Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra-Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 1-(Samanvaya)-Paatham 3–(“Spashta jivadi linga” padam-)Summary-

The whole of Samanvaya Adhyaya deals with upanishadic texts referring to Brahman
who is the cause of the universe either directly or indirectly ruling out
Jiva and Prakriti (Non-sentient matter) from being the cause of the universe

In the third pada there are ten Adhikaranas
out of which seven adhikaranas are within the context and
three adhikaranas are out of context.
The adhikaranas within the context are said to have “Sakshath Sangathi” which means “direct link” with one another
and three adhikaranas which are out of context are called “prasangikam”(Contextual).

The third pada of the first chapter is “Spashta jivadi linga” pada because the Upanishadic texts
that come up for discussion clearly point towards jiva or prakrithi giving room to the doubt
that they may be the cause for the universe. This is refuted by the Sutrakara in all the seven adhikaranas.

1. The first adhikarana is called Dyubhvadi Adhikarana.
It has six sutras.

The link, sequence or sangathi to this adhikarana with the one in the previous pada is as follows.
In the fifth adhikarana of the previous pada that is Adrisyathvadi Gunakadhikarana, it was established that
the word Akshara mentioned in that Adhikarana pertains to paramatma only and not to Jiva or Primordial matter, Prakrithi.
Some again doubt that it may be Jiva because of the subsequent utterances in the same Mundaka Upanishad
which has a clear pointer towards Jiva. This is refuted here.

The Upanishadic text that comes for discussion in this Adhikarana is from Mundaka Upanishad. This text states as follows.

Paramatma (Brahman) who is Akshara supports Heaven, Earth, Sky, Mind, Breath and which are interconnected
with him and he is to be known as the supreme controller and encompassing the entire universe.
So the talk of things other than paramatma has to be given up. He is the bridge for the salvation in other words,
he is the bridge for the ocean of samsara or bondage in which the opposite shore is Vaikuntha Divyaloka and
this bridge directly leads to Moksha which is called Amritha in this Upanishad.
This paramatma dwells in the heart of every being and he is just like the hub of a wheel
which is connected to the rim of the wheel by spokes.
So also here paramatma is connected to all the parts of the body through thousands of blood vessels known as “Nadis”.
He undertakes several births although there is no need to him to be born.
He is omniscient and he knows every aspect of every being. He is to be meditated upon through ‘pranava’.

The Poorva pakshi or opponent says that the word Akshara does not mean paramatma and it clearly means Jiva
because of his connection with nadies and taking innumerable births in this world.

This is refuted by Sutrakara who says in the first sutra, which is
Dyubhvadyatanam svasabdaath. The meaning of this sutra is as follows.

Dhyubhvadyayatanam – The supporter of heaven, earth etc. is paramatma because,
Svasabdaath – the exclusive characteristics of ‘Paramatma’ are mentioned in this context.

The exclusive characteristics are :
1. Supporter of all objects in the universe
2. He is the bridge for the ocean of samsara leading to Moksha.
3. The word Atma mentioned in the Upanishad in this context exclusively refers to paramatma.
4. Being omniscient and knowing every aspect of every being and this cannot apply to Jiva and it is applicable to paramatma only.
5. Even though paramatma need not take birth in this world as there is no karma to him,
still he takes several births on his own volition in the form of incarnations or avataras like Lord Rama and Lord Krishna
to punish the wicked people and save good people. It is also said in this upanishad that when a Jiva
who has done Bhakthi yoga or saranagathi sees the most charming and beautiful body of paramatma called
Divyamangala vigraha when he attains Moksha after shedding his punya and papa and connection with samsara
and becomes equal to Lord Sriman Narayana in all aspects except a few.

So this proves that the word Akshara in this Upanishad refers to Paramata only and not the Jiva.

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2.The Second Adhikaranam in this pada is called Booma Adikaranam.
The connection or sangathi with the previous adhikarana is that in the previous adhikarana
there was no break in the context of Paramatma and hence it was established that Akshara is Paramatma.
In the upanishadic text of this Adhikarana there is no break in the context of Jiva
and the doubt arises that this upanishadic text refers to Jiva only. This doubt is dispelled in this Adhikarana.

