Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-intro-Athyaayam -1-(Samanvaya)-Paatham 1-(Aspashtathara jivadi linga pada)Summary-

Sri Ramanuja by writing Sri Bhasya eminently fulfilled one of the last wishes of Sri Alavandar
who desired that there should be a commentary on Brahmasutras according to Sri Vishishtadwaitha system of philosophy.
The Style adopted by Sri Ramanuja is really unique and beautiful and even merely reading it
without understanding the meaning is itself enjoyable and thrilling.
It is said that not even a word can be added to or deleted from the text of Sri Bhasya.

Sri Ramanuja has weighed each and every word and has used the same in Sri Bhasya as Sri Valmiki in Srimad Ramayana.
Among the five duties which Sri Ramanuja enjoined upon his disciples during his last days,
study and propagation of Sri Bhasya was the very first.

This was followed by Sri Vedanta Desika in letter and spirit as he says that he spent his entire life time
by propagating Sri Bhasya to his disciples and by composing masterly works like
Tatvamuktha kalapa, Sarvarthasiddhi Nyaya Siddhanjana, Nyaya parisuddhi and Adhikarana Saravali etc,.
These works reinforce the basic tenets of Sri Visishtadvaitha contained in the Sri Bhasya
and form stable and strong foundation to Sri Bhasya and other works of Sri Visishtadvaitha philosophy.

Vedas are infinite treasure of knowledge. They were not composed by anybody and hence are called “Apaurusheya”.
The main features of Vedas are that they are without beginning (Anadi), eternal (Nityam) and blemishless (Nirdosha).
Vedas are the supreme authority in the world and there is no sastra or scripture which is superior to Vedas.
For people who are called vaidikas (that is, who believe in the authority of Vedas),
every syllable of Vedas is an authority. Authority is called Pramana in Sanskrit.

Sage Badarayana, son of sage Parasara is an incarnation of Lord Sriman Narayana.
He is also called Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa. The word Vyasa literally means one who pided the Vedas.
So sage Badarayana pided the Vedas in to four fold.
The First unit is known as Rigveda. The Second, Third and Fourth groups are called Yajurveda, Sama Veda and Atharvana Veda.
There are 21 branches in Rig veda, 100 branches in Yajur veda, 1000 branches in Sama veda and 9 branches in Atharvana Veda.

The veda vakyas or in other words Vedas are again classified as Vidhi, Arthavada and Mantra.
Vidhi is a command or an order directing a person to do a particular yaga, attain a worldly fruit or a fruit in the other worlds.
For example if a person aspires to attain heaven or svarga, he should perform Jyothishtoma yaga.
Arthavada vakya is that which relates to the publicity, advertisement or motivation to do a particular karma
for attaining a particular fruit.
Mantra is that portion of Vedas, which is recited in praise of a particular deity to invoke its blessings.

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These Brahma sutras are again grouped into four chapters.
The first sutra in the Brahma Sutras is “Atha tho Brahma jijnasa”.
The last sutra in the Brahma sutras is “Anavrittih sabdat, Anavrittih sabdat”
The structure of Mimamsa sastra is as follows. Sutras, Adhikaranas, Padas and Chapters.

The last three sutras in the Devathakanda are quoted by some Acharyas in their works which are
“Antheh: harau taddarshanath, Sa Vishrurahahi, Thatth Bramhethya chakshathe”.
So it is said that the word Brahman in the last sutra appears in the first Brahma sutra as
“Atha tho Brahma Jijnasa”. Here Brahma (Brahman) means Lord Sriman Narayana only and not four headed brahma.

Atha tho Brahma jijnasa”. It means Atha: afterwards and Atah: means therefore.
“Atha tho Brahmajiguasa” means a desire to know the Brahman, the Supreme Being.

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The First Sloka in Sri Bhasya is
“Akhila Bhuvana Janma sthema Bhangadi leele
Vinatha vividha bhutha vratha Rakshaikadeekshe,
Sruthi sirasi videepthe Brahmani Srini vase
Bhavathu mama paras min shemushi Bhakthi Rupa”

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The Names of Upanishads which come for discussion in the Sri Bhasya visavis Brahma sutras are
Isavasyopanishad, Kenopanishad, Kathopanishad, Mundako upanishad, Mandukya upanishad, Prasnopanishad,
Ita reya upanishad, Chandogya upanishad, Brihadaranyaka upanishad, Taittiriya upanishad,
Kaushitaki upanishad, Svetash vatara upanishad, Subalopanishad, Mahopanishad, Agni Rahasya,
Atharvasikhopanishad and Maitrayani upanishad etc..

In Sri Bhasya the first two chapters deal with the Para tatva,
the third chapter deals with Paramahita and
the fourth chapter deals with the Parama purushartha, the supreme goal.

