Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 1-(Samanvaya )-Paatham 4–(‘Spashta thara jivadi linga pada’)Summary-

The first chapter is called ‘Samanvaya Adhyaya’ and
fourth pada is known as ‘Spashta tharajivadilinga pada’.
In this pada the Sage Badarayana deals with the upanishadic passages which discuss and decide the entity
who is the cause of the universe. All the upanishadic passages point towards the Lord Sriman Narayana
who is the Upadana karana (Material cause), Nimitta karana(operational cause) and it goes without saying
that he is the Saha karikarana (Instrumental cause) also.

Even though there is no specific mention about this, the word ‘spashta thara’ means very clear.
It is also said that this pada deals with Upanishadic passages reflecting the tenets of the
Sankhya system of philosophy which says that the primordial matter which has several names like
Prakrithi, Pradhana, Anumanika and Ashabda is the cause of the universe.
These Upanisadic passages which reflect the Sankhya system are called Chayanusari Vakyas or Shadow Vakyas.
Vakya means a text or a passage of the Upanishad.
In this pada there are Eight adhikaranas.

The first two adhikaranas refute the Nirishwara Sankhya System founded by Kapila.
The Third adhikarana refutes the number of tattvas or categories as propounded in this system.
The fourth adhikarana establishes the fact that the word “Avya kritha” which generally means primordial matter,
refers to only the Supreme Being Sriman Narayana.
The next two adhikaranas that is 5th and 6th from the beginning refute the argument
jiva or soul in boundage of samsara known as baddhajiva.(also called asuddha jiva) and liberated soul,
known as muktha jiva (also called suddha jiva) as the cause of the universe.

The last two adhikaranas, that is the 7th and 8th refute in Seshwara Sankhya system of philosophy
which says, Brahman or Paramatma is only ‘Nimitta karana’ for the universe and not the Upadana Karana.

The first adhikarana is called ‘Anumanikadhikarana’.
The upanisadic text that comes up for discussion is a passage in the Kathopanishath which is a
dialogue between Yama and Nachiketha. Lord Yama teaches Nachiketha knowledge of Brahman in detail.

At one stage in his teachings, Yama says this human body is a ‘ratha’ or chariot.
The driver is Buddhi (intellect.) The person who travels, in this chariot is jiva, the senses that is.
Indriyas are the horses that pull the chariot. The mind is the reins in the hand of the driver
controlling the movement of the horses. The objects of enjoyment which are vishayas are the directions
in which horses desire to gallop. There are five senses of perception which are called Gnanendriyas.
The vishayas or the objects of enjoyment are sound for the ears, touch for the skin, color for eyes,
taste for the tongue, smell for the nose.

After comparing the human body to a chariot ( This comparison is known as Rupaka),
Yama tells Nachiketha the sequence of the things which are to be controlled one after the other or
one superior to the other by an upasaka (meditator) who gets down to Bhakthi yoga to attain Moksha.
The first thing to be controlled are vishayas are more crucial than the senses to be controlled.
More crucial to the vishayas is the mind which is to be controlled because even if the vishayas are
far away from the inpidual, the mind may be thinking of them.
So mind has to be controlled. The next thing to be controlled is Buddhi or Intellect.
More crucial to the buddhi is jiva, the self. Next to jiva to be controlled is the body because if
the body is in perfect health then only upasana or deep meditation is possible.

In this upanishad this body is called Avyaktha. The next crucial is the Supreme Being.
Controlling the Supreme Being means invoking his grace by doing saranagathi at his lotus feet,
but for his benedictory grace nothing can be controlled. This sequence of controlling is called
‘vaseekarya parampara’.

Here the view of the opponent or poorva pakshi who is Nirishvara Sankhya who does not accept
the existence of the supreme being is that the word Avyaktha in this context refers to primordial matter
only which is prakrithi or Anumanika and superior to this is the jiva who is referred as purusha in this context.
According to him the prakrithi or anumanika creates the universe in the presence of jiva.
This combination is known as prakrithi purusha.

This view is refuted by Sutrakarar in the first sutra which reads as ,
“Anumanikamapi Ekesham Eticheth na Sarirarupakavinyastha Grihithe: darshayathicha”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Ekesham means in katopanishad,
Anumanikam means Pradhanam or Prakrithi,
Api is mentioned as the cause of the universe,
Na means that this view is not correct because sarira rupaka
vinyastha grihithe: means the human body is compared to the chariot in this context,
Grihithe: means in the vaseekarya parampara mentioned in this context Avyaktha means the body,
Darshayathicha means the Upanishad in this context refers to the sequence of things to be controlled.