The upanishadic text that comes for discussion is the seventh chapter of Chandogyopanishad.
This Chapter is called “Bhooma Vidya Prakaranam”. Brief summary of this upnishadic text is as follows:
Sage Narada approaches sage Sanath Kumara and requests him to initiate him into the knowledge of Brahman.
Sage Narata tells Sage Sanathkumara that he has mastered all branches of learning like
Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvanaveda, epic Srimad Ramayana, Puranas, fifth veda which is Sri Mahabharatha,
grammar, the subject connected with performance of ceremonies, Mathematics,
subject dealing with the prediction of natural disasters,
subject dealing with the way of locating underground hidden wealth, logic,
subject dealing with the performance of pujas in the temples which is called Ekayana Sakha.
Subject dealing with the meditation on celestials (Devathas), six ancillaries of Vedas,
subject dealing with making the people subordinate, archery, astrology,
subject dealing with the capturing of snakes which is called Garuda vidya,
subject dealing with music and dance, Ayurveda (indigenous medicines).

Narada further says that in spite of his mastering all the above branches of learning,
he is distressed because he has not acquired knolwedge about brahman and he is not Atma vith.
The word Atma refers to Paramatma only. He requests sage sanatkumara to relieve from distress
by initiating him into the knowledge of brahman.

Sanath kumara instead of straightaway preaching to him about Bahman mentions several objects and tells
Narada to meditate on each object treating it as brahman or paramatma.
The objects are Nama (name), speech, mind, will, determination, strength, food, water, fire, sky,
Manmatha, directions, prana meaning jiva and finally Paramatma called Sathya in this Upanishad.

Narada meditates on each starting from Nama and not convinced with the same comes again to Sanath kumara
and asked whether there is any object superior to one on which he meditated earlier.
After meditating on prana (meaning jiva in this context) he did not ask Sanath kumara whether there is
any object superior to prana. Though prana means breath, it refers to Jiva in this context
because jiva will always be with prana.

Finally Sanatkumara tells Narada that where a person does not see anything else, does not hear anything else,
does not know anything else., That is Bhooma which is infinite bliss and
where something else is seen, heard or known is insignificant.
Sanatkumara further tells Narada to meditate uporn satya the paramatma who is the supreme goal.

Narada further asks Sanath kumara as to who is the supporter of the entire universe.
Sanath kumara replies that Paramatma (Brahman) is the supporter.
Narada again asks that who is the supporter of Paramatma for which the reply is Paramata supports himself
and there is no separate supporter.

Here the interpretation of the word Bhooma is under question. The Poorvapakshi or the Opponent says that
Bhooma is Jiva only and not Paramatma because
the preaching by Sanatkumara to Narada stopped at prana which means Jiva in this context.
This argument is refuted by the Sutrakara by the first sutra in this adhikarana which states
“Bhumaa samprasadaath Adhyupadesath”. The meaning of sutra is as follows.

Bhooma is Paramatma because, Samprasadaath Adhyupadesath – Samprasada is Jiva and Paramatma has been told
in this upanishad as superior to Jiva from all aspects.
Further the meaning of Bhooma is infinite bliss. Some exclusive characteristics of paramatma are mentioned here
which are paramatma is supreme goal by his inherent nature.
Paramatma supports himself and he is the antaryami or inner soul to all beings.

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3. The Third Adhikarana in this pada is named as Aksharadhikarana.
This has three sutras.
The link or ‘sangathi’ with the previous Adhikarana is as follows.
In the previous Adhikarana it was said that paramatma supports himself.
This Adhikarana comes to remove the doubt that the object other than Brahman (Paramatma) is also self supporting.

The Upanishadic text which is Vishayavakya for this Adhikarana is from Brihadaranyaka upanishad.

King Janaka of Mithila kingdom convenes a conference of all sages who are all having deep knowledge of Brahman
and announces a fabulous prize of 1000 cows with calves and with gold placed on each horn of each cow to the person
who has the deepest knowledge of the Brahman.
Initially for some time in the conference nobody rose up and claimed that he has the deepest knowledge of Paramatma.
After some time Sage Yajnavalkya rose up and called his student and asked him to drive all the cows with calves to his hermitage.
Seeing this all the others suddenly got up from their seats in protest as to how Yajnavalkya can grab that
fabulous prize without proving that he is brahmanishta having the deepest knowledge.
After the din calmed down the sages who had assembled there began the put questions one after the other to
Yajnavalkya on brahman which Yajnavalkya replies calmly and convincingly.
A lady whose name is Gargi puts two questions to Yajnavalkya.
Even in those days women had equal rights with men in acquiring knowledge about Brahman.