The first chapter is called Samanvaya Adhyaya.
Anvaya means connection, link or relationship. Samanvaya means proper connection or good link.
The creator of the universe is called “Jagath karana”.
The Upanishads use several terms to denote Jagath karana vasthu.
They are Sath, Asath, Brahma, Atma, Akasa, Prana, Jyothi, Hiranyagarbha, Shambhu, Narayana etc.
There can be only one creator of the universe and that is Lord Sriman Narayana.
This is clear from the saying in the Mahopanishad that at the time of deluge or pralaya
there was only Sriman Narayana with his consort Mahalakshmi and nobody else was there.
It further says Lord Sriman Narayana then created four-headed Brahma, Siva, Indra and others.
So Sriman Narayana is the Jagath karana vastu. So all the names mentioned above refer to Sriman Narayana only
and hence they are well connected with him.
The attribute of Sriman Narayana in this chapter Karana (Cause).
This in Sanskrit is known as Karanathvam.

The 2nd chapter is known as Avirodha Adhyaya.
Virodha means objection. Avirodha means no objection. In this chapter the Sutrakara replies convincingly
to the logical objections raised by others for Sriman Narayana to be the Jagath karana vastu and refutes
their arguments and establishes that Lord Sriman Narayana is the creator of the universe.
So the Kalyana guna or auspicious attribute in this chapter is
Abadhyatvam that there is no sublation (denial) of this fact.

The 3rd chapter is known as Sadhana Adhyaya.
Sadhana is means to be adopted to attain eternal bliss or Moksha. Sadhana is same as upaya.
In our philosophy Lord Sriman Narayana himself is the Upaya (means) and he is also the Upeya, the object to be attained.
The established means Bhakthi or Prapatti is adopted to please him and get his grace.
He is called Siddhopaya (ready means) and accepts. Bhakthi or Prapatti done by an inpidual is called Sadhyopaya.
Bhakthi is deep meditation on him and Prapatti is surrender at his feet.
So the Kalyana guna in the 3rd chapter is Upayatvam which means that
he is the ready means or ever available means.

The Fourth chapter is called as Phala Adhyaya.
Phala means fruit. After doing Bhakthi or Prapatti an inpidual soul or jivatma attains the lotus feet
of the pine couple in Sri Vaikuntham which is also called Paramapada, the Supreme abode.
The Kalyana guna highlighted in this chapter is Upeyatva which means that Lord Sriman Narayana is the object to be attained.
It should be noted that both Mahalakshmi and Sriman Narayana together constitute the supreme being
as they are always to-gether and inseparable.
Wherever there is the mention of Lord Sriman Narayana it includes Mahalakshmi also because of the fact
that Jagathkaranathva, Upayatva and Upeyatva apply to the Divine Couple, without any reservation.

Finally we will know the names of 16 padas in Brahma Sutra
and the Kalyana gunas of Lord Sriman Narayana in each of them.
As already mentioned, the first chapter or Samanvaya Adhyaya deals with all kinds of Upanishadic passages
which speak of the cause of the universe.
In some texts, Jiva or individual soul appear to be Jagath karana or creator of the universe.
In some vakyas Prakrithi the non-sentient entity also called as primordial matter appears to be the cause of the universe.
Prakrithi is also known as Pradhana.
These vakyas are grouped into four categories in the four padas of the first chapter as mentioned below.

1)In the first pada, passages which are not very clear are dealt with.
In Sanskrit it is known as “Aspashtathara Jivadi linga vakya”.
So the first pada is known as Aspashtathara jivadi linga pada.
Lord Sriman Narayana’s kalyana guna or the auspicious attribute in this pada and his consequential epithet is (Srashta).
It means he is the cause or creator of the universe. The kalyana guna is Srashtrtvam.

2)The second pada of the first chapter deals with passages which are not clear in their import.
It is called Aspashta in Sanskrit. So this pada is called “Aspashta jivadi linga pada”.
The epithet of the Brahman or Lord Sriman Narayana in this pada is Dehi.
Dehi means the innermost soul or Antharyami in every sentient and non-sentient entity.
The Kalyana guna is Dehitvam. Both sentient and non-sentient entities are the bodies of Sriman Narayana.
Dehi means one who possesses the body and so obviously means Atma.
Lord Sriman Narayana is the atma (soul) for all beings.

3)The 3rd pada of first chapter deals with clear Jagath karana vakyas. ‘Clear’ means Spashta.
So this pada is called ‘Spashta jivadi linga’ pada. The epithet of the Lord in this pada is Svanishta,
which means that while he supports the entire universe by his own will he supports himself also.
The kalyana guna is Svanishtathvam.

4)The 4th pada deals with very clear Jagathkarana-vakyas. Very clear means Spashtathara.
So this pada is called Spashtathara jivadi linga pada. The Brahman is called in this pada as Niravadhi mahima.
This means the greatness of Sriman Narayana is unlimited or even infinite.
This unlimited greatness is because of the fact that Lord is Upadana Karana and Nimitta Karana for the universe.
In the world any object has three karanas or causes. The first is material cause or Upadana Karana.
The second is the Operational cause or Nimitta Karana. The third is Instrumental cause or Sahakari karana.
For example if a golden ornament is to be made, gold forms the Upadana karana.
The goldsmith who makes the ornament is the Nimitta Karana.
He makes use of several tools for making the ornament and these tools are instrumental cause or Sahakari karana.
For the universe, Lord Sriman Narayana is himself the Upadana karana, Nimitta karana and even Sahakari karana.
As he creates the universe by his own will and does not require any tool the Sahakari karana is merged in the Nimitta karana itself.
The same entity being upadana karana and nimitta karana cannot be any body else other than Sriman Narayana
and so he is of infinite greatness. So the kalyana guna in this pada is “Niravadhi Mahimatvam”.