Avyaktha means not clear or refers to the object that cannot be seen.
The doubt that arises here is when the body is clearly visible to us how can it be called as Avyaktha.
This doubt is cleared by stating that the body is the transformation of the five elements which are
sky, Air, fire, water and earth which are in the minute form before transformation.

So the main purpose of this Adhikarana which is establishing the fact that Avyaktha is body is achieved.

—————

The second Adhikarana in this pada is called Chamasadhikarana.
This has three sutras.

The logical sequence or link with the previous adhikarana (sangathi) is as follows.
In the previous adhikarana, the fact that pradhana or prakrithi is independent was refuted by proving that
avyaktha does not refer to pradhana or Anumanika because it means only the body.
In the svetashwatara upanishad it is said that prakrithi is quite independent.
So the doubt is that the judgement of the previous adhikarana may not be correct.
To remove this doubt and restore the judgement of the previous adhikarana this adhikarana comes to picture.

The Upanishadic text that comes up for discussion in this adhikarana is from Svethashwathara Upanishad.
In one passage of the above upanishad It is said that Prakrithi which is primordial matter is quite
independent which consists of three elements fire, water and earth which are reddish, whitish and blackish
in their colours respectively creates several objects of the above colours in the forms of
Devas and human beings etc. Aja means that which is not born.
So Aja or Prakrithi is referred here as cause of universe.

So the poorvapakshi who is again Nirishwara Sankhya says that
Prakrithi alone creates the universe in the presence of jiva.
This point is refuted by Sutrakara in the first sutra which reads as Chamasavad Aviseshath.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Chamasa is a vessel used in a yaga in which the
juice of the ‘soma latha’ is kept and this juice is drunk by all rithviks connected with the yaga.

So chamasa only refers to the vessel made of wood used in the yaga.
In another context chamasa refers to a vessel of a particular shape.
But chamasa is a vessel in general terms. So the precise meaning of sutra is that just like chamasa
refers to a vessel used in a yaga in general terms so also here Aja means that which is not born and
there is nothing in the upanishadic text of this adhikarana to suggest that it is independent and
capable of creation of the universe on its own.

In the second sutra it is clearly said that Aja the primordial matter has the paramatma
as its cause citing a statement from Taittiriya Upanishad.
In this adhikarana it is there fore established that there is nothing in the universe
which does not have paramatma as antaryami or as its inner soul.
So even the Prakrithi the primordial matter has paramatma as its antaryami.
So in this universe every object is Brahmatmaka which means Paramatma is a soul and the object is the body.

The 3rd adhikarana in this quarter is called Sankhyopa-Sangrahadhikaranam.
This has three sutras.
The logical connection with the previous adhikarana is as follows.
In the previous adhikarana, it was established that the Prakrithi is not abrahmatmaka but it is brahmatmaka.
Brahmatmaka means having paramatma as antaryami and abrahmatmaka means not having paramatma as antaryami.
So abrahmatmaka tatvas are ruled out and all tatvas are sabrahmatmaka.

But this is objected to because of a statement in Brihadaranyaka upanishad.
This objection is over ruled in this Adhikarana. The upanishadic passage in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
which is subject for discussion in this Adhikarana is as follows.
Paramatma is the support to five elements and five knowledge giving senses.
These senses are given a special name in this upanishad as panchajana.
Because there are five Jnanentriyas (knowledge giving senses), these are called ‘pancha panchajanas’.
If this fact is known by an individual who also knows this paramatma who is called Amritha
which means most enjoyable the knower also becomes Amritha which means he attains moksha.
When the question comes which are the indriyas (senses) referred to by the word Panchajana
in this context the upanishad itself says prana, eyes, ears and mind.
Here prana means skin as prana cannot mean to breath or Mukya prana.

In another branch of Brihadaranyaka upanishad called Madhyandiana sakha, there is the mention of the nose
in the same context which has also to be taken in to account because it is mentioned as
Anna in this context which refers to both tongue and nose.

