sutrakara says that while kapila system which accepts the authority of Vedas
can be considered, the Kanada system cannot be accepted under any circumstances.

The Third, Fourth and Fifth adhikaranas are called
samudaya adhikaranam,
upalabdhi adhikaranam,
sarvatha anupapatti adhikaranam.
In these three adhikaranas, the Bauddha system of philosophy is refuted.

In the Bauddha system there are 4 subsystems which are as below.
(1) Vaibhashika system in which they accept that the objects we see around could be perceived
by eyes (pratyaksha) and they are momentary which is called Kshanika. Their knowledge is also momentary.
(2) Sautran thika system in which they say the external objects are there but they can be perceived by
Anumana (inference) and not by pratyaksha (Sensual perception). Objects are momentary and their knowledge are momentary.
(3) Yoga chara system in which they say the external objects are not all there but their knowledge is there which is momentary.
(4) Madhyamika system in which they say that nothing exists in this world and everything is non ense. He is called sarva sunya vadi.

All the above say that this universe is created by atoms and hence they are called paramanukaranavadies.
In the Vaibhashika system, it is said that the external objects are the combination of the atoms of
earth, water, fire and air and internal objects like continuity of knowledge and desires.
It is further said earthly atoms have a form, taste, sense of touch and smell.
Atoms of water have form, taste and sense of touch.
Atoms of fire have form and sense of touch. Atoms of air have only sense of touch.
They do not accept sky as one of the elements.
Points of refutation in Vaibhashika and Sautrantika.

1) Their contention that atoms create earth, water, fire and air and these four elements are the cause
of our bodies and senses is not correct because they say everything is momentary or kshanika.
Also in the world there will not be any talk or reference regarding them because their existence is momentary.
The questions that arise and which they are not able to answer convincingly are
(1) while the atoms are of momentary existence how and when they unite or combine to become elements for doing their respective jobs.
(2) When they become objects of perception
(3) When they become object of acceptance or rejection.
(4) Who is the soul etc.

2)They say Even though the objects and their knowledge are momentary on account of avidya (ignorance of jiva)
or illusion of jiva, They say they are eternal.
Sutrakarar says this is also not correct because they are not able to spell out clearly how this world came into being.
Here the avidya makes a diametrically opposite perception that is perceiving a momentary object as eternal.

3)Their contention is that the mud pot which comes after the previous mud pot disappeared,
because of its momentary existence and the previous mud pot is the cause for the succeeding mud pot.

This is not correct because the succeeding mud pot comes in to existence only after the previous got disappeared.
So the preceding cannot be cause for the succeeding one.
If Abhava or nonsense is the cause, then everything is produced by nothing always. This does not happen.
The Sutrakara citing some more points refutes the Vaibhashika system.
They further say that sky or Akasha is non sense and does not exist.
This is also refuted in this context saying that sky very much exists just like earth.

The argument of vaiseshika that something comes out of nothing( nonsense) which is called thuchcha is also not correct.
The world created by the nonsense should be nonsense only. Clay produces a mud pot. Gold produces an ornament.
So neither nonsense produces something nor something produces nonsense.
After seeing an object some where some time back we are able to remember that particular object.
This is called the prathya bigna of the object. When pratya bigna is there how can an object be momentary or
its knowledge also are momentary. Another contention of soutranthika that the attributes of
one object get transferred to another object is also referred by the sutrakara in this context.

Both vaiseshika and soutran trika were objected by sutrakarar on another point.
If the argument that something is produced from nothing and there is niranvaya vinasha
( nothing remains when an object gets destroyed) are really true then no body need put in any effort for Producing something.
We have seen in this world that any effort is aimed at the removal of the evil or for the achievement of the desired objective.
If everything goes or get destroyed in a moment and nothing remains there after there is nothing to be achieved by effort.
when something achieved by nothing then for those persons who remain in active or do not put in any effort
everything like worldly desire, heavenly desire or even salvation should get fulfilled . But unfortunately it is no so.

So Vaisheshika and Soutranthika systems do not stand to any reason and hence they are to be condemned out right.