5)The first quarter or pada in the second chapter is known as Smrithi pada.
Sri Kapila who is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu is the establisher and propagator of
Nirishwara Sankhya system of philosophy like Buddhism.
Because his teachings are against Vedas and upanishads which are supreme authority,
their philosophies could not be accepted by us.
Sri Kapila is the author of Kapila Smrithi. Based on this smrithi objections were raised against Sri Vishnu
for being the cause of the universe. According to this school of thought, Prakrithi is the cause of the universe.
The Sutrakarar or the author of the Brahma sutras over rules the above objections and establishes that
Sriman Narayana is the Jagath karana. He is called “Apastha Badha” in this pada, which means that he is unchallengeable.
The kalyana guna is “Apastha badhatvam”.

6)The second pada in the second chapter is known as Tarka pada.
In this Sage Badarayana who is the Sutrakarar starts offensive against the other systems of philosophy like
Sankaya, Vaisesika, Bauddha, Jaina and Pasupatha by highlighting the drawbacks in their philosophies and
refutes all of them by applying cogent logic. Hence this pada is called Tarka pada.
At the end of this pada sage Badarayana establishes the authority of Pancharathra Agamas
which deals with the worship in Vishnu temples, and proves that it is in complete agreement with Vedas.
The name of the Brahman in this pada is “Sritaptha:” which means
he is the friend of those who perform daily rituals as per Pancharatra sastra.
The kalyana guna in this pada is “Sritapthatvam”.

7)The third pada in the second chapter is called Viyath pada.
It is in this pada the Sutra karar deals with the creation of Panchabhutas which are
sky (eather), air, fire, water and earth. This creation is by “transformation”.
The transformation is called Anyathabhava, like clay becoming a pot.
There can be no physical transformation of jivas as they are eternal.
The transformation in them is in the “characteristics”. This characteristic is called Dharmabhutha jnana
through which jivas are able to cognize the objects. This guna varies from zero to infinity.
It is zero in the case on non-sentient or inanimate entities and
infinity incase of Paramatma (Sriman Narayana), Nityas like Adhisesha, Vishvaksena, Garuda
and others and mukthas who are liberated souls.
In the case of those jivas who are in the bondage of samsara, the dharmabhuta guna varies from
one inpidual to the other depending upon one’s past deeds or karma.
So this dharma bhutha guna is subject to expansion and contraction in jivas
which Sriman Narayana causes according to their past deeds.
This characteristic is called Svabhava and its transformation of expansion or contraction is Svabhava anyathabhava.
In this pada the name of Sriman Narayana is “Khaatmaadeh: uchitha janana krith”,
which means he is maker of appropriate transformation in kha which means
sky ( this includes air, fire, water and earth) and in jivatmas.
The appropriate transformation in the case of Panchabhutas is “Svarupa Anyathabhava” and
that in the case of Jivatmas is “Svabhava Anyathabhava”.
The kalyana guna in this pada is “Khaatmaadeh: uchitha janana krithvam”.

8)The fourth pada in the 2nd chapter is called Indriya pada. Indriya means senses.
Sriman Narayana causes the creation of senses. So his name in this pada is
“Indriyadeh: uchitha janana krithv”, which means he makes the appropriate creation of senses.
The auspicious attribute in this pada is “Indriyadeh: uchitha janana krithvam”.

9)The first quarter in the 3rd chapter is Vairagya pada.
Vairagya means a sense of detachment from the worldly pleasures here or in heaven.
This detachment is essential for a person to aspire for infinite and eternal bliss which is moksha or salvation.
This Vairagya can be accquired by realising the miseries undergone by a jiva (person)
in bondage of samsara or in different avasthas or states.
They are (1) state of awakening called Jagradavastha (2) State of sound sleep known as Sushupthi avastha
(3) state of dreaming termed as Svapna Avastha and
(4) coma state ( state of unconsciousness) which is called Moorcha Avastha.
The name of the Lord in this pada is “Samsruthou tantra vahi” which means the Lord conducts the jiva through samsara.
The Kalyana guna is Samsruthau tantra vahitvam.

10 )The 2nd pada in the 3rd chapter is called Ubhaya linga pada.
Ubhaya linga are the two exclusive characteristics of Sriman Narayana which are Heyaprathyaneekatva and Kalyana gunakarathva.
Heyaprathyaneekatva means to be blemishless or without bad qualities.
Kalyana-guna Akaratvam means to be repository of all kalyana gunas or auspicious atributes.
The Jiva who is in samsara aspires to attain an object which is most superior to him in every aspect.
This supreme superiority is the possession of the above two characteristics.
The Sutrakara Sri Badarayana deals with the above characteristics in this pada.
The Kalyanaguna in this pada is “Nirdoshatvadi-ramyatvam”.
Nirdoshatva means blemishlessness. Ramyatva means auspicious attributes.

