Sri Bhashya – Sri Ramanuja’s Commentary On Sri Brahma Sutra–Sri. U.Ve. Anantha Narasimachariar Swamy, Srirangam,-Athyaayam 1-(Samanvaya )-Paatham 2–(Aspashta jivaadi linga pada)Summary-

The second pada of the first cheapter has 6 Adhikaranas
and they will deal with the Upanishadic texts in which Jiva and non-sentient beings are ruled out
from being the cause for the creation of universe. So this pada is called Anya Yoga Vyavachcheda.
In this pada it said that the entire universe is the body of Paramatma the Supreme Being.

The first Adhikarana in this pada is “Sarvatra Prasiddhi Adhikarana”
which takes up for discussion a text from the Chandogya upanishad which says that
what we see around is Brahman and he is the creator, protector and destroyer of the universe
and that He is to be meditated upon with a peaceful mind.

In the previous Adhikarana, that is Indraprana Adhikarana it was said that the cause for the creation
of the universe is Paramatma whose bodies are Indra and Prana.
In this Adhikarana the doubt is whether jiva has been mentioned as Jagathkarana vastu is dispelled.
The reason for the above doubt is that one who has assumed several bodies in innumerable births is alone fit
to be an object which we see all round and that he should be the creator of the universe.

The Sutrakarar says that Jiva cannot be the cause of the universe because this Upanishadic text
sepcifically mentions that Brahman is popular and famous in being the inner soul of all the objects in the universe
and that he alone is fit to be the creator, protector and destroyer of the universe because
it is in consonance or in agreement with other Upanishadic sayings which say in one voice that
Brahman, lord Sriman Narayana is the cause of the universe.

The sutra is “Sarvatra prasiddha upadeshath”.
Sarvatra prasiddha means that paramatma is famous everywhere in being the antaryamin
and at the same time being the cause of the universe.
The above upanishadic statement which started saying that what we see all round is Brahman,
meaning everything or object has Brahman as its inner soul and further lists out
twelve auspicious attributes (kalyana gunas) of Brahman.

They are – Brahman can be perceived by a pure mind only, he has breath(prana) as his body,
he has the most beautiful form or body, he has the will or sankalpa which cannot be altered,
he is Akasa, Atma, that is he is inner soul to Akasa or sky, he has the entire universe as his body
because it is created by him, he has all the purest and enjoyable objects, his body has all the excellent fragrance,
he has accepted all the good tastes, he does not speak to any body because he does not expect any thing from others
and because he has got with him what all he wants.

—————

The second Adhikarana in this pada is called “Attr Adhikarana”
which has a statement from Katho upanishad as the topic for discussion.
In the concluding part of the previous Adhikarana it was said that though Lord Sriman Narayana dwells in
the heart of every being along with Jiva, he is not subject to any suffering or enjoyment which jiva undergoes,
which means, that Jiva eats the fruits of his past deeds.
So the doubt arose that wherever eating is mentioned in Upanishads, the eater should be jiva only and not paramatma.
To dispel this doubt this Adhikarana came in for consideration.

The Kathopanishad is a conversation or a dialogue between Nachiketas and Lord Yama who is called Mrityu.
Yama answered all questions put forth by Nachiketas. While answering the questions, Yama tells Nachiketa that
he who will be able to perceive a person who eats like food all the moving and non moving objects in this world
( both sentient and non sentient beings or both animate and in animate entities) at the time of the deluge of
the universe with the aid of Lord Rudra who is called Mrityu in this particular context,
Using him as condiment (upasechana) is referred to in this context.
Upasechana is an eatable substance which helps in consuming rice mixed with butter milk.
In other words, Upasechana is a substance which is not only eaten but also helps in eating other things.

So the question arises here whether the eater is Jiva or Paramatma because the former is not only
the eater of the food to make himself live in the body but also the eater of the karmaphala, as stated earlier.

To remove this doubt the Sutrakara said in the sutra
“Atta charaachara grahanaath” which means,
Atta, the eater is Paramatma Sriman Narayana because of the entire universe comprising
chara-achara (sentient and non-sentient beings) is consumed by him at the time of deluge.
In fact Puranas and Azhwars say that He keeps the entire universe safe in his belly
at the time of deluge and ejects it out at the time of creation.