The Sutrakara tells the vaisheshika whose system is under refutation, now that even if you say that
something is produced from nothing , then this statement is against your pledge or prathigna ,
The particular sense which perceives the object is called Adhipathi,
This sense for example eye see an object and afterwords perceive it.
There are four stages which give the knowledge of a particular object.
They are sense, seeing, object, perception. This is the Pratigjna. To make the above pledge true when
one pot moment is there it must be said another pot moment is also there.
Here the pot moment means the moment at which the pot was perceived.
It should be said that the first pot moment is the cause and the second pot moment is the effect.
But the question is how two pot moments one being the cause and the other being effect be there simultaneously.
The perception is not like that. The pledge of being momentary also fails.

Further the contention of Vaibhashika is that nothing remains when an object is subject to destruction is also refuted.
This is called Niranvaya vinasha. Vaibhashika says when the flame of a lamp is put out nothing remains.
He further says that in the case of the flame of lamp there is the wick, oil and flame.
Every moment a new small portion of the oil is burnt and the wick also gradually burns.
So the flame which is the result of the burning of oil and the wick is different every moment.
Though the flame apiers to be the same by the perception of eye ( Pratyaksha Pramana ) the flame becomes different every moment.

The Vaishashika says two types of destruction in this context. When the flame is put out by us.
The destruction is called Aprathi sankya Nirodha. ( a technical term used by vaiseshika) and if the flame
gets put out on its own in account of the exhaustion of the oil or complete burning of the wick or both,
the destruction is called Prathi sankya nirodha.

In both the cases they say the destruction is niranvaya vinasha because nothing remains.
it is also said that sthula vinasha is Prathi sankya nirodha in which the remains after destruction are visible.
Aprathi sankya nirodha is sukshma vinasha in which the remains are not visible.

His above contention is not accepted by the sutrakara who says that destruction is always sanvaya
because destruction is always a transformation. If a pot is hit by a hammer then the pot is destroyed
and the pot is broken in to pieces which are called kapala and this vinasha ( destruction) is sanvaya only.
Even in the case of the putting out of the flame the Sutrakara says the remains which are of
atomic nature are frittered away in to the air and the vinasha is sanvaya only.
In one of the sutras in this Adhikarana the soutran thika system of buddhist philosophy is also retuted.
The sutra reads as “Nasatha Adrishta Thvath.”

The Soutrankika generally contends that even though the externed objects are there they have to be perceived by
inference only. And both the objects and their knowledge are of momentary in nature.

The 4th adhikarana in this 2nd quarter of 2nd chapter is called “upalabdhi adhi karanam.”
In this adhi karanam the Yoga chara system of Buddhist philosophy comes for condemn nation.
It has three sutras.

The main contentions of Yoga chara are
1) The objects are not physically there but their knowledge is there. Even that knowledge lasts for a moment.
2) Just like the objects we see in the dream are momentary. So also the objects in the state of awakening.
This argument they advance in that variety of knowledge is not based on the variety of the objects.
The variety of knowledge is an account of the continuity of concept which is called vasana.
The exact meaning of vasana is the continuity of the perception of difference.
When the knowledge of a mud pot is there it leads to the knowledge of kapla ( broken pieces of mud pot).
The perception of mud pot is again from the perception of mud pot which existed before and again
this perception is from the perception of mut pot which existed before and so on as the perception is momentary.
In other words, one perception disappears and another perception appears in that place and so on.

When Yoga chara was asked how the shape of the external objects like mustard and mountain comes in to the
knowledge which is in the inner mind he replies that even the reference of an object is
on account of the vocal expression of the same.
The Sutrakara refutes the above argument in the first sutra which reads as “Nabhava upalabdhe:”.
The meaning of this sutra is that when the object physically exists its non existence cannot be established.
This means in other words that the object and its perception are co-existent.
The yoga chara says when the perception and the object are co-existent, it is called
“Sahopalambha” “Upalambha” means perception, “Saha” means together.
In the case of “Saho palambha” he says that knowledge and object are one and the same.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja says in the Sri Bhasya conntering the above argument that Sahopalambha does not mean
that object and perception are one and the same. If a person says “I perceive this pot”.
In this statement “I” refers to the person who is the subject (“Kartha“), the mud pot means the object which is perceived.
When there is difference between the subject and object so also there is difference between the object and its perception.

In the second sutrakarar says there is difference between the objects perceived during the dreams
and those perceived during the awakening state. The objects perceived during the dreams are subject to the
defects caused by sleep and defective mind and other things.
Further it is said that there could be no perception Without the object. such a perception could never be there.
There could be no knowledge without a person who is the subject and without an object.