11)The 3rd pada in the 3rd chapter is called “Guna upasamhara pada”.
In this pada thirtytwo brahma vidyas, each of which is a kind or form of Bhakthi yoga which is the
means for attainment of Moksha, are discussed. Brahmavidya means meditation on Brahman who is Sriman Narayana.
Guna upasamhara means adding gunas of Brahman mentioned in the same Brahmavidya preached in different Upanishads.
The name in this pada is that the Brahman is the object of meditation in the various Brahma Vidyas.
This is called as Bahubhajanapada. In this pada, Prapatti is mentioned as an independent means
in the sutra “Naanaa sabhaadi bhedaath”.

12) The 4th pada of the 3rd chapter is called Anga pada, in which the various pre-requisites of
Bhakthi yoga are discussed. The name of the Lord in this pada is “Svaraha karma prasaadya” which means
that he is gracious to those who perform the daily rituals appropriate to their status of varna and ashrama.

13) The first pada in the 4th chapter is called Avritti pada.
In this the procedure and the way of doing meditation are discussed.
Avritti means repeatedly doing Bhakthi yoga. This has to be done every day till moksha is attained.
The name of the Lord is Paapachchith, which means he is the destroyer of sins of those who do Bhakthi or do Prapatti.

14) The second pada in the 4th chapter is named as Utkranthi pada in which the mode of departure of
jiva (who is to attain moksha) from the mortal body is discussed.
The name of Brahman in this pada is “Brahma naadi gathi krith” which means that he facilitates
the entry of jiva into Brahmanaadi. Brahmanaadi is the pulse running from the navel of the body upto head.
If the jiva comes out of the body through this naadi he attains moksha.

15) The third pada in the 4th chapter is called Gathi pada which deals with the route
the jiva takes for reaching Sri Vaikuntha and become muktaatma (liberated soul).
The route is called Archiradi Marga. The name of the Lord in this pada is “Aathivaaha” which means
that he arranges for conducting the jiva to Sri Vaikuntha through twelve persons known as Athivahikas.

16) The last pada in the 4th chapter is called Phala pada, which deals with the manner in which
the liberated soul reaches the lotus feet of the Divine Couple, acquires Eight gunas or perfection
and attains eternal and infinite bliss by doing eternal service to the Divine Couple there.
Sriman Narayana makes the Muktatma equal to him in all respects except being the cause of the
creation of the universe and being the Consort of Mahalakshmi.
The name of the Lord in this pada is “Saamyada” which means the bestower of equality.

This is the gist of Sri Bhasya.

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The first adhyaya is called Samanvaya Adhyaya.
In the first pada (pada is quarter) of this first adhyaya there are 11 adhikaranas.
Sangathi which generally means a logical link in Mimamsa sastra, refers to eight stages in the study
which are called Sastra, Kanda, Dvika, Adhyaya, Pada, Petika, Adhikarana and Sutra.
Sutra is within Adhikarana. Adhikarana is within petika, petika is within pada, pada is within Adhyaya,
Adhyaya is within Kanda and kanda is within sastra.
Sastra is Mimamsa dealing with interpretation of Vedas including Upanishads.
Sastra is pided into Karma kanda and Brahma Kanda.
Karma Kanda is also known as Karma Mimamsa, Purva Mimamsa or Kabhandha Mimamsa.
The connection between the Karma Kanda and Brahma Kanda is called Kanda Sangathi.
Brahma Kanda is divided in to Purva Dvika or Former Dvika and Uttara dvika or latter Dvika.
Dvika means two chapters.
Purva Dvika is also called Siddha Dvika because it directly deals with Brahman who is the creator of universe.
Uttara Dvika is called Sadhya Dvika because Brahman is to be attained by adopting Bhakthi (meditation) or Prapatti.
The link between Purva Dvika and Uttara Dvika is called Dvika Sangathi.

There are five components in each Adhikarana which are,
1-Sangathi – Sequential link between the preceding Adhikarana and Adhikarana which has been taken up consideration.
2-Vishaya – A particular topic of the Upanishad which has been chosen for discussion and its correct interpretation.
3-Samshaya Uttanakaranam – Basis or the cause for the doubt to arise in the interpretation.
4-Purva paksha – For every view point there is always a counter view point.
The person who makes the counter viewpoint is called Poorva pakshi and his argument is called Purva paksha.
Purva pakshi is also called opponent.
5-Siddhantha – After hearing the argument of the Purva pakshi the Sutrakarar Badarayana (Veda vyasa)
delivers the judgement in the form of a sutra.

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Based on the above we will now take up the adhikaranas for consideration.
In the first pada of the first chapter there are 11 adhikaranas.

The first four adhikaranas namely Jijnasa adhikarana, Janmadi adhikarana, Sastra yonitwa adhikarana
and Samanvaya adhikarana belong to the same Petika as all the four adhikaranas which are introductory
in nature have a common feature of overruling the objections raised by the
Purva pakshin (opponents) for commencing the study of Brahman.