The opponent who is Nirishwara Sankhya thought because it is said as pancha panchajana,
pancha pancha means 5 x 5 that 25 and this suits the number of 25 tattvas postulated by him
and there is no mention of 26th tattva who is paramatma.
He further says that prakrithi which has twenty four tatvas should be the cause of the universe
and the creation takes place in the presence of the 25th tatva who is called purusha or jiva.

According to Nirishwara Sankhya, the 25 tatavas are.
1) Prakriti, Mahat, Ahankara – 3
2) Five elements or Bhutas which are sky, air, fire, water and earth – 5 (sky is akasha)
3) Five tanmatras (subtle forms) which are called as Saba tanmatra, Sparsha tanmatra, Rupa tanmatra, rasa tanmatra, Gandha tanmatra- 5
Tanmatra is a stage in between preceding bhutha and succeeding bhutha. Just like the stage in between Milk and curd.
4) Indriyas or senses – 11
5) Jivatma who is called purusha by Nirishwara Sankhya- 1
Total – 25

We also (belonging to visishtadwaitha philosophy) accept the above twenty five tattvas and besides the above
we accept paramatma who is the 26th tattva. So paramatma is called shadvimsaka because
he is the 26th tattva and jivatma is called panchavimsaka as he is the 25th tatva.
The eleven senses are
1) Mind- 1
2) Knowledge giving senses- 5 which are ears, eyes, noses, skin and tongue ( Jnanendriyas)
3) Action oriented senses (karmeindriyas) Hands, Legs, Speech, Genital organ and Excretory organ- 5
Total : 11

In this context it is better we know the sequence of creation.
Prakriti, Mahat, Ahankara, Sabdatanmatra, Akasa Sparshatanmatra, Vayu Rupatanmatra, Tejas,
Rasa tanmatra, water, gandha tanmatra, earth.
In the each of the above, Lord Sriman Narayana is the antaryami and he wills and the succeeding tatva is created.
Ahankara is of three kinds, Satvika ahankara from which the indriyas are created.
Tamasa Ahankara from which the five bhuthas are created. Rajasa ahankara helps both the above.

The opponent is of the view that this upanishadic passage is in ideal agreement with their doctrine of 25 tattvas
without accepting the existence of the paramatma and there fore ruling out the possibility of the
paramatma being the antaryami in each of the above.

This view has been refuted by the sutrakarar in the first sutra which states as
“Nasankyopasangrahathapi nanabhavath athirekachcha”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Even if the 25 tatvas are accepted they are different from what Nirishwara sankhya says because
Akasha and Jivatma which are within the twenty five as stated in this upanishad to be outside twenty five which is not correct.
Therefore the word pancha panchjana does not mean or refer to the 25 tatvas.

In the second sutra which states as “Pranadaya: Vakya seshath”
it is established that pancha pancha jana means only the Gananendriyas which are five in number.
So there is nothing like Abrahmatmaka tatva.

The 4th adhikarana is called Karanathva adhikarana.
It has two sutras.

The logical connection of this adhikarana with the previous adhikarana is as follows.
In the previous adhikarana it was established that because of the fact that Akasha and indriyas
are supported by Brahman or paramatma, the pradhana or the primordial matter cannot be the cause for the world.

Now the same purva pakshi who is the Nirishwara sankhya rises again and tells that
there is no unanimity in the upanishads regarding the entity which happens to be the cause for the universe.
He also says that there is some unanimity in the pradhana (prakriti) being the cause of the universe.
This contention is refuted in this adhikarana.

In the various upanishadic texts dealing with the creation of the universe, the upanishads identify
several entities as the cause of the universe. One upanishad says that Asath is the cause.
Another upanishad says sat is the cause. The third upanishad says Avyakritha is the cause.

The opponent says that because of the above it is very difficult to establish that Brahman as the cause of the universe.
Ekshana or willing or determination to create can also be made applicable to the pradhana and
hence it is the cause of the jagath. This is the contention of the opponent.

This is refuted by the Sutrakara in the first sutra which reads
“Karanathvena Akasadishu yatha vyapadishta ukthe:” – The meaning of the sutra is as follows.
Akasha dishu karanathvena yatha vyapadishta ukthe: – Brahman or Lord Sriman Narayana has been mentioned
as the cause for Akasha and fire etc. because of his omniscience (knowing every thing),
All powerfulness, ability to will and execute any thing and every thing etc.
This is because of the fact that Taittariya upanishad clearly says that Akasha and other elements are created by Brahman.

