Archive for November, 2010

First AruLiccheyal pasuram with nAyikhA bhAvam..

November 29, 2010

It is common knowledge that many of the AlwArs have sung on perumAL in the nAyikhA bhAvam (the mood of an yearning lover). So, it begs the question, “which AzhwAr started it all, and what is the first pasuram??”.

The answer: The great pEyAzhwAr in his work, Moondram ThiruvandhAdhi -69

… The pasuram:

verpendru vEnkatam pAdum viyan thuzhAi
karpendru sUdum karun kuzhal mEl – mar pondra
neenda thOL mAl kidandha neeL kadal neerAduvAn
poonda nAL ellam pugumÂ

veRpu  – mountain; endru pAdum: Glorifying (that mountain); viyan thuzhAi: the special thulasi leaves
karpu endru– With utmost sanctity (with the quality that befits chaste women) ; sUdum karum kuzhal mEl: adorning on the thick black hair; mal pondra: capable of defeating any wrestler ; neeNda thOL mAl: The Lord (Sriman nArAyana) who has broad shoulders (; neeL kadal neerAduvAn: Desiring to take bath in the ocean (where the Lord resides); poonda nAL ellam pugum: Going to the ocean everyday (with the desire mentioned above)

 In this pasuram, a mother describes her daughter’s deep love for Lord Sriman nArAyAna – the moment any body describes or utters the word “mountain”, the daughter immediately thinks only of Thiruvenkatam. She would wear adorn her hair with thulasi leaves, thinking it as an act of a chaste girl. With the penchant to see the broad-shouldered (that can take n any wrestler – a small reference to Krishna avatAram) Lord who also resides in the milky ocean, the daughter wants to go and take bathe in the ocean everyday!!

The Integer – 2..Shri.Geetha Vasudevan..

November 29, 2010

1) The 1st integer 2 stands for the Dvaya maha mantra,with its two sentences “Sreeman Narayana Sharanow sharanam praptthye”
“Sreemathey Narayana Namha” with which sharanagathi is performed, and is also very special when compared to other 2 rahasyas.that is charma slokam & thirumantram.

2) Divya Dhampathis  that is the Lord Narayana and his Piratti Sri Devi nacchiyar are  called “mithunam” (a pair), it is unique to Sri Vaishnava Sampradhayam that we take refuge in the divine pair.and our sampradhya always calls for worship  of perumal, along with piratti.  In Srimadh Ramayanam. Surpanaka longed for the lord but she disliked piratti, and for the same she was severely punished by Laxmana. and similarly Ravana was attracted towards piratti, but he detested the Lord,  thus met his end.
Perialwar in his Thirumozhi  praises Lord Rama as “Thangayai mookum thamayanai thalaiyum thadittha em dasarathee”
 Thus Sri Vaishnavas take refugee in Emperumaan along with Thayar.


3) The greatest  epics Srimadh Ramayanam & Mahabaratham are  2 in number.

4) Of all the avataras of the Lord, the 2 vibhava avatars as Sri Rama & Sri Krishna are considered to be poorna avtaras

5)The Vibuthis are also 2 in number namely the Leela Vibuthi & the Nitya Vibuthi

Leela Vibuthi (Material world):-
The area  which has no lower boundary is subject to transformation and mixture of three gunas. These are subject to leela’s of EmpeurmAn namely His creation, sustenance and destruction. in this process He also takes incarnations, gives sasthrams  and also deputes Azwars & Acharyas.  However, this vibhuthi, since, it is mixture of the guaAs is under control of sensory organs and also the knowledge is limited. Therefore, the desires and lust override knowledge and aim to attain salvation.

Nithya Vibuthi (Sri Vaikuntam):-

In sharp contrast, the area  which has no upper boundary is the NIthya vibHuthi which is permanent and the Lord rests in the Supreme Divya kshetram over there. It is only of sattvam or the purest of attributes and therefore the aim there is to serve the Lord and there is no negative qualities over there.

6) 2 alwars were given to us by Sri Villiputtur divya desam that is Perialwar and Andal, similarly 2 acharyas namely Sri Naatha munigal and Aalavandhar were blessed to us from Kattumannar koil

 

7) Among many sishyas (that is 700 sanyasis (yathis) &  12,000 Bhagavathas) of Swamy Ramanuja, Only 2 were considered as Thandam and Pavithram, that is Mudalyandan was his thandam &  koorthalwan  was Pavithram.

8) Many incidents in the Life of Swamy Ramanuja were held when his age was being  in the multiples of 2  examples

2 x   8 = 16th year –
Swami got married & entered gruhasta ashram in (1033 AD)
   
2 x   9 = 18th year –  Swamy accompanied by his guru Yadhava   
Praksha went to  Kasi yatra in (1035 AD)
                                      
2 x 16 = 32nd year –  Swamy  under took Sanyasa ashramam at   
Kanchi & became “Yathiraja” in (1049 AD)
                 
2 x 32 = 64th year – Swamy won over Yagna moorthy after 18
days debate in (1081 AD),and gave him the title “Arulala perumal Emperumanaar who  gave us Gyana saaram & Prameya saram

2 x 35 = 70th year –  Swamy along with Koorthalwan in(1087 A D)      and others travelled to  Kashmir to get the “Bodhayana Vritti” to author  Sri Bashyam

2 x 36 = 72nd year –  Swamy Ramanuja blessed us with “Sri
 
Bashyam”, “Geetha bashyam”,”Vedantha saram”, “Vedantha  
D
eepam”and “Vedanthasangraham”.& also started his divya desam Yatra in (1089 AD)

2 x 37 = 74th year –  Swamy became acharya to “Thirukurungudi
 
Nambi” and named the  lord as “Vaishnava  Nambi” & established “Ramanuja Matam”  there in (1091 AD)

2 x 38 = 76th year – Swamy got his titile as “Bhashyakarar” from
 
Sri Saraswathi Devi (1093 AD )

2 x 40 = 80th year – Swamy Ramanuja leaves Sri Rangam,(1097
A D) due to Kirumi Kanda Chozan  and travels to Karnataka
 (Mel Naadu)

2 x 41 = 82nd year – Swamy Ramanuja with the help of the King
 
Vishnu Vardhan located  the moolavar lord  Thirunarayanan in the year Bagudhanya (1099 AD)  & performed consecration at
 
Melkote.