The next three Adhikaranas namely Ikshathya adhikarana, Anandamaya adhikarana and Anthar Adhikarana
belong to the second Petika because
they say that a non-sentient being cannot be Brahman,
Jiva cannot be Brahman
and a virtuous person who has acquired super human powers like Sage Visva mitra also cannot be Brahman.

The next two adhikaranas namely Akasa Adhikarana and Prana Adhikarana belong to the 3rd petika
as both the words Akasa and Prana mean “Brahman”, primarily Lord Sriman Narayana.

The next two adhikaranas namely Jyothir adhikarana and Indra Prana adhikarana belong to the 4th Petika
because Lord Sriman Narayana is the inner soul or Antharyami to Jyothi, Indra and Prana.

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The first adhikarana is called Jijnasa Adhikarana and the very first sutra is Atha tho Brahma jijnasa.
The meaning of the words in this sutra, are as follows. ‘Atha’ means “afterwards”,
that is after doing the Karma vichara in the karma kanda or purva mimamsa, for which sage Jaimini composed sutras.

Atah: means “therefore”, that is, “because of realising the fact that karmas which include
the performance of sacrifices like yagas do not confer everlasting and unlimited fruits on the doers.”
Brahma jijnasa means the study of Brahman or discussion about Brahman leading to meditation (Bhakthi yoga)
on him which alone confers eternal and unlimited bliss on the meditator.
In other words, attaining Sri Vaikuntha and doing eternal service to the Divine Couple.

Here the Poorva pakshi (opponent) who is a Nirishvara Mimamsaka raises an objection for commencing a discussion on Brahman.
He says that when it is not possible to get the basic concept of Brahman how is it possible to commence an enquiry of Brahman.
The basic concept is called Vyutpatti in sanskrit.
Young children of 2 or 3 years age begin to speak after first knowing about each and every object they come across.
The Nirishvara Mimamsaka says that any idea of any object grasped by the young child is action-oriented.
For example, in the presence of the child which keenly observes every action,
let us say that one person tells another person to switch on the fan.
The other person switches on the fan and the fan begins to rotate.
The child which keenly observes this action gets the basic concept of the switch and the fan and
this is called action-oriented concept which is called Karye Vyutpatti in Sanskrit.
The other type of Vyutpatti is called Siddhe Vyutpatti which means that the child gets the basic concept
of objects which are not action-oriented and which are readily available.
These objects are called are Siddha.

Shri Ramanuja commenting on the first sutra says that an young child is capable of getting
Siddhe Vyutpatti also in the following manner.
An elderly person shows to the child every object pointing his finger to-wards the object and telling its name.
If this is done twice or thrice the child becomes familiar with the objects and tells the names.
So both Siddhe Vyutpatti and Karye Vyutpatti are both true and valid.

The Nirishvara Mimamsaka argues that because Brahman is not associated with any action, any idea of Him is not possible.
This argument was refuted by Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja because Siddhe Vyutpatti is also possible in respect of Brahman.
So a discussion about Brahman can be commenced.

The Mundaka Upanishad says that a person after getting disgusted with the fact that mere performance of yagas
does not confer upon him the eternal and unlimited bliss,
approaches a learned Acharya and presents him a bunch of sticks called Samith in Sanskrit for the daily use of Acharya
and requests him to initiate him into the study of Brahman.
Then Acharya starts the initiation. This is the sum and substance of the first Adhikarana.

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The second Adhikarana is called Janmadya adhikarana. The sutra is “Janmadyasya yathah”.
Here again the objection was raised as to how it is possible to enquire into Brahman
when Its definition or exclusive characteristic is not clear.
This exclusive characteristic is known as lakshanam in Sanskrit.

This exclusive characteristic is mentioned in the Taittariya Upanishad.
Sage Bhrighu, son of Varuna approached his father and requested him to tell him about Brahman.
The father told Bhrighu that Brahman is ‘That’ which creates, protects and destroys the universe
and grants the salvation to those who meditate on “It”. The meaning of the Sutra is as follows.

Asya – for this universe which we see around us.
Janmadi – Creation, etc. i.e, Protection, Destruction and Liberation.
Yathah:- by whom the above things happen, that is Brahman.

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The third Adhikarana is called Sastra yonitva adhikarana and the sutra is “Sastrayonitvat”.

The Purva pakshin or opponent in this Adhikarana is Tarkika or Logician.
There are three means of valid knowledge through which we can cognisise things.
They are (1) Pratyaksham which means sensual perception (2) Anumana which means Inference
(3) Sabda which means verbal testimony.
That means through which we see and know things is called Pratyaksha.
In a kitchen where firewood is used for cooking, smoke is seen if the firewood is wet. So we see smoke and fire together.
If we see smoke at a distant place we infer there is fire. This is called Anumana Pramana.
If a person in whom we have full faith makes a statement we simply believe it and this is called Sabda pramana.
Vedas including Upanishads are of Supreme authority as they are not authored by anybody.
Every syllable in them is true and valid to us.