——————-

The third Adhikarana in this second pada is named Antaraa Adhikarana.
The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is a passage in the Chandogyopanishad in which a Guru called as
Satyakama preaches to a student called Upakosala the knowledge of Brahman.
Before teaching, Upakosala was initiated into the kinowledge of Brahman by three Agnis (fires) called
Ahavaneeya, Garhapatya, and Dakshina which were used by the Guru for doing the daily ritual of Agnihotra,
after getting pleased with Upakosala’s service to Agnis during the absense of Guru for nearly a year.

In the preceding Adhikarana it was said that the person is able to perceive the Paramatma who eats the universe
and he cannot be seen. So the doubt arises whether what could not be seen can be Paramatma.
This doubt is cleared in this adhikarana.

The Upanishadic text pertaining to this Adhikarana says that the person who is seen or appears
in the eyes of a meditator is the Paramatma who is the supreme controller of the entire universe
and he is enjoyable unlimitedly, not mixed with any sorrow even to the slightest extent and
who is infinite both with regard to his nature (svarupa) and auspicious attributes (Kalyana gunas).
Further he is the repository of all kalyana gunas and possesses a form that is
Divya mangala vigraha having unlimited brightness.

The doubt arises here whether the person appearing in the eyes of the meditator could be an image reflecting in the eye,
jiva or a celestial god (Devatavishesha) because he is actually seen in the eye whereas
Brahman or Sriman Narayana cannot be seen by naked eyes.

To clear this doubt the sage Badarayana delivers the judgement in the sutra
“Anthara Upapaththe:” which means
that person who appears in the eyes is Paramatma or Brahman only and
none else as he alone possesses the supreme virtues of Amritatva (enjoyable), Abhayatva ( not mixed with sorrow),
Brahmatva (infiniteness), Samyathvamatva (Repository of kalyana gunas),
Bhamanitva (Divya mangala vigraha of infinite brightness) which are the unique and exclusive
characteristics of Brahman and which are not applicable to jivas, images or other celestial gods.

———————-

The fourth Adhikarana in this pada is named as Antaryami adhikarana.
This adhikarana is sequentially next to the previous adhikarana because of the fact the judgement
in the previous adhikarana was that who ever appears in the eyes is paramatma. This Adhikarana reinforces the above fact.

The Upanishadic text which forms the topic for discussion and which is called Vishayavakyas is found
in the Antharyami Brahmana of Brihadranyaka upanishad.
The Antharyami Brahmana is the very foundation of the Visishtadvaitha philosophy
without which Sri Bhagavad Ramanuja could not have established the Visishtadvaitha philosophy.
The Antharyami Brahmana is also known as Ghataka Sruthi.
Ghataka means mediation which effects a compromise between two rival or diametrically opposite statements
of Upanishad which are Abheda and Bheda.
Advaita is monism, Dwaitha is dualism where as Visishtadvaitha is qualified monoism.
Advaita system was established by Sri Adisankara Bhagavatpada and Dwaitha system by Sri Madhvacharya.

Advaita is based on the upanishadic texts called Abhedha srutis which mean to say,
“You are Brahman” and “I am brahman, the Supreme Being”. The words ‘you’ and ‘I’ refer the jivas only.
So Sri Sankara says that Brahman himself is Jiva and Jiva is not different from Brahman
because of the fact that Brahman himself assumes the formof the illusory jiva or on account of Avidya, which means ignorance.
When jiva realises that he is same as Brahman from the upadesha of an Acharya he becomes one with Brahman or Brahman himself.
The upanishadic statement which tells “abhedha” is Tattvamasi which is a four syllabled one in Sanskrit.
The knowledge of “abhedha” ( non difference between jivatma and paramatma) obtained from this statement is called
“vakyajanya jnana”. For Advaitins this “vakya janya jnana” itself is the means for salvation.

Sri Madhvacharya says that Jivatma is entirely different from paramatma
and there is absolutely no relationship between them.
According to him Jivatma who is called Bhoktha in Bhedasruti, Prakriti the nonsentient being called as Bhogyam
in the same Bheda Sruti and Paramatma who is called Preritha (Controller) in the same Bheda sruti,
are entirely different from one another and the person who possesses this bhedha knowledge,
that is knowledge of difference, attains moksha.

So Abheda sruti and Bheda sruti are diametrically opposite and mutually contradicting.
But in Vedas every syllable is an authority or pramana to us and this axiom is called as “Sarvashakha Pratyayanyaya”.
So the problem arises that if the Abheda sruti is accepted, the Bheda sruti is to be rejected which means its authority is lost.
If Bheda sruti is accepted the Abheda sruti is to be rejected and it loses its authority.
Both the above are against the above Nyaya (axiom).