2 x 50 = 100th year – Swami  Ramanuja with Mudaliandan in the
year Helavilambi (1117 A D ) did Pancha Narayana Pratishtai which constitue Keerthi Naryanan, Sriman Narayanan, Veera
 
Narayanan, Vijaya Narayanan & Kesava Naryanan

2x 60 = 120th year – Swamy Ramanuja completed his 
task in this Bhooloka,  and entered the  eternal abode Sri Vaikuntam, on the Pingala Year (1137 AD)

9)Time factor has been divided into various divisions or classifications.  A year is divided into 2 halves, that is  aayanam
the first 6 months beginning with the month “Thai” constitute “Uttharayanam” and the second 6 months beginning with “Aadi” month constitute “Dakshinayanam”

10) Similarly, 2 months constitute a rithu, totally a year  consists of 6 rithus and a day is divided into 2 x 12 hours.

11)A pair of sandals/Padhukas of Lord Rama ruled,the country, it took the place of the lord for 14 years, as the symbolic king, under whose banner Bharatha served & discharged the kingly duties. The Padhukas represented the Lord himself,  In fact it was  Bharatha who was the 1st great soul, who wore the divya padhukas on his head and did paduka pattabishekam and ruled until the return of the lord from the exile. Thus, Bharatha became the 1st blessed great soul, who showed  the glory of the padhukas  and spread their message to the world. Thus the number 2 is very special.

 Let us all take refuge in the pair of divine padhukas of the lord, which bears the the lord one who bears all the world, and who is the supreme resort to all the worlds.  The greatness of the Padhukas are not graspable & perceivable even to Bramha ,Siva & other devatas also.

Massive wonder – SUGANTHY KRISHNAMACHARI-The Hindu-Friday, Nov 19, 2010..

November 29, 2010

 

Vaishnavism scholar Kidambi Narayanan says that the elephant finds mention in the Gajasuktam, in the sixth ashtakam of the Rg Veda. There are references to the divinity of the elephant in Taittriyam, in the Yajur Veda

In the Ramayana and in Tamil Vaishnavite literature there are many references to Maha Vishnu as an elephant,” says Kidambi Narayanan. He quotes from Nampillai’s Tiruvaimozhi commentary, where Mahavishnu is compared to a horse. Nampillai refers to an ancient practice, where the speed of a war elephant would be tested vis-a-vis the speed of a horse. The horse would be given a head start, with the elephant in pursuit. The elephant would try in vain to touch the horse with its trunk, for an elephant cannot match the speed of a horse, the analogy being that the infinite qualities of Mahavishnu (the horse) can never be described by His devotees (the elephant), Kidambi Narayanan explains.

Village deities

Dr. Murugesan, Professor Emeritus, Folklore Department, Tamil University, Thanjavur, says that village gods are worshipped in Andhra and Karnataka too. “In North India, we see sculptures of a man on horseback, followed by hunting dogs. The man is identified as Revantha, son of Sun god. Perhaps it is Revantha who is referred to as Ayyanar in Tamil Nadu.” Murugesan has even seen a stucco of Rama and Lakshmana, astride horses, in Ayodyapattinam, Salem. Horses, because of their speed, must have been seen by people as suitable mounts for their gods.

There are historical references to Aswamedha yagas performed by Pushyamitrasunga (2 {+n} {+d} century B.C.) and Samudragupta (5 {+t} {+h} century A.D.), points out Murugesan. There are references in the Pattinappalai, that speak of the import of horses in Kaveripoompattinam, the famous port city of Tamil Nadu in the Sangam period, indicating that Tamils had a close bond with the horse even in early times.

V.I. Subramaniam, former Vice-Chancellor of Tamil University, Thanjavur, feels that the preponderance of terracotta horses in the districts of Ramanathapuram, Salem, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and South Arcot in Tamil Nadu was due to the presence of many warrior classes in these districts. The horses must have been their offerings to the guardian deity of the village,” adds Murugesan. As for the elephant, the sheer size and strength of the animal must have made the villagers think of it as worthy of worship, guesses Murugesan.

he technique

Gazing at the Azhagarkovil elephant, whose majesty even the scaffolding and the thatch are unable to obscure, one cannot help wondering at the technique behind the masterpiece. “Silpa texts describe how the plaster for these stucco figures is to be prepared, and mention 200 types of bricks. Different shapes of bricks are spoken of in the Satapatha Brahmana,” says sthapathy Umapathy Acharya.

Sthothra Prasthana: The religious system of Sthothra..

November 29, 2010

 (The whole article was prepared under the guidance of Vaikunthavasi Sri U. Ve. Koyil Athan Vijayaraghavachar swami, for a question Why Sthothras bear more importance in the spiritual literature? The core idea of this article is taken from a Hindi article Sthothra prasthana, appeared in 1977 November issue of Ananthasandesam, by Sri U. Ve vidyA bhUshaNam thirunAngUr prathivAdi bhayangaram aNNangarAcharya swami.)