Her first question was, Oh Yajnavalkya, in which object the lokas or worlds below earth (Bhooloka),
the lokas above heaven and the lokas in between heaven and earth are connected lengthwise and breadthwise
as in the case of the cloth in which the threads are interlaced lengthwise and breadthwise.

Yajna valkya’s reply to the above was that Akasha is the object in which all the worlds are interlaced.
Gargi was happy with this reply and saluted him. Her second question was that in which object Akasa is connected or supported?
Yajna valkya’s reply was that Akshara is the object with which Akasha is connected or Akshara supports the Akasha.

He further says that this Akshara is not stout, is not slim, is not tall, is not short, not reddish,
or without a form, sinless, not oily, not dark, not air, not sky, not tasty, not eyes, not ears, not speech,
not mind, not fire, not breath, not having face, not having senses, it is not inside, it is not out side,
it does not eat any thing. This Akshara is the supreme controller of everything including the sun and moon.

Here the interpretation of word Akshara is under question. The opponent says that this Akshara should be either
Prakriti (Primordial matter) or Jiva and it cannot be Paramatma.
His argument is in Gargi’s question in which it was asked what is the support of Akasha.
Akasha is supported by prakrithi or pradhanam only so akshara is prakriti only.
He also says because any inanimate object is supported by Jiva only this Akshara may be even Jiva.

This Argument is refuted by Sutrakara in his sutra,
“Aksharam Ambaranthadhrutheh:”. This means as follows.

Aksharam – is paramatma because,
Ambaranthedhrutheh : – This Paramatma is said to support Avyakritham or Prakrithi
which is the cause of the Ambaram or sky which we see.

In the second sutra Akshara being Jiva was ruled out. So Akshara is Paramatma.

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4. The 4th Adhikarana in this pada is named as Ekshathi karma adhikarana. It has only one sutra.

The connection of this Adhikarana or sangathi with the previous Adhikarana is as follows.
In the concluding portion of the upanishadic text of the previous Adhikarana it was said that
Paramatma cannot be seen by our naked eyes which means that his Divyatma Svarupa which is every where cannot be seen.

So the doubt arises that purusha who is said in the upanishadic text of this Adhikarana as could be seen cannot be Paramatma.
This doubt is cleared in this Adhikarana.
The Vishayavakya (Upanishadic text) which comes for discussion in this Adhikarana is from Prasnopanishath.

In this Prasnopanishath six sages whose names are Sukesha, Satyakama, Gargya, Kausalya, Bhargava and Kabandhi
approach the sage Pippalada for getting initiated in the knowledge of Brahman.
Pippalada tells them to observe strict celibacy for one year and then come to him for asking questions
and getting replies to them from him.
With humility sage Pippalada tells them that if he knows the replies to their questions then he will reply.

Each of the above sages puts questions and elicits answers from him.
So this Prasnopanishath contains six questions and answers to them.

Sage Satyakama’s question is that if a person meditates on pranava till his death to which world he goes.
The meditation on pranava is called Pranava upasana. There are three types of Pranava upasana.
1. Ekamatra pranava upasana
2. Dvimatra pranava upasana
3. Trimatra pranava upasana
Matra denotes an instant or moment.
So ‘Ekamatra’ indicates the normal time taken to utter pranava mantra.
Dvimatra is the double the time taken to utter the same pranava which means slower than that of Ekamatra pranava
and thrice the time taken in Trimatra pranava upasana.

The fruits of the above Upasanas are
(1) for Ekamatra pranava the meditator attains manushya loka which in other words that
Rig veda mantras confer on him manushya loka which again means he commands respect and position in this world and
later begins to meditate on paramatma.
The meditator of Dvimatra pranava attains a or heaven and he is taken to this loka by the mantras in yajur veda
and after enjoying the pleasures he is reborn again in this world.
3. The meditator of Trimatra pranava attains Sri Vaikuntha Divyaloka and he is taken to this loka by the mantras in Samaveda.
During meditation he sees Paramatma in his own self. This Paramatma is called “parat param purisayam purusham”,
because he dwells within the heart of the meditator as antaryami.
This Antaryami is superior to Jiva ghana that is 4 headed Brahma.
The doubt that arises here is whether this “parat parampurusha” is Hiranyagarbha,
otherwise called the Chathurmukha Brahma or Paramatma.