So Shri Bhagavad Ramanuja discovered the Ghataka sruti in the Antharyami Brahmanam and effected
a compromise between the above two contradicting srutis and restored the relevence of “Sarvashakha pratyayanyaya”.
The meaning of this Nyaya is that all Vedic texts including upanishads are of supreme authority to us.
Each and every sylable is true an only proper interpretation is required for statements which
appear to be mutally contradicting. This Ghataka sruti in a nutshell says that both sentient beings (jivas)
and non sentient beings (Animate objects and Inanimate objects) are bodies of Paramatma and this is called
“Sarira Atma Bhava”, or “body and soul” relation.
So body and soul are two distinct entities which are inseparable from each other.
This means body does not exist without soul and soul does not exist without a body.
When both sentient and non sentient beings become the body of the Supreme soul, that is paramatma,
who is identified as Lord Sriman Narayana in the Subalopanisdhad, Sriman Narayana as supreme soul or Anrtaryami
should co-exists with jivas and Achetana objects always, and He becomes inseparable from them.
So this establishes the validity of both Abhedha and Bheda srutis.

The meaning of the Antharyami Brahmana is as follows.
“He who dwells in the earth, who he is different from earth, whom the earth does not know,
to whom the earth is the body and who controls the actions of the earth from within is the supreme soul
and is Antharyami to you also” and he is most enjoyable.

The Antharyami Brahmana is a dialogue been sage Yajnavalkya and sage Uddalaka who is the son of Aruni.
In the above text the word ‘you’ refers to Uddalaka who put a question to Yajnavalkya and elicited answer from him.
Yajnavalkya identifies 21 objects and repeats the statement as mentioned above.
The 21 objects are Earth, Water, Fire, Sky (Anthariksha), Air, Heaven, Sun (Surya), Direction (Dik),
Moon and stars, Akasa, Darkness, Thejas, All bhutas, Prana (Breath), speech, eyes, ears, mind, skin, jivatma and semen.

Just as he said in relation to earth, he says that “he who dwells with jiva, who is different from jiva,
whom jiva does not know and to whom jiva is body and who controls the actions of jiva from within, is
also supreme soul or antaryami” who is Lord Sriman Narayana who is able to perceive things
without senses like eyes, ears etc. whereas in the case jiva, he is able to perceive things only through his senses.
This clearly establishes the fact that paramatma is different from jivatma.

In spite of the above, the purva pakshi (opponent) says that this Antaryami is jiva only because
the sensual perception is applicable to jiva only and not to paramatma;
it is also said that there is seer other than jivatma.

The Sutrakara refutes this argument and says that “Antaryami is paramatma only in the sutra
Antaryami Adhidaivadi lokadishu thaddharmavyapadesath.
“It means, Antaryami is paramatma only because in the Antaryami Brahmana it is said that
the Lord who is blemishless, is the Antaryami.

—————-

The fifth Adhikarana in the 2nd pada is Adrisyathvadi Gunakadhikarana.
This adhikarana comes in the wake of the fact that in the previous adhikarana
it was said that the Brahman can see even without senses.
So where the act of seeing is not heard, that object should be other than Brahman.
It can be even Prakrithi or Pradhana which is primoridal matter. In this adhikarana the above point is refuted.

The topic for discussion in this adhikarana is a text in Mundaka upanishad which belongs to Atharva veda.
In this sage Sannaka approaches the sage Angirasa and asks him,
“Which is the object by knowing which every thing else will be known in the world?”.
In other words, the question is about the person who is the cause of the universe
by knowing whom everything else in the universe can be known.
Sage Angirasa replies Sannaka saying that there are two branches of learning to be known
which are called aparavidya and paravidya.
The aparavidya refers to Rigveda, Yajur veda, Sama veda and Atharva veda and six ancillaries of these four Vedas.
These six ancillaries are siksha, vyakarana, chandas, niruktham, jyothisham and kalpa.
These have already been elaborated and need not be repeated here.
The above include epics like Srimad Ramayana, Sri Mahabharatha and puranas.