The opponent or the Poorvapakshi of this Adhikarana says that Brahman who cannot be perceived
by our senses can be perceived by Anumana or Inference.
When He can be established by anumana itself there is no need to know Him from Upanishads.
The Taittariya Upanishad which has mentioned the exclusive characteristic of Brahman stated above
cannot be an authority for establishing Brahman.

To refute this argument the Sage Badarayana composed the sutra of this Adhikarana as stated above.
The meaning of the sutra is as follows.
Sastra yoni – Sastra alone is pramana or authority regarding the existence of Brahman
since he cannot be perceived by any other pramanam.
So Brahman is fit to be discussed with the help of Upanishads.
Brahman is therefore called Sastraika samadhigamya which means that He can be comprehended by Vedic sastra only.

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The fourth Adhikarana is called Samanvayadhikarana. The sutra is “Tattu samanvayath”.

The Poorvapakshi or opponent in this Adhikarana is Nirishvara Mimamsaka.
Mimamsaka is the person who accepts the authority of Vedas pertaining to sacrifies or rituals.
He says that any oblation offered to fire confers the appropriate fruit but at the same he does not accept the Brahman.
Nirishvara means non-existence of Ishvara or Brahman.
Finally he makes an objection for starting the study of Brahman stating when discussion
about Brahman is useless, purposeless or does not confer any fruit on the individual ,
there is no point in wasting the time, in discussing about Brahman.
So he says that the proposal of studying Brahman may be given up.

This argument is refuted by the Sutrakarar who says that the study or discussion of Brahman
who is the Lord Sriman Narayana is not purposeless because Brahman himself is eternal
and is of the form of unlimited bliss which is called Nirathisaya Ananda.
So Brahman naturally grants this eternal and unlimited bliss on the inpidual who makes a
thorough and complete enquiry into the nature of Brahman and then meditate on him, that is who practices
Bhakthi yoga or does Prapatti at His lotus feet.

The meaning of Sutra is as follows.
Thath – That scriptural authority (Sastra pramanam) for Brahman is confirmed.
Thu – The doubt which arose regarding the above is cleared.
Samanvayath – Because there is good connection between the supreme goal of attainment viz., eternal bliss and Brahman.

———–

As already indicated the above four adhikaranas are introductory in nature and overrule
the four objections raised for the commencement of the enquiry into the nature of Brahman.
The above adhikaranas belong to one petika. Now the study of Brahman commences in all right earnestness.

———–

The question that arises now is as to who is Brahman. i.e whether Brahman is a non-sentient entity,
or a sentient being (Jiva) or whether it is entirely different from the above two.
This question is answered in the succeeding Adhikaranas.
The fifth Adhikarana is called Ikshthya adhikarana.
It has eight sutras

and the first sutra is “Ikshatheh: Na Asabdam”.

The topic for discussion in this Adhikarana is the 6th chapter of the Chandogyopanishad which is called Sad vidya.
In this Upanishad the sage Uddalaka initiates his son Svetakethu into the knowledge of Brahman.
Svetakethu, after spending 12 years in Gurukula where he was taught all Vedas and six ancillaries of Vedas
comes back to his home. Because he felt that he has learnt everything under his guru
no body was equal to him with whom he can converse and so he remained silent.
His father asked him whether his guru had initiated him into the knowledge of that particular object
which is the Supreme controller of the entire universe and by hearing about whom
every thing else in this world will be heard, by thinking about whom
everything else in this world will be thought of and by knowing whom everything else will be known.
Svethakethu asked his father how could such an entity exist.

Sage Uddalaka gives him three illustrations which of clay, gold and iron.
He says that by knowing about clay which is the basic material for several clay products,
all the clay products will be known. Such is the case regarding Iron and gold.
Similarly by knowing Brahman who is the material, operational and instrumental cause of the entire universe,
every thing will be known. This is called Ekavijnanena sarva vijnanam.
Svethakethu admits that he was not initiated into the knowledge of Brahman by his guru
and requests the father to teach him about Brahman.

The father says that before creation, there was only Brahman who is called Sat in this Upanishad.
This Sat includes both Makalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana. This Sat willed and created the universe.
Here the Poorva pakshi or opponent who is a Sankya philosopher says that Sat refers
only to primordial matter or Prakrithi which is the cause of the universe.
This Prakrithi is called Asabdam, Pradhanam or Anumanikam.

The Sutrakara refutes the above argument in this first sutra of this Adhikarana and says that
Prakrithi, the non-sentient entity cannot be the cause of the universe because
it cannot will, being inanimate. So Sat means only Brahman.

So this Adhikarana establishes the fact that Brahman cannot be a non-sentient entity.

———-

The Next Adhikarana is Anandamaya adhikarana which says that Brahman is absolutely different
from jiva, the sentient being. This Adhikarana has 8 sutras.