   Poetry is a powerful means of communication embellished with rhetoric and figures of speech. It is highly delectable. Sanskrit being an apt medium to translate the ideas into expressions due to the versatility, flexibility and grand vocabulary; the sthothra lore evolved and developed in Sanskrit. It was Yamunacharya who started the entire system of sthotras in vishishtadwaitha sampradayam. Yamunacharya, prior to becoming a yathi, sends a message to his opponent, AkkiyAzhvAn, starting with navAyam kavayasthu kEvalam – We are not only poets. The usage of “we” here is attributive of all the past and forth coming generations of pooravacharyas. How come alavanthar could predict it, kavi: krAntha darSI:, a kavi can foresee. Akin to the statement of alavanthar, we can see all our poorvacharyas were poets also. One can doubt whether Sri Ramanuja was a poet or not, “gadya: kavinAm nikasham vadanthi” goes a Sanskrit saying, Prose is the touch stone of poets, only a person well versed as a poet can indulge in writing prose. Sri Ramanuja’s extempore elaboration on Saranagathi through three gadyas bear ample testimony to his status as a kavi. We can see that prose works in sankrit itself are rare; kadambari and dasakumara charitha are examples.

The need of composing sthrothras were felt by Swami ALavanthAr, to depict the divine experiences and counsels of AzhvArs, in Sanskrit- which was then a language of scholars. He was a trend setter in composing sthothras. All succeeding acharyas used poetry as a good medium of expression. Many sthothras found their place in praise of nammazhvar, like parankusAShtakam a collection from various authors, parankusa pancha vimsathi of koyil kanthadai vadhula desikacharya and nakshathra malika of jeeyar nayanar. Each of these sthothra find their exalted places in nithyanusandhanam. For every srivaishnava, the knowledge of poorva/uthara dinacharya is a must as he has to chant them before having his every day meal.

The word prasthAna means pravESam or anvayippathu, meaning ‘a way to attain’, ‘a system’, ‘purport’ ‘being linked’ or ‘associated with’. In the three vedic religions, Srimath bhagavad githa, upanishads, and brahma suthra are collectively known as prasthAna thraya. By his works, SrIbhAshya, gIthA bhAshya, vEdArtha sangraha, VEdAntha deepa, and vEdAntha Sara, Sri Ramanuja did reassert the prasthAna thraya and gave a new life to Upanishad prasthAna. When it comes to our visishtAdvaitha sampradayam, we come across the term prasthAna  chathushTaya – or the Four fold system. What are these four? brahma sUthra prasthAnam, gIthA prasthAnam, divya prabandha prasthAnam and rahasya prasthAnam. Rahasya means esoteric topics which were kept extremely secret as the knowledge of them leads to moksham. Even though, Upanishads are the root for all knowledge, Upanishad prasthAna was included into brahmasuthra prasthAnam itself, because of the fact that Upanishads forms part and parcel of the pravruthi vicharam in brahma mImAmsA- the enquiry to Brahman.

Sri Ramanuja, with his mercy, instructed thirukkurukai pirAn piLLAn to write a commentary on ThiruvAymozhi which was named as ArAyirappadi, which paved the pathway to the entire divyaprabandha prasthAnam. This was continued and extended to the entire prabandhams in due course by nanjIyar, nampiLLAi, vaDakku thiruvIthippiLLAi, vyAkhyAna chakravartthi swAmi periya-v-AcchAn piLLAi, vadikEsari azhagiya maNavALa jeeyar, azhagiya maNavALapperumAL nAyanAr, thiruvAymozhippiLLAi, thirunArAyaNapuram Ayee jananyAcharya and svAmi  maNavALa mAmunikaL. The works of these acharyas were so elaborate and extensive that each one is a magnum opus by itself. Sri Ramanuja himself instructed parASara bhaTTar, the son of illustrious kUratthAzhvAn to write AshTasloki, thereby condensing the entire esoteric subjects. This led to the development of Rahasya prasthAna which was later developed extensively by periya-v-AcchAn piLLAi, vadikEsari azhagiya maNavALa jeeyar, swAmi piLLai lOkAcharyar, azhagiya maNavALapperumAL nAyanAr, thirunArAyaNapuram Ayee jananyAcharya and maNavALa mAmunikaL by their aphorisms and commentaries. Only those who were experts in the prasthAna chathushTaya are considered as ubhaya vedantha pravartthakAcharyas and it was not a prefix for namesake which is the practice as on date.

The divya prabandhAs of azhvArs are replete with the Vedantic concepts. Hence they are considered as drAvida veda or dramiDOpanishath as these prabandhas are capable of doing the job which Sruthis were supposed to do.

vEdanthacharya says,

Yasya SAraswatham Srotho VakulA modha Vaasitham

SruteenAm VisramAyAlam SatArim ThvAm UpAsmahe (yathirAja sapthathi 4)

 We meditate on Satari (NammAzhvAr) for having blessed us with his glorious compositions which are a flood of nectar with the fragrance of vakula flowers and do the job of VedAs, well enough for the veDas to take rest. The sruthis aim only at ascertaining the supremacy and explaining the kalyAna gunAs, vibhUthis and lIlA vibhavAs of paramAthmA Sriman nArAyaNa. Swami nammAzhvar did the same exclusively through his prabandhAs.

The definition of Sthothra

It was Sri YAmunAcharya who started a new prasthAnam known as sthOthra prasthAnam. By doing so he accomplished a great task of compiling the essence and meanings of veda and vedantha in to a simple and understandable format.

One of his thaniyan says

svAdhayanniha sarvEsham thraiyanthArtham sudurgraham

sthOthra yAmAsa yOgIndra tham vandE yAmunAhvayam

I salute yAmuna who is a yOgi who gave us sthOthra prasthAna by which he achieved the simplification of the meanings of crown of thrayee (vedantha) for the use of every one.