In the second sutra which reads as
Samakarshath – the Sutrakara gives valid and convincing reasons for the words
sath, Asath, Avyakrithi to mean Brahman.

The fifth adhikarana in this quarter is called Jagath vachitvadhikaranam.
It has three sutras.

The link with the previous adhikarana is as follows.
In the previous adhikarana it was established that a sentient being is the cause of the universe.
Even then it can be only unliberated soul who can be the cause because Nirishwara sankhya does not accept
the existence of paramatma. The sentient being that is unliberated jiva can exist only with a mortal body
having the ingredients of the prakrithi tatva. So this prakrithi or pradhana can also be indirect cause.

The upanishadic text that comes up for discussion is a passage from Kausitaki upanishad.
Before the mentioning the summary of the relevent passage a story is spelt out here which leads to that passage.
The story is that a person belonging to Gargya gothra and whose name is Balaki was a resident of kashi
which is now called Benaris or Varanasi. He was a well readman. He met Ajathasatru who was the king of kasi
and told him that he would initiate him that is Ajathasatru in to the knowledge of Brahman.
Ajathasatru was very happy over it because he told that every body wants to go to king janaka because
he gives very valuable and precious gifts to those who teach him about Brahman and Ajatha satru further observed that
Balaki has come to him without going to janaka and that is laudable.
It is implied that he would give the same gift to Balaki as janaka would offer.

Then Balaki began to initiate Ajathasatru into the knowledge of Brahman by saying that
he is used to meditate on the purusha at the centre of solar system as Brahman and asked ajatha satru to do the same.
Ajathasatru says that he also knows about it and he needs no preaching of the same from Balaki.
Like wise Balaki went on telling that he is meditating on Moon, Lightning, cloud, sky, air, fire,
water, image, echo, imitation, shadow, jiva, jiva in sound sleep, jiva who sees dreams, image in the right eye,
image in the left eye and Ajatha satru says that he also knows all the above and does not require Balaki’s initiation.
Balaki then became silent. Ajatha satru asks Balaki whether he knows only that much for which
Balaki replies in the affirmitive. Then Ajathasatru tells Balaki all the while he only narrated
the objects which are not brahman and he will initiate Balaki in to the knowledge of Brahman.
Ajatha satru continues to say that the person who created all the objects mentioned by Balaki
and who created this world containing both sentient beings and non sentient beings is the Brahman
who is to be meditated upon. Then Balaki became the disciple of Ajathasatru.
Then Ajatha satru holding hands of Balaki and came out and both went near a person who was in deep sleep.
Then Ajatha satru addressed the breadth of the sleeping person and he did not get up.
Then Ajatha satru beats him with a stick and the person immediately got up.
By this action he illustrated that jiva is different from prana otherwise called breath.
He further tells Balaki that jiva was sleeping on paramatma from whom the jiva came out and got up.
This further illustrates that jiva is different from Paramatma.

In this the opponent says that in the statement that the objects mentioned by Balaki are the objects of enjoyment,
aides of enjoyment which are created by the person according to his karma and the term karma
refers to punya and papa of the inpidual and hence jiva who is the possessor of the punya and papa must be
creator of the universe and he should be meditated upon as distinct or separate from the body.
In other words the contention of Nirishwara sankhya is that pradhana or prakrithi which is supported by
jiva or purusha should be the creator of the universe.

This argument of the opponent is refuted by sutrakarar in the first sutra which reads as
“Jagadvachitvat” –
The meaning of this sutra is that the word karma mentioned in the upanishadic text
refers to the universe only and not punya and papa and there fore the contention that
the body or prakrithi which is supported by purusha or jiva as the cause of the universe is not correct.
In other words the Brahman alone and none else is the cause of the universe.

The sixth adhikarana in this quarter is called Vakyanvadhikarana.
The link with the previous adhikaranam is as follows:-
In the previous adhikarana the word karma was interpreted as the world and consequentially that
particular portion of the upanishadic text was proved as not pertaining to jiva.
The opponent says that the upanishadic text pertaining to this adhikarana clearly points to-wards the jiva
who is the enjoyer of fruits of punya papa. This view point is refuted here.