The poorva pakshi says that he is Hiranya garba only because his loka is logically above heaven
which is above manushya loka and this parat param purusha which is the object of meditation is Hirayana garba.

This argument is refuted in the sutra “Eekshathikarma vyapadeshat sa:” which means
sa : is paramathma who is the Lord Sriman Narayana because,
“Eekshathi karma” – the object of meditation and also the object of being seen during meditation.
Vyapadesat – only for the paramatma some exclusive characteristics are mentioned in the upanishad which are,
he is without urmishatka which are hunger, thirst, sorrow, illusion, old age and death and without fear
and is supreme because he is the cause of the entire universe.

———————–

5. The fifth adhikarana in the third pada is named Daharadhikarana. This has ten sutras.

The link or ‘sangathi’ with the previous adhikara is as follows.
In the previous adhikarana the person who dwells in the heart of every body was proved as paramatma.
The same paramatma is said to be sky which is famous and which we see.
So the doubt arises that who dwells in the heart as antaryami may not be paramatma. This doubt is cleared in this adhikarana.

The upanishadic text that logically comes up for discussion is the last chapter that is
8th chapter of Chandogyopanishad which deals with Daharavidya which is a brahma vidya a means for attainment of moksha.

This upanishadic text says that the human body which has nine openings or exit points
which are 2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 noses, mouth and two excretory organs ; is the place in which the lord Sriman Narayana dwells.
This body is called brahmapura. It is said that this lord is to be meditated upon and also the
eight auspicious attributes which are within the Lord Srimath Narayana.
He is called Daharaakasha or simply Dahara because the place in the heart of human body where
he dwells is small and lotus shaped. Dahara means very small. The eight auspicious attributes are.
1. Apahatapapma – sinless or blemishless
2. Vijarah: – not having old age or not suffering from old age.
3. Vimrutyuh : – not subject to death.
4. Vishokah:- not subject to any kind of sorrow.
5. Viji ghtsah:- does not have hunger
6. Api pasah:- does not have thirst.
7. Satya kamah:- capable of getting every desire fulfilled.
8. Satya sankalpah : capable of doing everything which he wills.

These eight attributes are called “Guna ashtaka”. The Upanishad further says that this Dahara Akasha is
abundant as the sky we see and he is the support for bhogya, bhogasthana, bhogopakarana and Boktha.
Here Boktha is the enjoyer who is jiva,
Bhogya is the object of enjoyment
Bhogasthana is the place of enjoyment
Bhogo pakarana – Things which are useful for enjoyment.
In this world whatever the human being desires, is within dahara aksha which in other words means
that “daharakasha” who is ‘paramatma’ is the supreme object of enjoyment.

This Upanishad further says that one who medidates on Daharakasa and also on the eight attributes
attain the salvation after getting liberated from the bondage of samsara.
After reaching Sri Vaikuntha Divyaloka, for the ‘mukthatma’ the above eight “gunas” which are dormant
while in bondage of samsara on account of karma which comprises of punya and papa, blossom which in the words mean
that mukthatma also possesses these 8 gunas and becomes equal to the Lord Sriman Narayana.
Mukthatma becomes free to travel anywhere and everywhere and sees every object in the universe
as the body and subordinate to the Paramatma. The Mukthatma who is the liberated soul, has the freedom
to see his mothers, fathers, brothers and other relatives of his previous innumerable births in this samsara
comprising 14 worlds starting from Satyaloka the abode of the four-headed Brahma upto “Patala”.
The cluster of 14 worlds as stated is called one Brahmanda and there are infinite number of Brahmandas
in the leela vibhuthi of Lord Sriman Narayana. Leela Vibhuthi is the play field of Sriman Narayana Nitya Vibhuthi
is Sri Vaikuntha Divya loka which is three times as big as leela vibhuthi. Vibhuthi means wealth.
Just as the movable and inmovable property owned by a person is his vibhuti so also
the “Leela Vibuthi” and “Nitya Vibuthi” are owned by Lord Sriman Narayana.

Here the doubt arises whether the “daharakasha” is Jiva, Sky or Paramatma. Sky is called Bhutha Akasha.
The Poorva pakshi says that Daharakasha is bhutaakasha only because both bear the name of Akasha
and the word Akasha is famous and popular in Bhutha Akasha only.