  Sri Ramanuja explains in this thaniyan, how yAmunacharya achieved the task of compiling the massive knowledge of vedantha into a simple form which is easily understood by the sathvika mumukshus. By the sthothra prasthAna the normal folk can get attracted in to the vedantha fold and the concepts like karma, jnyAna, bhakthi and prapatthi can easily be spread among them. The sthOthra prasthAna was given its complete life by kUratthazhvan, bhaTTar, thirukkacchi nambikaL, vEdanthacharya, maNavALamAmunikaL, prathivAdi bhayangaram ANNan, ErumbiyappA and countless poorvacharyas in our sampradayam. Only the adhyayanam of sthothras along with their meanings makes one’s training in vEdantha complete.

What is a sthothra? kUratthAzhvAn answers thus in Sristhvam

 sthOthram nAma kimAmamanthi kavayO yadyanyadheeyAn guNAn

anyathra thvasathOdirObya phaNithi:  saa tharhi vandyA thvayI

samyak sathyaguNAbhivarNanamathO bhrUyu:  kathhaam thAdrSee

vaag vaachaspathinAapi sakhyarachanA thvathsadguNArNO nidhou 

 Azhvan elaborates the difference between his Stotra and that of other kavis. The common poets praise either gunaas that are not there in the subject being praised or describe the limited qualities of their subject. For instance, a poet may praise a bald man as the one, who has flowing locks of hair and thus describe something that is not there in reality. Some other common poets describe the qualities correctly, but find that there is a limited quantity of particulars to describe about their subject. There is not much to praise. AzhvAn reveals that he is not hampered by either of these two difficulties, when he attempts to praise periyapirATTiyAr and Her kalyANa guNas. There is no need of exaggeration in Her case, since She is the seat of all the auspicious qualities to a state of perfection. Her KalyaaNa GuNaas are also so abundant that there is no shortage on the subject matter to praise. Her KalyaaNa GuNaas are limitless and there is no possibility of exhausting them or exaggerating them. Even vachaspathi the Lord of speech cannot succeed in describing adequately her vast sea of auspicious guNams.

            In general there can be two definitions for sthothra, 1) To describe a quality which is not there in the person, the example as said in the above sloka, praising a bald man as a person having matted locks of hair. Or 2) To describe all qualities existing in the person. Both definitions are not appropriate in the case of Sriman nArAyaNa and Sri mahAlakshmi, because there are no attributes in the entire universe which they don’t possess, He is samastha kalyANa guNAmrithOdhadhi. If we consider sthothra as a description of the entire qualities, the second definition, that also is a stretched statement. The attributes in the Lord are in exhaustible and Vedanta itself has pronounced yathO vAchO nivartthanthE aprApya manasA sahA– I cannot measure his happiness with neither words or mind. Since the God is the seat for all the kalyanagunas, it is impossible to describe all of them with our limited knowledge. But then what is sthothra?

AzhvAn describes in Sristhvam

                yE vaachAm manasAm cha dhurgrahatayA khyAthA guNasthAvakA:

               thAnEva prathi sAmBhujihvamudhithA hai mAmikA bhArathI

               hAsyam tath thu na manmahE na hi chakOryEkAakhilAm chandrikAm

               nAlam pAthumithi pragruhya rasanAmaaseetha sathyAm thrushi

 Oh Maha Lakshmi! It is impossible to praise adequately all Your Kalyana Gunaas and do justice to them.  My effort is similar to that of the Chakora bird which does not stop drinking the cool rays of the moon as its food, while being fully aware of its limited power to complete that impossible task. The moon rays are infinite and the bird cannot consume all of it. But it does not mean that the bird will not take its share at all. It drinks as much as it can. Azhvan says Similar to the efforts of the bird, I am also not holding back in my effort to praise all of Your Kalyana GunAs very well knowing that it is an impossible task. (chakora birds are said to nourish from moonlight).

  From which we can conclude that, sthothram is to eulogize and describe those subjects which can be reached out by one individuals taste, knowledge and strength. Based on these we can find several topics in innumerable number of sthothras, describing the qualities, incidents, vibahva avatharas and archavathara.

 In sthOthra rathna Alavanthar describes thus-

  yadvA sramAvadhi yaTaamati vAapyaSakta:

staumyevamEva khalu tEpi sadA stuvanta:

vedAs chaturmukha mukhAsca mahArNavAnta:

ko majjatO: aNukulAchalayo: visesha:

  In spite of my weakness, I am justified in praising Him to the limit of my capacity and to the best of my knowledge. For, verily, even the Vedas and the four-faced Brahma, ever engaged in singing His glory, could praise him only in a similar strain. Afterall a big mountain is no distinct from a small atom, they both submerge alike in an ocean.

  Hence in the case of Sriman nArAyaNa it is impossible in attempting a description of the entire qualities. parASara BhaTTar wonderfully adds “yadi mE sahasra vadanAdi vaibhavam nijam arpayet sa kila ranga candramA: atha SEshavat mama ca tadvatyEva vA stuti Sakthi abhAva vibhave api bhAgitA” (SrirangarAja stvavam 14) – If only I am granted with the 1000 heads, of adiSEsha or of the lord himself I will be able to judge I whether I am capable of describing the qualities of emperuman.

parASara bhaTTar further conveys so in Sri guNarathna kOSam.

  sthOthAram tamusanti dEvi ! kavayO yO visthrNeethE GuNAn

sthOthavyasya tathasccha tE sthuthidhurA mayyEva visrAmyathi |

YasmAdhasmath amarshaNIya phaNithi svIkAratastE GuNA:

KshAnthyoudharya dayAdhayO BhagavathI! svAm prastuveeran praTaam ||

(SriguNarathna kOSam 6)

 Oh Bhagavathi! The world of scholars would acknowledge only that man, as a poet of worth, who is capable of publicizing the great virtues of the subject (that he is praising). Under this criterion, no one is better suited to praise you (than me). Yes. Because Your forbearance, mercy, graciousness and similar qualities would stand out in prominent perspective only when I am their target. I am the lowliest person; my words are poor and defective. But, Your qualities shine at their best only with regard to me.