The upanishadic passage which comes for discussion in this adhikaranam is Maitreyi Brahmana in Brihadaranyaka upanishad.
This is the 5th subsection of the 4th chapter in that upanishad.

A brief summary of this text is as follows. Sage Yajnavalkya had two wives Katyayani and Maitreyi.
Katyayani had materialistic out look where as Maitreyi’s out look was spirital.
Yajnavalkya decided to take to sanyasa and wanted to execute a will piding his assets between two wives.
Maitreyi asked Yajnavalkya whether the wealth which she is going to bequeath from yajnavalkya would help her
attaining moksha that is eternal bliss. Yajnavalkya replied in the negative.
Then Maitreyi asks Yajnavalkya to preach her the means for attaining maoksha.

The preaching of Yajnavalkya is as follows. A husband does not become lovable to his wife
on account of his own will but on account of the will of the paramatma the husband loves his wife.
Similarly a wife does not become lovable to her husband but on account of her own will and
because of the will of the paramatma she loves her husband.
This establishes the truth of the proverb that marriages are made in heaven.
Similarly children do not become affectionate to their parents but on account of their own but
because of the will of the paramatma they become affectionate to their parents.
Likewise wealth, a Brahman, a kshatriya, Swargaloka, celestial gods like indra etc,
living beings and all other objects become likeable to a person on account of the will of Lord Sriman Narayana.

The Lord Sriman Narayana is to be known by hearing about him under the feet of an acharya or preceptor.
He is to be repeatedly thought in the mind for the consolidation of the knowledge acquired about him,
he is to be meditated upon after seeing the paramatma within himself.
By acquiring full knowledge of paramatma every thing in this world will be known.
One who thinks that Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and other sentient and non sentient beings (animate and in animate objects)
are out side paramatma and not within paramatma will not attain moksha and he will have to under go
repeated births and deaths in this samsara or world. Just like when the drum is not beaten by a stick,
the sound does not generate or even when the drum is not there or the beater is not there
the sound is not generated like wise when the indriyas or the senses do not think of their respective objects or
when the senses are fully under control then the mind does not perceive the
external objects and will concentrate on the Paramatma.
Similar to the illustration of the drum as narrated above, illustrations are there
in respect of conch shell (shakha) and veena.
Just wet fire wood generates smoke by its combination with fire, so also Lord Sriman Narayana is both
the material and operational causes of the universe.
Here for causing smoke, fire is the nimitta karanam (operational cause) and wet fire wood is upadana karana (material cause).

Further to the above, it is said here four Vedas, epics like Srimad Ramayana, Puranas like
Sri Vishnu purana and Upanishads emerged from the paramatma.
In the first sentence of this upanishadic passage there is the word “Atma” where it was said that
the husband does not become loveable to his wife and paramatma who is merely said as atma in this passage
wills that husband should love his wife. The opponent who is Nirishwara sankhya says that
Atma should denote the person opposite to the word husband. This means Atma refers to wife who is jiva.
He further says that the word, “Atma” in the subsequent passage refers to jiva only
and not paramatma and this jiva should be mediated upon.

In Nirishwara Sankhya system of philosophy it is said that purusha (jiva) separated from the body
if meditated upon confers upon him the moksha. SO the opponent says that this passage has nothing to do with paramatma.
So he confirms the fact that pradhana or prakrithi creates the universe in the presence of the purusha or jiva,

This view of the opponent is refuted by sutrakarar in the first sutra which reads as
“Vakya anvayath”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
This upanishadic passage entirely pertains to paramatma because the sentences in this passage having
proper link with one another right from the beginning refers to paramatma only because Maitrayi
in the beginning asked Yajnavalkya to tell her the means of attaining eternal bliss
and this is possible only by meditation on paramatma and not on jivatma.

In this adhikaranam an important doctrine of Vishishtadvaitha philosophy has been established by the Sutrakara.
The Sutrakara mentions three schools of thought of the sages Ashmarathya, Audulomi and Kasakritsna
who are all disciples of Sage Veda vyasa. Sage Veda vyasa finally accepts the contention of kasakritsna
who says that jiva is the body of the paramatma which is the basic doctrine of visishtadwaitha system.
So this adhikarana is one of the most important adhikaranas.