The Upanishadic text which comes for discussion in this Adhikarana is from Anandavalli of the Taittariya Upanishad.
The Anandavalli starts by saying that one who meditates on Brahman attains Moksha.
That Brahman is satyam which means it does not undergo any transformation and hence different from the
human body which undergoes continuous transformation and also different from the unliberated jiva who dwells in the body.
This Brahman is Jnanam, which means He is ever omniscient ( all knowing or sarvajna) and hence different
from Muktaatma or a liberated soul. This Brahmam is Anantham which means He dwells as Antaryami (inner soul)
in every being or object and hence he is different from Nityasuris like Anantha, Garuda, Vishvaksena and others.
Brahman dwells in the heart of every living being and also His abode is Vaikuntham.
One who knows this enjoys this Brahmam and his auspicious attributes in the Paramavyoma or Paramapada the Supreme abode.

From this Brahman or Supreme soul the five elements or pancha bhuthas which are sky, air, fire, water and earth are created.
Brahman is again antaryamin to annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya and vijnamayakosas.
Brahman himself is Anandamaya who is different from Vignanamaya who is jiva.
The Upanishad further says that this Brahmam who is the Anandamaya is the cause of the universe.
Then this upanishad identifies several categories of jivas and speaks about the quantum of bliss
they enjoy and finally reveals about Brahmananda as follows.

Brahmananda – 100 times of Prajapathi ananda
Prajapathi Ananda – 100 times of Brihaspathi Ananda.
Brihaspathi Ananda. – 100 times of Ananda of Indra
Ananda of Indra – 100 times of Devananda
Devananda – 100 times of Ananda of karma devathas
Ananda of Karma devathas – 100 times of ananda of Ajanajana devathas
Ajanajana devathas – 100 times of ananda of pitris or manes
Ananda of pitris – 100 times of Ananda of Deva Gandharvas
Ananda of Deva Gandharva – 100 times of Manushya Gandharva
Manushya Gandharva Ananda – 100 times of Manushya ananda

So Brahmananda is 10010 = 1020 times of Manushya Ananda
This Brahmananda is the eternal and unlimited bliss which is the salvation or Moksha.
This Brahmananda is enjoyed by all mukthas and Nityas in Sri Vaikuntha forever.
These mukthas are the liberated souls from bondage of samsara and who did Bhakthi yoga or
saranagathi also called as prapatti at the Lotus feet of Goddess Mahalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana.

The Purva pakshi or the opponent says that this Anandamaya in jiva only
because subsequent to this statement in the Upanishad it is said that Anandamaya possesses “body”.
He opines that jiva alone possesses the body and not Paramatma.

This view of the opponent was refuted by the Sutrakara in the first sutra, which is “ Anandamaya Abhyaasaath”.
The meaning of the sutra is Anandamaya – Anandamaya is Brahman and not jiva, because
Abhyaasaath – that is in the later portion of this Upanishad it was stated that
Brahmananda is 100 times Prajapati ananda and so on.
This was repeated, starting from Manushya Ananda and ending with Brahmananda as detailed above.
Abhyasa means repetition —

————–

The next Adhikarana is Anthara adhikarana which again establishes the fact that Brahman is different
from jiva who has acquired spiritual and yogic powers like sage Visvamitra.
This Adhikarana has two sutras and the upanishadic text that comes in for discussion is
from the first chapter of the Chandogyopanishad.

This Upanishad says that the person who is seen at the centre of the solar system or Aditya mandala is
Brahman or Lord Sriman Narayana. He possesses very charming and beautiful body with
golden hairs and moustache and also with lotus eyes. He is blemishless.

It is the view of the Poorvapakshin that the person at the centre of the solar system is jiva
with yogic and spiritual powers because in the previous adhikarana it was said that
Anandamaya possesses body and he is also in the solar system and he should be jiva only.

This view was not accepted because the first sutra in this Adhikarana says
“Anthah: Thathh Dharmopadesaath”
The meaning of this sutra is
Anthah:- That which is in the inner side of the solar system is Brahman and not jiva.
Because Thath Dharmopadeshath – the attributes of the person in the solar system mentioned in this Upanishad
will never apply to a jiva. The attributes are lotus eyes and blemishless ness.

—————

Next comes the Akasha Adhikarana which has only one sutra.

The discussion in this Adhikarana is on a statement in the first chapter of Chandogyopanishgad
which says that all the bhuthas in this world are created by Akasha,
they disappear in the Akasha itself at the time of deluge;
Akasha is the thing to be attained by all and Akasha is superior to everything.

The opponent says that this Akasa refers to the famous akasha that is the sky which we see everywhere.
The sutra is Akashah: Thath lingaat which refutes the above opinion and says that
Akasha is Brahman only and not the sky that we see.
Akasha means that which is glowing bright on all sides and this aspect is applicable only to Paramatma.
The meaning of the sutra is “Akasa – is Paramatma or Brahman because,
Thallingaah – Some exclusive characteristics mentioned in this context in the Upanishad
are applicable to Paramatma only and not to the famous sky which we see.

——————–

The next Adhikaranam is Prana Adhikarana which has also only one sutra.

The upanishadic text that comes for discussion is from the Chandogyopanishad only.
This text says that all beings get merged in Prana at the time of pralaya or deluge and reappear in this world from Prana only.

The opponent says that this Prana is the breath which makes every sentient being to breathe.