  Hence it can be concluded that a sthothram is a hymn in praise constructed by describing the guNas of the object under worship by using one’s knowledge and bhakthi. Why then, should we attempt it, if we cannot describe it fully. BhaTTar explains this as– varshabindaurivAbdhau sambandhAth swAthmalAbhaH (Sri rangarAja sthavam poorva Sathaka 19)- It rains and rain water flows to the ocean just to seek its relation to the ocean, similarly by singing in praise of him I too will be able to enjoy the inherent relationship to the lord. Vishnu sahasranAma also says that the lord is pleased easily by sthOthra – the two thirunamas sthavya: and  sthava priya are indicative of this. He himself is the only possessor of all these qualities naturally – svAbhAvikI njAna bala kriyAcha says SvEthASvathara Upanishad. Sri Ramanuja also reasserts it in gadyam as svAbhAvikAnavadhikAdhiSaya jnjAna bala aiSvarya veerya Sakthi etc. Sriman nArAyaNa is not only the seat of all the guNas which are being praised by the sthOthrAs, but he also is the granter of all the boons. Sarva phala pradOhi vishNuH. With His divine relation special to, periyapirATTiyar, AzhvArs, bhAgavathOtthamas and AchAryas, they also become objects for sthOthra. Because emperuman himself states that “jnyAnI thu Athmaiva mE matham” (the bhaktha is my athmA, bhagavad gIthA), “sa cha pUjya yathAhyaham” (worship my bhaktha as equivalent to me, gAruDa purANam)”. Azhvar also stresses this concept that Emperuman is more happy to hear the glories of his bhakthAs : “nallakOTpATTulakangaL mUntrinuLLum thAn niRaintha  allikkamalakkaNNan” (thiruvAymozhi)

PrasthAna chathuShTaya in Sthothra prasthAna

       Our poorvacharyas have succeeded wonderfully in condensing the concepts of prasthAna chathushTaya into the sthOthra prasthAna. They have opted this method to simplify and popularize the bhagavad anubhavam as visualized by Upanishads and azhvars. For the sake of it they have adopted many different ways, either use their own words to express the vedanthic meanings, or to incorporate the very words or sentences used by vedantha/puranas as such inside sthothras, attempt a translation of azhvAr srisukthis into Sanskrit and condense the rahasyas into slokas.  A complete understanding of this is only possible with a proper training under an acharya and a study of all sthothras with their commentaries. We shall try to look into some examples where the above said concepts are clearly evident.

The concept of akinchanya and ananya gathitva were explained by thondaradippodiazhvar and nammazhvar respectively in –kuLitthu mUntranalai Ombum kuRikoL anthaNamai thannai oLitthiTTen enkaNillai nin kaNum paatthan allEn (ThirumAlai-25) and nOttra nOnpilEn nuNNaRivilEn –(thiruvAymozhi-5.7.1) and they are considered as the most necessary qualities a prapanna should possess (mumukshuppadi dwaya prakaranam). This was translated to Sanskrit by Alavanthar – Na dharma nishTOsmi na cha Athma vEdi na bhakthimAn tva charaNAravindE akinchanO ananyagathiH SAraNya (sthOthrarathna-22). Yet another example is the translation of sentrAl kuDaiyAm (muthal thiruvanthAthi-53) pasuram into nivAsa SAyyAsana pAdukA (sthothra rathna – 40). kAnchee PBA swami equated the usage of kirITa makuTa chUDAvathamsa in SaraNAgathi gadyam to pEraraSE em visumbaraSE emmai nItthuvanchittha OraraSE (thiruviruttham-80), the usage of SrIvallabhA Evam bhUtha bhUmi nILA nAyakA (SaraNagathi gadyam) is a straight translation of inthuNaippathu mattu alarmakaL thanakkum inpan nar puvithanakku iRaivan than thuNai AyarppAvai nappinnai thanakku iRai (Periya thirumozhi-2.3.5). In Srivaikuntha gadyam Sri Ramanuja concludes as amritha sAgarAnthar nimagna sarvAvayavaH sukhamAsIthA is the anubhavam of thirumangai azhvar– en than ponnilangu mulaikkuvaTTil pUTTikkoNdu pOkAme vallEnAy pulavi eythi ennil angamellAm vanthu inpam eytha eppozhuthum ninainthuruki irppan (thirunedunthANdakam-28). parASArabhaTTar says in the SrirangarAja sthvavam madhyE virincha giriSam prathAmAvathAra: (utthara Sathakam-51) which can be traced back to thAnum Sivanum piramanumAki paNittha thanimuthalai (thiruvAymozhi-8.8.4). Mamunikal also have completely adopted two pasurams from irAmAnusa nUttanthAthi viz., poomannu mAthu and mozhiyai kaDakkum and incorporated into yathirAja vimSathi slokas SrimAdhavAnghri and vAchAm agOchara.