The Paravidya is about Brahman who is named as Akshara in this upanishad.
About this Akshara this upanishad says that the Supreme Being which is akshara cannot be perceived by
knowledge rising from five senses which are eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue and
by actions of by five karmendriyas which are hands, speech, legs, excretory and genital organs.
He does not belong to any gothram or race. It does not have any caste like Brahmana, Kshatria etc.
He does not have senses. He is eternal and omnipresent.
He is capable of entering into any being as antharyami- both sentient and non-sentient because of his
atomic size and he is seen as the cause of the entire universe by the wise.
There is another statement in the same upanishad which says that Brahman is superior to jiva and
jiva is superior to prakriti which is also called Akshara.
So the doubt naturally arises whether the word Akshara mentioned in this upanishad really refers to Brahman (Paramatma).

The Poorvapakshi says that the only jiva and prakriti are relevant in this context.
To refute this argument the sutra comes here, which is
“Adrishyatvadi Gunaka Dharmoktheh:”.
This means that the person who was mentioned as not perceivable by the senses in the paravidya,
is paramatma as he is mentioned as omniscient and possessing other virtues.

——————–

The sixth or last adhikarana in this pada is named as “Vaishvanara” Adhikarana.
In the previous adhikarana it was mentioned at the end that the Lord Sriman Narayana who was named as Akshara
has the three worlds as his body and he is called Trailokya Sariraka.
The Mundaka upanishad says that for this Trailokya sariraka paramatma, Agni or fire is the head,
sun and moon are his eyes; the directions are his ears; the Vedas are his speech; Air is his breath;
the universe is his heart and the earth, his feet. Finally he was described as Sarva bhutha Antaratma,
that he is the inner soul or antaryami to all beings.

An objection was raised that Trailokya sarirakatvam need not be exclusively for Lord Sriman Narayana
and it can be even in relation to some body else.

So to reestablish that this is applicable to Sriman Narayana only this Adhikaranam has to find a place.
The Upanishadic text for discussion in this Adhikarana is from the 5th chapter in Chandogyopanishad.

The five great sages whose names are Pracheena sala, Satya yagua, Indradyumna, Jana, Budila
who were all well read, discussed among themselves regarding supreme soul that is Brahman and could not come to a conclusion.
So they went to the sage Uddalaka who was meditating on Vaisvanara for getting their doubts cleared.
But Uddalaka confessed his inability to clear their doubts and thereafter
all the six sages went to the King Aswapathi of Kekaya kingdom.

The King received the sages and asked the purpose of their visit. The sages told him that they have come to him
to get their doubts cleared and get initiated into the Vaisvanara Brama vidya which is a means for attaining salvation.
The king called each sage separately and elicited answers from them regarding the manner or way in which they are engaged in meditation.

He then corrected the view of each sage regarding Vaisvanara purusha and told them that
the combined perception of all the six sages in the form of Vaisvanara is the ultimate answer purusha
who is Lord Sriman Narayana himself.

Here the doubt is fourfold because the word Vaisvanara refers to bail juice, the third bhutha which is agni,
the celestial god Vaisvanara and Paramatma.
So the purva pakshi or the opponent says that it is very difficult to establish that Vaisvanara is
paramatma only and none else because of the above doubts.

So in the light of the above the Sutrakara delivers the judgement in the sutra.
Vaisvanara: Sadharana sabda visheshath, “which means
vaisvanara: is paramatma because there are some attributes mentioned in this context
which exclusively apply to him and to none else.

In this adhikarana sage Badarayana gives his opinion of far reaching consequence and very important to
Visishtadvaitha system of philosophy. He says that every name of the celestial god mentioned in Vedas
can be made directly applicable to Lord Sriman Narayana by examining the root of every name and suffix to the root.
For example the name Agni applies directly to paramatma by analysing the name as Agram Nayathi which means,
Sriman Narayana leads all the jivas who have done Bhakthi yoga or prapatti, to Moksha.
Similarly Vaisvanara means visvesham Naranam Neta a meaning the same thing as above.
Similarly Rudra means Lord Sriman Narayana because he alone melts the disease of samsara by granting Moksha and so on.

———————————-

ஸ்ரீ கோயில் கந்தாடை அப்பன் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ உ. வே. ரங்கராமாநுஜ அய்யங்கார் ஸ்வாமிகள்- திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ ஸ்ருதி பிரகாசர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ போதாயனர் -வ்ருத்தி காரர் – ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம்
ஸ்ரீ பாதராயணர் ஸ்வாமிகள் திருவடிகளே சரணம் .
ஸ்ரீ பெரிய பெருமாள் பெரிய பிராட்டியார் ஆண்டாள் ஆழ்வார் எம்பெருமானார் ஜீயர் திருவடிகளே சரணம்-

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