So the final conclusion is that Yoga chara system can never be accepted.

The Fifth adhikarana is “Sarvatha Anupapaththi” adhikaranam.
This adhikaranam is devoted for refuting the Madhyamika system of Buddhist philosophy.
This Madhyamika is called “Sarva Sunyavadi”. He says that there is neither object nor its perception
and it is the final conclusion of Lord Buddha. Non sense is the tenet of his system and nonsense it self is the salvation.
The reason for a thing to exist is to be traced. He says he has not seen the creation of some thing from something.
When the heap of the clay is lost there will be only nonsense from which the nonsense pot is created.
Further in this world everything is an illusion.

This contention is refuted by the Sutrakara in the sutra which reads as “Sarvatha Anupapaththeshcha”.
This sutra means that by any stretch of Imagination, this sunyathvavada has no relevance at any time and at any place.
He is to be questioned whether he pledges that everything is sat (real entity) really exists,
whether it does not exist, whether it is the other than the above two and so on.
In any case he will not be able to establish his contention.

The sixth adhikaranam in this pada is called “Ekasmin Asambhavadhikarana” which has four sutras.
This Adhikaranam is fully devoted for denouncing the Jaina system of philosophy.

The Jainas are also paramanukaranavadies. Their main tenets are as follows.
This universe which comprises of sentient and non sentient beings does not have a supreme being who is called Iswara.
This universe is made up of six substances called dravyas. These dravyas are Jiva, Dharma, Adharma, Pudgala, Kala and Akasha.
The above are elaborated below. Jiva is the inpidual soul (sentient being) is of three categories.
The categories are Baddhas, Yoga siddhas and Mukthas. Baddhas are unliberated souls having the bondage of samsara.
Yoga siddhas are those jivas who have acquired yogic powers by meditation with a sense of detachment.
Mukthas are those who are liberated. Dharma is that power (punya) which makes a jiva to depart and attain salvation.
Adharma is the sinful act which makes jivas to remain in this universe itself.
Pudgala means substances having colour, smell, taste, touch. This pudgala is again of two types.
The first is in the form of atoms and second is their combination.
The combination of atoms constitutes air, Fire, Water, Earth, Body, World etc.
Kala or the time is pided as past, present and future. Time is atomic. Sky or Akasha is of infinite space.
All the above substances other than atoms are again classified as five Asthikayas.
If a substance encompasses a large space it is called Asthikaya.
The five asthikayas are Jivasthikaya, Dharma Asthikaya, Adharma Asthikaya, Pudgala Asthikaya, Akasha Asthikaya.
The means for salvation is Righteous conduct with the background of sound knowledge and insight.
Salvation is the blossoming of the intrinsic and inherent nature of one’s own self which is Jivatma.

In addition to the above they say that every object in this world is of seven fold mutually contradicting characteristics.
The seven fold characteristics are (1) May be an object exists (2) May be an object does not exist
(3) May be an object exists and also does not exist. (4) May be an object is indescribable
(5) May be an object is exists and is indescribable (6) May be an object does not exist and is indescribable
(7) May be an object exists & does not exist and indescribable.

This seven fold characteristic is called Saptha bhangi vada.
The Sutrakara begins to refute the above Jainism with the Sutra reading as “Naikasmin Asambhavath”.
This means it is not possible for the mutually contradicting characteristics to be there in the same object at the same time.
It is just like telling that the shadow and hot sun are at once place at the same time.
As this is not possible, the seven fold mutually contradicting characteristics in the same object at the same time is not possible.
So the Jainism cannot be accepted. In the second and third sutras, the Sutrakara refutes another viewpoint of the jainas.
They say that Jiva the inpidual soul has no fixed size.
They say that jivas are of the size of the body which they take during every birth.
This statement is something absurd on the very face of it because of the fact in one birth a jiva may become
an elephant and the size of the jiva in that birth will be of the size of the elephant and if
in the subsequent birth if jiva were to become an ant then the size of the jiva will be that of ant.
How can jiva of the elephant size can reduce himself to that of ant. This cannot happen because jiva is impossible.

So the Jain system becomes totally unacceptable and hence to be condemned.