Sri Ramanuja incorporated plenty of purAna and bhagavad githa slokas in to SaraNAgathi gadya like pitaram mAtharam, pithAsi lOkasya charAcharasya, rAmOdvirnAbhibhAshathE and githa charama sloka etc wherever the situation demanded. The bhagavad githa slokam avajAnanthi mAm mUDhA mAnushIm thanumASritham param bhAvamajAnantha mama bhUtha mahESvaram is translated in to the sloka gareeyathvam prarijAnanthi (Sriranga rAjasthvam uthhara Sathakam-50). There are several adaptations of Vedic phrases like thathsavithurvarENyam (a part of gAyathri), ApraNakhAth suvarNam from chAndOgyOpanishath (uttharaSAthakam-79), yasyAsmi pathyurnna thamantharEmi (Sriranga rAjasthvam utthara SAthakam-81) an adaptation from acchidram, pathim viSvasyAthmESvaragum (SundarabAhu sthvavam-17) from mahAnArAyaNam, and the slokam starting with AnandamaiSvaram (SrivaikuNDTha stvam-24) being the equivalent of the concept of brahAnanda evaluated in thaithirIya upanishad ending with yathO vAchO nivartthanthE aprApya manasAsahA along with many more examples.

SAsthrAs describe the guNa’s of the Lord Sriman nArAyaNa in two different ways, swarUpa nirUpaka dharma and nirUpitha swarUpa viSEsha. swarUpa nirUpaka dharma explains the fundamental qualities by which one object should be understood, or it is the swaroopam itself. jnyAna ananda amalathva and ananthatva are taken as swarUpa nirUpaka dharmma (mumukshhuppadi thirumanthra prakaraNa), where as niroopitha swarUpa viSEshaNa are auspicious qualities in the Lord, normally used to eulogize his greatness. parASara bhaTTar says upAyOpEyathvE thadiha thava thathvau nathu guNau (utthara Sathakam-87) – Oh ranganatha you are the path and goal for a jIvAthma, this is not a GuNa for you, but it is Thau yourself. By saying so, bhaTTar has ascertained the entire message of azhvArs and the important sampradAya meaning distilled down into a single slokam, not only that, he goes to the extent saying that, being upAya and upEya is not a guNa, which normally means as nirUpitha swarUpa viSEsha, but it is the thathwa itself- swarUpa nirUpaka dharma.

Githartha sangraha of alavanthar and AshTasloki of bhaTTar are two examples where the former condensed bhagavad Githa whereas the latter is a first ever condensed representation of rahasya thraya. Yet another example is from Acharya Hridaya Suthram, athri jamadagni pankthi ratha vasu nanda sUnuvAnavanuDaiya yuga vaRNa kramAvathAramO translated into athryAdi sUnuriva vaRNayuga kramAth kim (parAnkuSa pancha vimSathi-8). Many of the SthothrAs were not written deliberately by sitting with writing equipments, we can see most of the important sthothras were extempore or came as Asu kavi. For example sthothras on thiruvenkadamudaiyan- the lord of seven hills, venkaTESvara suprabhAtham, sthOthram, prapatthi and mangaLam, by the Sishya of mamunikaL, prathivAdi bhayangaram aNNa, were written instantaneously in the sanctum. Sri ranganAtha sthothra was written in a state of great mental agony while bhaTTar was in exile at thirukkOTTiyUr. bhaTTar longs that when I will see that rangam again, where people are just taking the tickets to moksham, from their pathway as effortlessly as, those who are doing uncha vrithi are picking up the grains from the paddy fields – mArgE mArgE pathika nivahairunchyamAnApavarggam– (SriranganAtha sthOthram-5).

AthimAnusha sthvavam of Azhvan requires a special attention. We all know that AzhvAn was no less than Azhvars. Lord Sriman nArAyaNa as Rama declared himself –“I consider myself as a human”- AthmAnam mAnusham manyE (SrIrAmAyaNam). The same was repeated in krishNavathara during gOvardhanOddhAraNa- “I am born as your relative” – aham vO bAndhavO jAthaH ( Srimad bhagavatham). But were his acts humanlike? AzhvAn makes an anatomic study of vibhavavathAras and establishes the superhuman behavior-athimAnushathva- in many of his acts. The Sthothra mostly focuses on Rama & Krishna avatharas. The entire athimAnusha sthavam is a comprehensive description of the act on vibhavAvathAras, which is an immaculate task and we are tempted to opine that the work and the author themselves are Athimanusha. So are the sthothras of vEdAnthAcharya, all of them being masterpieces. One special mention should be made about achyutha Sathaka which was totally written in prAkrit- a language used by women. He also wrote two mahA kavyAs, yAdavAbhyudaya and SubhAshitha nIVi. SudarSana Sathaka is an exclusive work by the Sishya of kUratthazhvan, known as kUra nArAyaNa Jeeyar. He incorporated manthra siddhi bjiaksharas into the SudarSana sathakam, and it is a wonderful work on Chakratthazhvar.

Almost all sthothras were set into different metres while only a few sthothras are confined entirely to a single meter. An example of the former case, nakshathra malika an inimitable work in praise of nammAzhvAr authored by Jeeyar nAyanAr, the erstwhile grandson of maNavALamAmunikaL seeks a special attention amongst all sthothras. The names of 27 stars (nakshathras) are embedded into each sloka in their order of occurrence in astrology. It is the only sthothram set in the “anthAdi” style of poetry. AzhvArs have profoundly used anthAdi in their srisUkthis. We can see the entire thiruvaymozhi is an anthAdi, almost all iyarpA works are anthAdi comprising the majority of divyaprbandham. In an anthAdi mostly the ending letter/word/syllable of one sloka/pasuram will be the start of the next. This concept is closely followed by jeeyar nAyanAr in nakshathra mAlika. It starts with an 8 syllable metre known as “anushTup” with gradual increment of 1 syllable in each sloka ending up with a 21 syllable sloka set to the metre “sragdhara”. Then it descends back to the 8 syllable metre “anushTup”. This type of poetry comes under chithra kAvya one of which is known as “rathabandha” where an entire chariot is constructed by means of the verses. One of the well known ratha bandha is thiruvEzhukUttrirukkai of thirumangai azhvAr which comprises only one half of the ratham. That means only the top of the ratha was constructed by means of that prabandha where as nakshatra malika constructs the bottom part of the chariot as well.