The seventh adhikarana in this chapter is called Prakrithi adhikaranam.
There are six sutras in this.
In the previous six adhikaranas the Nirishwara sankhya system of philosophy which was founded
and propagated by Lord kapila who is an incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana was completely refuted.
As already mentioned in this system the existence of paramatma is not accepted.
Pradhanam or primordial matter which is called prakrithi is the material cause and because
this prakrithi creates the universe in the prasense of purusha or jiva, purusha becomes nimitta karana.

In this adhikarana, the Four headed Brahma who founded Seshwara Sankhya system of philosophy
accepts the existence of Paramatma but says that he is the Nimitta karana only (operational cause)
and primordial matter continues to be the material cause or upadana karana.
Both the above systems of philosophy are against the doctrine contained in Vedas which unequivocally
proclaim that Lord Sriman Narayana is both material cause and operational cause which is called
Abhinna Nimitta upadana karana is established in this adhikarana.
So the link of this adhikarana with the previous one is that in the previous adhikarana Nirishwara Sankhya system
was refuted and in this adhikarana Seshwara Sankhya system is refuted.

The opponent or poorva pakshi in this adhikarana rises and tells that upanishads generally tell that
Brahman is only Nimitta karana and not upadana karana for this universe.
The authority he mentions for his above contention are some two passages in svetashwara upanishad
which say that the world is created by the primordial matter.
It always says that Mayi who is Brahman makes the prakriti create the universe.
Prakrithi is Maya and Mayi is Paramatma.

In Sri Bhagavad geetha also Lord Krishna says under his presence or supervision the Prakrithi delivers the universe.
Jivatma is subject to Maya created by paramatma.
It is the common knowledge of every body in this world that for any object, the upadana karana is different from nimitta karana.
For example, a golden jewel has gold as its upadana karana and goldsmith as the Nimitta karana.
So also for this universe the prakrithi is the Upadana karana and Brahman or paramatma is the Nimitta karana.

This argument is refuted by the sutrakarar in the first sutra which reads as
“Prakritisha pratijna Drishtanta Anuparodhath”. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.
Prakrithisha means upadanam (material cause) also which in other words is that
Brahman is upadana karanam also ( It goes without saying that he is nimitta karanam)
because of the pledge made by upanishads that by knowing the basic cause all the objects produced by it
will be known and the three illustrations were cited by uddalaka to svetha kethu which are clay, gold and iron.
By knowing clay all clayery products are known, By knowing gold all ornaments that can be made of gold are known
and by knowing iron all ferrous products are known. Between the pledge and the illustrations there is very close agreement.

So Brahman in the causal state is associated with sentient and non sentient beings in the cosmic form.
As he is antaryami to these beings he wills to transform the sentient and non sentient beings
in to a big form by giving name and form to each being which means he provides bodies and senses to all jivas.
Without his being inner soul and willing, the transformation would not have taken place.
Hence he is upadana karana. There is the example of spider. Spider is the worm which produces the thread
by itself and illustrates that it is both the upadana karana and nimitta.
When a spider can be both karanas why not Lord Sriman Narayana be both the upadana karana and nimitta karana.

The 8th and the last adhikarana is called Sarva Vyakyana adhikarana.
It has only one sutra.

The link with the previous adhikarana is as follows. In the first chapter which is called samanvaya adhyaya
there are 35 adhikaranas including the present one which is the 35th adhikarana.

In the previous 34 adhikaranas it was established Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe.
But there are certain passages in the various upanishads in which Rudra, Hiranya Garbha, Indra
and other celestial gods are mentioned as the cause of the universe and this creates a doubt
as to who is the real cause of the universe. So to dispel this doubt this adhikaranam was introduced by the Sutrakara.

The opponent says that in Svetashwatara Upanishad it is said that
Rudra is the cause of the universe and he is to be meditated upon to attain Moksha.

This is refuted by the Ssutrakara in the sutra “Ethena Sarve vyakyata vyakyatha:”
The world “Vyakayatha:” is repeated twice to indicate that this chapter comes to an end with this sutra.
The meaning of this sutra is That by applying the maxims established in the previous 34 adhikaranas,
the remaining statements in the various upanishads in which several celestial gods like
Rudra, Indra, Hiranya garbha etc are mentioned as the cause of the universe and to be meditated upon for attaining Moksha,
may be proved that they refer to Lord Sriman Narayana only and he alone is the cause of the universe both material and operational.
This sutra also incidentally refutes the argument that atoms are the cause of the universe.