The Sutrakara rejects this argument by saying that ‘dahara akasha’ cannot be bhuta akasha because of the fact
it is said in the upanishad that dahara akasha is to support the entire universe comprising the above said
Bhogya, Bhogopakarana, Bhogasthana and Bhokthriuvarga whereas this is not possible in the case of ‘bhuta akasha’.

The opponent also feels that ‘Dahara akasha’ may be Jiva because it is said that Jiva who is called
samprasada attains moksha where his already dormant eight gunas blossom as per the words of Prajapathi (Chathurmukha)
to Indra which is said in the latter part of this Upanishad and this portion is called ‘Prajapathi vakya’.

The Sutrakara also rules out the possibility in the first sutra of this adhikarana, which reads as “Dahara Uttarebhyah”.
The meaning of this sutra is “Daharah:” which is in other words Dahara akasha is ‘Parabrahman’ or ‘Paramatma’ because,

Uttarebhyah: The subsequent portion of this Upanishad says that dahara aksha is the supporter of the
entire universe and supreme controller of all the animate and inanimate objects in the universe
and these aspects are ruled out in the case of a Jiva. Even the blossoming of the eight gunas
in the ‘mukthatma’ in Srivaikuntha is only on account of the grace and will of Lord Sriman Narayana
without which even that is not possible.

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6. The sixth adhikarana in this 3rd pada is called “Pramitha adhikarana”.
There are 4 sutras in this adhikaranam.
The logical sequential connection with the previous adhikaranam is explained.
In Dahara adhikaranam, it was said that Daharakasha who is paramatma and who dwells in the heart of
Upasaka or the meditator is of very small size and this was said for the sake of meditation.
This very small size is also applicable to Jiva and hence the doubt arises that who dwells in the heart may be Jiva.
So this Adhikarana becomes necessary or relevant to remove this doubt.

This sangathi can also be explained in another manner.
In the previous daharadhi karanam it was said that ‘Paramatma’ is of very small size.
In this adhikarana it will be established that size of the paramatma dwelling in the heart of an
upasaka or meditator is that of thumb (angushtha) of the upasaka.

An important point should be noted here and remembered always.
Lord Sriman Narayana has five forms which are as follows.
(a) Para – This form is in Sri vaikuntha Divya loka or Paramapada which is enjoyed by Nityas
like Adisesha, Garuda, Vishvak sena etc. and by ‘mukthas’ who are the liberated souls.
This para form is named as ‘Para vasudeva’. This form is to be meditated upon while doing Ashtakshara japa.
Para vasudeva is always there with his Consort Mahalakshmi.
(b) Vyuha – This form is in the Ksheerabdi which is the Ocean of Milk.
There are four Vyuha forms called Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.
The difference between Paravasudeva and Vyuha, Vasudeva is practically nil.
Paramatma in the Sankarsana form is responsible for the destruction of the universe at the time of deluge.
Paramatma in the Pradyumna Vyuha form is responsible for the creation of the universe.
Paramatma in the Aniruddha Vyuha form is responsible for the protection of the universe.
(c). Vibhava – The incarnations of Lord Sriman Narayana as Lord Sri Rama and Lord Sri Krishna etc., are vibhava forms.
(d). Archa – Lord Sriman Narayana makes appearance to the devotees in all temples, in houses in Vigraha form or
Saligrama form and this form is called Archa form which is being worshipped by one and all.
(e). Antaryami – Lord dwells in every being whether sentient or non sentient in the form of Antaryami
who can be called ‘inner soul’ or ‘supreme soul’ or ‘inner controller’.
This Antaryami form is of two types. The first type is called Svaroopa Antharyami which is there in all
creatures including ants, mosquitoes, flies, bacteria and other living organisms etc. “svaroopa” means inherent nature.
The second is called Vigraha Antaryami in which Lord Sriman Narayana has a definite form in the hearts of the
upasakas and this form is of the thumb size of the upasakas because ‘upasaka’ has to meditate in a definite
and auspicious form of Paramatma without which, meditation is not all possible. In all the above forms including Svaroopa Antharyami and Vigraha Anthar yami, Lord Sriman Narayana is always
with his Consort Mahalakshmi.

Coming to this Adhikaranam, the Vishayavakya is from Katohpanishad in which Lord Yama teaches Nachi ketas as follows.
Paramatma who dwells in the heart of the body of the upasaka is having the size of the thumb of the upasaka.
He is the master of all beings which were there yesterday, which are here today and are going to be tomorrow.
Paramatma on account of his deep affection for upasaka ignores the defects or drawbacks of the body and does not feel disgusted.