The entire sthothra prasthAna includes not less than 200 sthOthras, which is not only a vast collection but also a summary of the concepts of the vedic religion as followed in viSishTadwaitha. The grammatically peculiar usages made in the sthothras, can only be appreciated and understood by the scholors. There are many commentaries for the sthOthrAs and we should not forget about the commentators. vyAkhyAna chakravartthi periya-v-Acchan piLLAi and vEdanthacharya both wrote commentaries on chathuSlOki and sthOthra rathna. Gadyas were given elaboration by Periya-v-Acchan piLLAi and SudarSana SUri. Apart from that pancha sthavams, and bhaTTar Srisukthis were given elaborate commentaries by Thirumazhisai Annavappangar, and late SrI U. Ve. kAnchI prathivAdi bhayangaram aNNangarAchArya. One commendable mention has to be made for the SriguNarathna kOSa commentary and its Tamil versification made by SrI U. Ve. Thirumalai nallan Ramakrishna Iyengar. The total study is only possible with a dedicated training under an acharya and also points to the need of fundamental Sanskrit knowledge.

The present book contains 29 sthothras of our poorvacharyas. The book follows the chronological order of acharyas. The present version is excellently type written by comparing several devanagari versions and has been carefully edited and proof read by the pain taking efforts of Sri U. Ve. Koyil AthAn Vijayaraghavachariar Swami. We also extend our heartfelt gratitude to Sri V. Naryana Iyengar and Sri. Bharath for the final corrections in the proof. Vedics expresses their sincere gratitude to Sri U. Ve. Koyil AthAn Vijyaraghavachariar Swami who allowed us to give poorvacharya sthothramala online. With the inability of putting a price label or copyrights to it, We expect that the entire srivaishnava community is benefitted by these gems. If at all we do have some gratitude to our poorvacharyas, lets learn them and practice them. Let the sriranga divya dampathis help us to live in our poorvacharyas line.

 abjAsanasthamavajAtha sujAtha mUrtthim AmIlithAkshamanusamhitha manthra rathnam

Anamra maulibhirupAsithamantharangam nithyam munin varavaram nibhrtho bhajami

 I worship the great seer Varavaramuni, as Seated in yogic padmAsana, surrounded by numerous disciples, excessively pristine and superseding everything else in purity, His appearance beautiful and divine , His eyes half closed in deep contemplation on the almighty Lord Sriman nArAyaN and His lips vibrating with Dvaya mantra

AzhvAr emperumAnar jeeyar thiruvadikaLE SaraNam

திருவரங்கத்தமுதனார் வரலாறு..

November 28, 2010

இவ்வமுதனார், ஒரு பங்குனித்திங்களில் ஹஸ்த நக்ஷத்ரத்தில் மூங்கிற்குடியில் திருவவதரித்து, திருவரங்கம் பெரியகோயிலில் இருந்ததுவே காரணமாகப் பெரியகோயில் நம்பி  என்று ப்ரஸித்தராய் வாழ்ந்துவந்தார்.
[அஷ்டப்பிரபந்தம் செய்தருளினவரும் பட்டர் திருவடிகளில் ஆச்ரயித்து ஊய்ந்தவருமான “பிள்ளைப்பெருமாளையங்கார்” என்பவர்க்கு இவர் திருத்தகப்பனார் என்று சிலரும், பாட்டனார் என்று சிலரும் சொல்லுவர்.]