The Seventh Adhikarana in this pada is called “Pasupathi Adhikaranam which has four sutras.
In this Adhikarana the sutrakara denounces the pasupathi system of philosophy founded by Lord Siva who is called Pasupathi.
His teachings are, 1. For the universe Nimitta karana is Lord Siva where as the Upadanakarana is the Prakrithi that is primordial matter.
Their customs and habits are very nasty and even vulgar. All their teachings and customs are totally repugnant to Vedas.
The followers of this religion and philosophy are of four categories.
1) Kapalika – One who knows the names of six mudrikas ( wearing certain things on the body)
and meditates on his own self attains Moksha. The mudrikas are a necklace, finger ring, ear ring,
a bead worn on the tuft of hair on the head, ashes and holy thread are the six mudrikas.
2) Kalamukhas – They say the following are the means for attainment of all fruits here and in the other worlds.
The means are to eat out of a human skull, to bathe with the ashes of the cremation ground,
and put it in the mouth, to bear a stick, to fill a vessel with toddy (liquor) and worship it.

Similarly the other two categories namely Pasu pathas and Saivas teach on the similar lines to their followers.
They also say a person belonging to an inferior caste can be converted to superior caste.
The above pasupatha system of philosophy is denounced by the Sutrakara in
the first sutra of this adhikarana which reads as “Pathyu: Asamanja syath”.
The meaning of this sutra is that the philosophy and religion of Pasu patha (Lord Siva) is to be rejected
outright because of mutual internal contradictions and his teachings are entirely against those contained in Vedas.
All the Vedas in one voice proclaim that Lord Sriman Narayana is himself is the material and operational cause of the universe.
Certain references to fourheaded Brahma and Siva in some of the vedic and upanishadic texts
have to be interpreted as per the sutra in the Indra prana Adhikarana of the first quarter and first chapter.
The sutra is “Sastra Drishtyathu upadesha: Vamadva thath” which means
that if any other deity is mentioned in upanishadic contexts pertaining to meditation,
then in those contexts the object of meditation is Lord Sriman Narayana only
who is in the inner soul of the deity mentioned there in.

The other objections to the pasupatha philosophy is that in this system of philosophy opposed to Vedas
citing the supreme being as operational cause only and not material cause is based on inference only (Anumana pramana).
A pot maker who is the operational cause for a mud pot handles the heap of clay and is incharge of all
the other operations involved in the pot making. Being in charge of all the operations is called Adhishtana.
The pot maker is an Adhishtana because he has a body. Even if a body is accepted to Lord Pasupathi
that body cannot last for ever as it has to perish on one day or other. So Lord Siva cannot be nimittha karana.

It is argued that an inpidual soul without itself being a body is the adhishtana for his body and senses
for the enjoyment of pleasure and sorrows.So also Lord Siva can be adhishtana to prakrithi and be nimitta karana.
Jiva is adhishtana on account of his punya and papa. Because according to them
there is no punya and papa to Lord Siva, he cannot be adhishtana.
Even if punya, papa is accepted to Lord Siva then he will be like any other ordinary soul (Jiva)
and with limited knowledge. So he cannot be nimitha karana ( operational cause).
So the pasupatha matham is to be rejected outright completely.

In the case of sage Badarayana who is the Sutrakara rejecting the Buddhism and Jainism, a doubt many arise.
Buddha and Jaina appeared in this world in Kaliyuga and propagated their respective systems.
The Sutrakara was in Dvapara yuga and composed sutras.
The doubt is how can the sutra kara denounce the systems which were propagated in Kaliyuga only.

This doubt is cleared as follows:-
Buddha and Jaina preached their respective religions and philosophies which were already existing, to their followers.
These philosophies are anadi or without a beginning. So the Sutrakarar has rejected them.
Another explanation is that the present kaliyuga is 28th Kaliyuga in the cycle of 71 chathur yugas
( Kritha, Thretha, Dvapara and Kali are the four yugas and they together constitute one chathur yuga) of vaivaswatha manvantara.
Every manvanthara has 71 chathur yugas. Buddha and Jaina would have born in 27th Kaliyuga also
and preached their respective religions. So sage Badarayana who was born in 28th dvapara yuga
would have denounced the Buddhism and Jainism which were preached in 27th Kaliyuga.