Here the question arises whether the thum sized entity dwelling in the body of the Upasaka is Jiva or Paramatma.
The poorvapakshi says that it is jiva only because in another Upanishad it is said that jiva
who is the head of all the senses or indriyas is thumb-sized and moves throughout the body.

The Sutrakara does not accept this argument and says that he is Paramatma only and gives the sutra
“Sabdaadeva pramithah”.
Pramithah : The thumb sized entity is ‘Paramatma’ because
‘Sabdaadeva’ – it is said in this Upanishad that Lord is master of all beings,
which were in the past, are at present and will be in future.

The second sutra in this adhikarana is “hridyapekshayatau manushyaadhikaraatvat”.
This says that Paramatma is thumb-sized in the body of the upasaka because only that much of space is available in his body.
This particular fact gave room to some doubts which had to be cleared by Sutrakara.
So three ‘adhikaranas’ had to be introduced by the Sutrakara who is Sage Badarayana which are out of context.

The First Adhikarana in this is “Devathadhikarana” which establishes the fact that
celestial persons who are called devathas including Indra are eligible to do upasana or meditation and then attain Moksha.
This has five sutras.

The poorvapakshi to this adhikarana who is Nirishvara Mimamsaka says that devathas who are the celestial persons
are not eligible for doing upasana because they do not possess bodies.
They say five things are not there for devathas – physical body, accepting the offers made in the sacrifices,
making their presence simultaneously in several yagas, becoming pleased with the offers and granting fruits.
They further say that two basic prerequisites required for upasana – ‘Arthit vam’ and ‘Samarthyam’.
Samarthyam is the existence of the physical body for doing upasana. Arthith vam is the basic desire to attain moksha.
Because there is no physical body for them, they do not have ‘Arthithvam’ and ‘Samarthyam’.
So they are not eligible for doing upasana.

This argument is refuted by Sutrakara in his first sutra of this adhikarana which states as follows.
“Taduparyapi Badrayanah Sambhavaath”.
The meaning of this sutra is as follows. Badarayana says that – the upasana or meditation on
Lord Sriman Narayana and the eligibility
uparyapi – is there even to ‘devathas’ who are above human beings. Because,
‘Sambavath’ – In Devathas also the two basic prerequisites ‘atthith va’ and ‘samarthya’ are possible.
In several Vedic texts, it has been said that devathas do have physical bodies and therefore ‘samarthya’ is there.
In one of the texts it is said that Indra has Vajrayudha (thunderbolt, his weapon) in his hand. Without a body there cannot be a hand.
The ‘Devathas’ are also afflicted by ‘tapatrayas’. Tapatrayas are ‘adhyatmika’, ‘adhi bhau thika’ and ‘adhidaivika’.
Adhyatmika relates to suffering in the body due to diseases and suffering in mind on account of several factors.
Adhidaivika is the suffering on account of natural disasters like earthquake, floods etc. which are acts of providence.
Adhibhautika is the suffering on account of environmental factors.
If mokha is attained these tapatrayas automatically disappear. So devathas naturally desire to attain moksha
which means that they have ‘arthit vam’. Therefore they are eligible to do upasana.

Some interesting questions are raised here which are answered by Sutrakara.

If the ‘devathas’ possess bodies how can one devatha with one body make himself present at the same time in several yagas.
This question is answered by Sutrakara by stating that devathas who possess spiritual and yogic powers
may possess several bodies at the same time. The example of Sage Saubhari is stated in this context.
This sage, on account of his spiritual and yogic powers by his penance or tapas, assumed 50 bodies,
simultaneously to marry the 50 daughters of king Mandhatha and live with them.

The next question is, if a devatha possesses body it is mortal and it should go at one time or other.
In other words, if Indra dies then the Vedic texts dealing with Indra becomes meaningless in which case
the eternity of Vedic texts is lost.
The answer is the word “Indra” does not refer to an inpidual but it refers to the post or position.
This is called akrithivachaka. So if one in the post of Indra goes another inpidual immediately becomes Indra.
This is something similar to the famous proverb “The King is dead, long live the King”.
So the eternity and meaning fullness of Vedas remain intact.