The Sutrakarar opposes this view and prana is Paramatma only and not the breath.
Paramatma is called Prana here because only on account of his will everybody lives in this world.
The Sutra is Atha Eva Pranah: which means
Pranah: is Paramatma and not the breath because,
Atha eva – for the same reason as in the case of Akasha.

————————–

Next comes Jyothir adhikarana and the Sangathi between the previous Prana Adhikarana and this is prathyudahrithi.
Prathyudaharana means counter illustration. This requires an elaboration.
In the previous Adhikarana (Prana Adhikarana) it was mentioned Prana is the creator of the universe
as per the Chandogyopanishad. Prana generally means the breath (breathing).
As breath is a form of air, it cannot be the creator. So Prana must refer to Brahman only.

In this Jyothiradhikarana the particular Upanishadic text for discussion is in the Chandogyopanishad
in which it is said the effulgence ( light with unlimited brightness) which is glowing in Sri Vaikuntham
and it is same as that which is bail juice secreted in the liver of a body for the digestion of the food we eat.
This is called Jataragni. In this Upanishadic statement there is no indication of Brahman in the first sentence
itself and also when it is said that the effulgence is same as Jataragni. This becomes a counter illustration.

So the doubt arises whether the Jyothi which means effulgence refers to Brahman at all.
So the Purva pakshi says that Jyothi refers to ordinary sunlight or any other light.

The Sutrakarar gives the judgement that the word Jyothi means Brahman or Lord Sriman Narayana
because of the fact that in this Upanishadic text it is said that all sentinet beings (Jivas) dwelling
in the non-sentient bodies (mortal bodies) in this universe are a quarter part of the
infinite Brahman and three quarters are in Sri Vaikuntha.
This does not apply to ordinary sunlight and the word Jyothi means Paramatma (Supreme Soul)
and his being same as Jataragni means that he is the inner soul or Antaryami of Jatharagni which is his body.
Unless “Brahman” is effulgence of infinite brightness he cannot become the creator of the universe.

——————-

The next Adhikarana is Indra Pranadhikarana in which the upanishadic text that comes for discussion
is from the Kaushitaki Upanishad.
The link or sangathi with the preceding Jyothir adhikarana is as follows.
In the Jyothir Adhikarana it was proved that the word Jyothir means Paramapurusha or Paramatma.
The Purvapakshin says that it is not correct because Indra has been referred to as Supreme Being in the Kausitaki Upanishad.

To remove the doubt this Adhikarana becomes relevent. So the sangathi becomes Apavada because
the statement of the Jyothir Adhikarana appears to be otherwise.
The Upanishadic text says that Pratardana the son of Divodasi who was known for his valour went to svarga loka to meet lord Indra.
Indra who was pleased with him, asked him to seek a boon. Pratardana told Indra,
“You know everything and therefore grant a boon which will be the best interest of human beings.
Indra asked Pratardana to meditate upon him because he is Prana and Amritha.
The best interest to human beings which is hitatama is the attainment of moksha or eternal bliss.
So the doubt arises here whether it is possible for a person to attain moksha by meditating upon Indra
who is also in the bondage of Samsara like us.

The real meaning of this Upanishadic text is that Indra asked Pratardana to meditate upon the
antaryamin or inner soul of Indra. That Antaryamin is Lord Sriman Narayana who alone has the power to grant Moksha.
So in this Upanishad Indra means Paramatma who has Indra who is a jiva as his body.
So the Sutrakara gives judgement that Sriman Narayana is the antaryamin to Prana and Indra and
he is Ananda, Ajara (which means that he does not have old age) and
Amritha (which means there is no transformation in his nature or form).

So the first pada ends with this Adhikarana and
Sri Vedanta Desika beautifully gives the list of the auspicious attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana
as contained or enshrined in the 11 Adhikaranas in his famous work of Adhikarana Saravali.
The auspicious attributes are
1-Akritha – He is there in Vaikuntha Divya Loka forever.
2-Vishva hethu – He is the creator or cause of the universe which is his unique feature.
3-Sastraika sthapaniyah – He is to be established by vedic scriptures only.
4-Nirupadhi parama prema yogyah – He is infinite and eternal bliss.
5-Svechchatah: Sarva hethuh:- By his own will he has become the cause of the entire universe.
6-Subhaguna vibhava Anantha Nissema harshah – Repository of all infinite and auspicious attributes.
7-Suddha Akarma uththa Divya krithih:- He has a beautiful and pine form or body which is Aprakritha and free from Rajoguna and Thamo guna.
8-Anupadhika Akasanadi Svabhavah:- He is unlimited in respect of space, time, substance and glows all round.
9-Saprana Aprana bhedha Vyathibhidura jagath prananah:- He makes both antimate and inantimate objects to live.
10-Divya deepthi:- He is Effulgence with unlimited brightness.
11-Pranendradi Antharatma:- He is the inner soul or Antaryami to Prana and Indra.

The above are the 11 auspicious attributes of Lord Sriman Narayana in the 11 Adhikaranas of the first pada
which is called Ayoga Vyavachcheda Pada in which the non-connection of Upanishadic statements
dealing with creation of universe with Sriman Narayana is removed.

Yoga means connection.

——————-

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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