The 8th or the last adhikarana in this 2nd pada of the 2nd chapter is “Utpathi Asambhavadhikarana”.
In this adhikarana the opponents of Sri Pancharathra Sastra are denounced and the authority of the
Pancharathra sastra is established. Lord Sriman Narayana did not author the Vedas but he only taught
Vedas to the four headed Brahma who was created in his navel.
But he is said to be the author of the entire Pancharathra sastra and propagated the same to others.
This Pancharathra sastra was preached by Lord Sriman Narayana to five celestial gods who are
Anantha, Garuda, Vishvaksena, Brahma and Indra and this preaching was done in five nights
and hence it is calld “Pancharathra”.
Another reason for calling it as pancharathra is that this sastra deals with the daily routine
to be observed or performed by an inpidual. This daily routine is divided in to five parts
which are called Abhigamana, Upadana, Ijya, Svadhyaya and Yoga.

This Pancharathra sastra comprises of 108 samhitas which fall in to four categories.
(1) Agamasiddhantha (2) Manthra Siddhantha (3) Tanthra siddhantha (4) Tanthranthara siddhantha.

This is just like pision as Rigveda, Yajur veda, Sama veda and Atharvana veda.
It is said if an individual strictly conforms to the preachings contained in one samhitha
he will attain Moksha that is eternal bliss. This is equivalent to practicing Bhakthi yoga adopting
any of the 32 Brahma vidyas prescribed in upanishads as means for attaining Moksha.

The doubt regarding the authority of Sri Pancharathra sastra arose because of a statement
in one of the samhitas as “Sankarashno nama Jivo jayathe” which means that a jiva by name sankarshana was born.
As there is no birth or death to an inpidual soul that is Jiva as per the upanishads the above statement
contradicts what is established in Vedas. When the contradiction is there and as Vedas are of supreme authority
it was contended that Pancharathra sastra which is contradiction to Vedas is not an authority.

The first two sutras are the purva paksha sutras stating the viewpoint of the opponents.
The latter two sutras are siddhantha sutras refuting the viewpoint of the opponent or Poorva pakshi.

The first sutra is “Utpatthi Asambhavath”.
The meaning of this sutra “as there is no creation of the Jiva, the Pancharathra sastra which mentions
the creation of the jiva cannot be an authority. This argument was countered by the sutrakarar
who says in the sutra as Vignanadi Bhavevathatda prathisheda:”.

The meaning of this sutra is that Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha are the vyuha forms of the Lord
Sri Para vasudeva (Sriman Narayana) and there is no jiva by name sankarshana and hence
there is no contradiction between veda and pancharathra sastra. So the pancharathra is an authority in its entirety.
Sankarshana is the form of the Lord Sriman Narayana who represents jivas and Pradyumna represents senses.
The portfolio of sankarshana is the destruction of the universe at the time of deluge.
Pradyumna is the creator and Aniruddha is the protector.

Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja has quoted profusely from several samhithas, establishing the full agreement of
Pancha rathra sastra with the Vedas. So Pancha rathra sastra is a complete authority to us.

As already mentioned, earlier the second chapter is called “Avirodha Adhyaya”.
The word Avirodha means “No opposition or No objection”. This further means Lord Sriman Narayana
who is called parabrahman or merely as Brahman is the three fold cause of the universe
that is upadana karana (material cause), Nimitta karana (operational cause) and Sahakari karana (instrumental cause).
This fact was established in the first chapter called samanvaya adhyaya and this was further strengthened
and reinforced in the second chapter. So the second chapter asserts that there is no objection in
Lord Sriman Narayana in being the three fold cause of the universe.
This assertion came after Sutrakara who is the sage Badarayana over ruled the various objections
raised by Nirishwara Sankhya against Lord Sriman Narayana being the cause of the universe in the
first pada by being on the defensive and starting offensive against the other systems of philosophy
and denouncing them by pointing their internal contradictions and other drawbacks.

The systems that were refuted are (1) Nirishwara Sankhya system of Kapila
(2) Vaisheshika system of Kanada who is a paramanu karana vadi which means atoms are the cause of the universe
(3) Four sub systems of Bauddha who are Vaibhashika, Soutrantika, Yogachara and Madhyamika who are all paramanu karana vadies.
(4) Jaina system who is also a paramanukaranavadi.
(5) Pasupatha system of Lord Pasupathi who is paramasiva who they say is the nimitta karana only and not upadana karana.

After the above offensive, the Sutrakara finally establishes the authority of pancharathra sastra
also called as Bhagavat sastra after clearing some initial doubts regarding the same.
As mentioned earlier the first pada is called Smrithi pada and the second pada is known as Tarka pada.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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