The third question is, when Vedas are ‘apaurusheya’ ( not composed by any body including Sriman Narayana)
how could some portions of Vedas be called ‘Vasishtah suktha’ and ‘Vishvamitra suktha’ and so on?.
The answer is Sages like Vasishta and Visvamitra are the seers of some particular portions of Vedas
on account of their spiritual powers and hence those portions bear their names.
This is something similar to Newton’s Laws of Motion, Principle of Archimedes etc.
The laws of motion were there even before Newton discovered, postulated and informed the world.

So Vedas are eternal, without a beginning; they are blemishless and every syllable is an authority to us.
At the time of creation Lord Sriman Narayana remembers Vedas, creates universe and teaches the same to
Chathur mukha Brahma after creating him from his ‘Nabhikamala’.

Next to Devatha adhikaranam, comes the Madhvaadhikaranam which has three sutras.
Among devathas there is a special category called Vasus, Rudras and Adityas.
Vasus are already in the form of Brahman and the question arises whether it is necessary for them also to do
upasana or meditation and then attain Moksha. This is called Madhu vidya.

In the first two sutras sage Jaimini says that they are not eligible to do upasana because they are already in the Brahman form.

Sage Badarayana refutes the above viewpoint and says they should also do upasana to attain moksha gradually
step by step after the elapse of several kalpas.
Their mukthi is called ‘kramamukthi’ which means “moksha stage by stage”.
The first two sutras are called “Poorvapaksha Sutras” and the third one is called “Siddhantha Sutra”.

The Siddhantha sutra is “Bhavanthu Badarayanah asthihi”
which means Sage Badarayana says that Vasus are also eligible to do upasana.

The next adhikarana is called ‘apasudrathikarana’. This has seven sutras.

In this adhikarana it is stated that those who are not entitled to undergo ‘upanayana samskara’
are not eligible to learn Vedas and therefore they are not eligible to do this kind of upasana.

The doubt arose because a king called Jana sruthi who was a person of very charitable disposition was
addressed as “sudra” by Sage Raikva who initated him into the knowledge of Brahman and taught him
‘Samvarga vidya’ which is one among the 32 Brahma Vidyas.
The upanishadic text for this adhikarna is from Chandogyopanished.

Janasruthi was taking rest in the open terrace of his palace in one particular night.
Two swans called (hamsavs) flew over him and one swan asks the other, not to make noise there
because the King Janasruthi is resting there. The other swan asks whether Janasruthi is the Sage Raikva
who is the most learned person in the world, having deep knowledge of Brahman.
It is said that sum total of the knowledge possessed by the people in the world is just an iota of the knowledge of Raikva.
Janasruthi immediately got up and sent his servant to find out where sage Raikva was.
The servant was able to locate him and told the king. Then the King approached Raikva with lot of gifts
and requested him to initiate him into the knowledge of Brahman.
Raikva first refused and then accepted him after Janasruthi gave his daughter in marriage to Raikva.
Raikva addressed Janasruthi as ‘sudra’ because Janasruthi was deeply distressed since
he did not have the knowledge of Brahman.
‘Sudra’ according to Sanskrit grammar means “one who is very much distressed”.
So this establishes the fact that Janasruthi was actually a kshatriya by birth,
and that he does not belong to the 4th caste. Therefore, those born in the 4th caste are not eligible to do Upasana.

The first sutra is “Sugasya thadanaadarasravanaath thad adadravanath soochyathe hi.”
This means that Janasruthi felt insulted by the swan and therefore he rushed to Raikva
and because of his sorrow he was addressed as ‘sudra’ and this is indicated in the Upanishad.

The next adhikaranam and also the last adhikarana in this pada is called
Arthanthara Vyapadeshadhikaranam.
The topic for discussion in this adhikaranam is a passage in the Eigth chapter of Chandogyopanishath.
This passage is as below:

“Akasha:havai nama rupayoo: Nirvahitha The Yadanthara thath Brahmathath Amrutham Sa: Atma”.

The poorva pakshi contends that the word Akasha refers to makthatma (liberated soul) and not Paramatma
because he is also capable of doing Nama rupa Vyakarana (allotting name and form) to every object created.

This contention is refuted by Sutrakara in the Sutra “Akasha: Arthanthara Vyapadeshath”.
This means the word Akasha refers to Paramatma Sriman Narayana only as he is alone capable of doing namarupa vyakarana.

The remaining sutras in this adhikaranam reinforces the above point. The third pada comes to an end.

———————————-

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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