In Sruta prakasika which is a beautiful commentary on Sri Bhasya, the commentator Sri Sudarsana suri cites
several upanishadic texts which are dubious in nature regarding the cause of the universe.
The commentator beautifully gives convincing reasons for deciding that those names mentioned
in those texts mean Lord Sriman Narayana only and none else. Some of them are listed below.

Upanishad–Name mentioned as cause–Room for doubt–Reason to assert that the name refers to Sriman Narayana Only.
1-Brihadaranyaka upanishad–Brahman–Brahma may mean Brahmin caste or Agni Devatha or even four-headed Brahma.
Here Sriman Narayana himself says that he creates Chathur mukha. So Brahma means Narayana.
2-Brihadaranyaka upanishad–Mrityu–The whole thing was encompassed by Mrityu.
Mrityu refers to Sri Narayana only, In Subaloopanishad it is said that Mrityu is the body of paramatma.
3-Subalopanishad–It is not sat, it is not asath, it is neither sath or asath.
From this tamas is created.
In this upanishad every now and then Narayana is mentioned. So Sath, or Asath refers to Narayana only.
4-Yajurveda Aranyaka–Aditya or Surya–Surya is mentioned as Atma to the world.
Surya or Aditya refers to his inner soul who is the antaryami, Sriman Narayana.
5-Prasnopanishad–Prajapathi–Prajapathi willed and created the universe
Prajapathi means his inner soul, Sriman Narayana. In the later part there is the mention of Paramapurusha
6-Brihadaranyaka upanishad.–HiranyaGarbha.
It is said that Hiranyagarba was alone at the time of deluge or pralaya and he created the universe.
The word Hiranyagarbha refers to Sriman Narayana because Hiranyagarbha is one among the thousand names in Sahasranama sthothram .
7-Taittariya upanishad–Dhatha–Dhatha created sun and moon
Dhatha means Sriman Narayana because it is said in the beginning that paramatma sleeps at the centre of the ocean of milk.
8-Svetaashwataraa upanishad–Rudra–It is said Rudra created Hiranyagarbha
Rudra was born from Four-headed Brahma who was created by Sriman Narayana from his navel and so
Rudra cannot be the cause of the universe. Further Rudra is one among the thousand names of Lord Sriman Narayana.
So Rudra directly refers to Sriman Narayana. Moreover Ruk means the disease of Samsara Sriman Narayana dravayathi
that is melts this disease and therefore he is called Rudra.
Similarly the words Siva shambu mentioned in the upanishads in various contexts refer to Lord Sriman Narayana only.

By summing up the above and in conclusion the following two slokas become more relevent
and puts in a nut shell the essence of this first chapter.

“Tatvam Jignasamananam hethubhih sarvatho mukhai:
Tatvam eko mahayogi Hari: Narayana : para:”

The meaning is when a discussion is held to find the real truth by citing several reasons,
the final outcome is that Sriman Narayana who is also called Hari is the para tatva or the supreme truth or Reality.

“Aalodya Sarva Sasthrani Vicharyacha puna: puna:
Idam Ekam Sunishpanannam, dhyeyo Narayana: Sada”.

The meaning is, after making in depth study of all the scriptures and sasthras and discussing again and again,
the final conclusion is that Sriman Narayana is the supreme being who is to be meditated upon
and this fact cannot be shaken by those belonging to philosophies which are outside Vedas
(not accepting Vedas as supreme authority) and to philosophies giving wrong and
absurd interpretations to upanishads and Vedas. With this the first chapter gets concluded.

Systems of philosophy which are not accepting Vedas as authorities are called as bahyamathas.
Bahya means outside that is they are all outside the philosophy of Vedas which proclaim in one voice
that Lord Sriman Narayana alone is the upadana Karana and nimiththa Karana.
There are some systems of philosophy which accept Vedas as authority and give wrong interpretations to them.
These systems are called Kudrishtimathas.

The first chapter was called Samanvaya adhyaya because all the upanishadic texts dealing with
creator and creation of universe that is in other words the cause of the universe have
direct or indirect connection with Lord Sriman Narayana which means
Lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe both Material (Upadana karana) and Efficient (Nimitta karana).

This also implies or includes instrumental cause or saha kari karana.

——————————————

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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