இவர் ஸகல சாஸ்த்ரங்களையும் அதிகரித்து மஹா நிபுணராய், தமக்குக் குலக்ரமமாகக் கிடைத்த ஸந்நிதி புரோஹித வ்ருத்தியையும் புராணபடந கைங்கர்யத்தையும் பெற்று மிகவும் ராஜஸராய்ச் செருக்குடன் வாழ்ந்துவரும் நாளிலே, உலகங்களை வாழ்விக்கத் திருவனந்தாழ்வானது திருவவதாரமாய்த் திருவவதரித்த எம்பெருமானார் தமது இயற்கையின்னருளாலே இவரைத் திருத்திப் பணிகொள்ளத் திருவுள்ளப்பற்றிக் கூரத்தாழ்வானுக்கு நியமிக்க, ஆழ்வானும் இவரை அநுவர்த்தித்து ஞானச்சுடர் கொளுத்தி எம்பெருமானார் திருவடிக்கீழ்க் கொணர்ந்து சேர்க்க, எம்பெருமானாரும் அவரைக் குளிரக் கடாக்ஷித்தருளி ஆழ்வான் பக்கல் ஆச்ரயிக்கும்படி நியமிக்க, அப்படியே அவரும் ஆழ்வானை ஆச்ரயித்துத் தத்வஹித புருஷார்த்தங்களை ஐயந்திரிபறத் தெளிந்து ஆத்மஆத்மீயங்களை அந்த ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளிலே ஸமர்ப்பித்துப் பரம ப்ரவணராயிருந்தார். இப்படியிருக்கையில் ஸ்வாசார்யருடைய உகப்புக்கு உறுப்பாகத் தமக்கு ப்ராசார்யரான எம்பெருமானார் விஷயமாக ஒன்றிரண்டு பிரபந்தங்களைச் செய்து அவற்றை எம்பெருமானார் ஸந்நிதியிற்  கொணர்ந்துவைக்க, எம்பெருமானாரும் அவற்றை அவிழ்த்துக் கடாக்ஷிக்க, அவை தமது திருவுள்ளத்துக்கு இசைந்திராமையாலே அவற்றைக் கிழித்தெறிந்துவிட்டு அவரை நோக்கி, “நம்மைப் பற்றிப் பிரபந்தம் பாடவிருப்பம் உமக்கிருக்குமாகில், ஆழ்வார்களிடத்தும் உகந்தருளின நிலங்களிடத்தும் நமது ப்ராவண்யம் தோற்றுமாறு ஒரு பிரபந்தம் செய்யும்” என்று நியமித்தருள, இவரும் அப்படியே செய்கிறேனென்று அந்த நியமகத்தை சிரஸ்ரவஹித்து எம்பெருமானார்க்கு ஆழ்வார்களிடத்திலும் திவ்ய தேசங்களிடத்திலுமுள்ள அன்பை நன்கு விளங்கவைத்து இந்தப் பிரபந்தத்தை அருளிச்செய்து எம்பெருமானார் ஸந்நிதியிலேவந்து வணங்கி “இதைக் கேட்டருளவேணும்” என்று பிரார்த்தித்து அநுமதி பெற்றுக் கூரத்தாழ்வான் முதலானோர் பேரோலக்கமாக இருக்கிற அங்குத்தானே இந்தப் பிரபந்தத்தை விண்ணப்பம் செய்ய, எம்பெருமானார் மற்றை முதலிகளோடும் திருச்செவி சார்த்தித் தலைதுலுக்கிப் போரவுகந்தருளி, தம்திருவடிகளில் ஸம்பந்தமுடையோர்க்கெல்லாம் அந்த பிரபந்தத்தை அன்று தொடங்கி என்றும் நித்யாநுஸந்தேயமாம்படி கற்பித்தருளியதுந் தவிர, அவரது வாக்கு அமுதவாக்காயிருந்தமையால் அவர்க்கு அமுதன்  என்ற திருநாமத்தையும் பிரஸாதித்தருளி மிகவும் கடாக்ஷித்தருளினார்.  அகையால் அதுமுதல் “பெரியகோயில் நம்பி” என்ற திருநாமம் மாறித் திருவரங்கத்தமுதனார் என்ற திருநாமம் வழங்கத் தொடங்கிற்று. இப்பிரபந்தத்திற்கு ப்ரபந்ந காயத்ரி  என்ற திருநாமமும் அன்றேதொடங்கி நிகழலாயிற்று.

இந்த விருத்தாந்தம் சிறிது மாறுபாடாகவும் சொல்லப்படுவதுண்டு; எங்கனெ யெனின்;- அமுதனார் எம்பெருமானாருடைய நியமனம் பெற்று இப்பிரபந்தம் இட்டருள்வதாக அடையவளைந்தான் திருமதிலுக்கு இவ்வருகேயிருந்த ஒரு தென்னஞ்சோலைத் திருமண்டபத்தில் வீற்றிருந்து பட்டோலைக் கொண்டிருக்கும் போது, அவ்வளவில் எம்பெருமானார் அழகியமனவாளனது நியமனத்தினால் ஆழ்வான், ஆண்டான், எம்பார் முதலிய அந்தரங்கசிஷ்யர்களோடு அவ்விடத்தேயெழுந்தருள அப்போது “செழுந்திரைப்பாற்கடல்” என்ற நூற்றைந்தாம்பாசுரம் தலைக்கட்டி, “இருப்பிடம் வைகுந்தம்” என்ற பாசுரம் எழுதவேண்டிய தருணமாயிருந்ததென்றும், அது முதலான மூன்று பாசுரங்களும் எம்பெருமானார் திருமுன்பே தொடுக்கப்பட்டன வென்றும், பிறகு அரங்கேற்றியானபின் “இந்த விசேஷத்துக்கு ஸ்மாரகமாக இப்பிரபந்தத்திற்கு மாத்திரம் சாற்றுப் பாசுரங்கள் மூன்றாயிருக்கவேணும்” என்று ஆழ்வான் நியமித்தருளினாரென்றும், ஆனதுபற்றியே மற்றைப் பிரபந்தங்கட்கு இரண்டு பாசுரம் சாற்றாயிருப்பதுபோலல்லாமல் இதற்கு மூன்று பாசுரம் சாற்றாக ஸம்ப்ரதாயம் நிகழ்கின்றதென்றும்..

Thirukural And Thiruvaaimozhi – Shri.Balaji Sundarrajan..

November 20, 2010

Our Kaarimaaran says (Ref : 5.3.4)
“Ooravar Kauvai eruvittu Annai Sol-Neer-maduthu”

Thiru-Valluvar uses this Same Word , Same lining without any
change :
Thirukural – ( Alar-Arivurutal Athikaaram )
“Ooravar Kauvai eruvaaga Annai Sol Neeraaga Neelum in-noi”
Another example Ref : 5.3.10 “Yaam madal oornthum Aali
yankai-piraan-udai….”

Thirukural – Alar-Arivurutal “Thaam vendin nalkuvar kathalar
Yaam vendum Kauvai yedukkum iv-voor.”

FAMOUS PAASURAM !! (KILL THE I,MINE FROM YOUR MOUTH)

THIRU-VAAI-MOZHI – Ref 1.2 “ Neer numathu yendrivai- Vare muthal
maithu Irai saermin ..
Uyirku athan nae nirai Yillay !!! “
Thirukural also uses Same wording & same Meaning ! No Change !!!

Thiru-Kural ==========
“Yaan Yenathu Yennuj Serukku-aruppaaan Vaanorkkum uyarntha ulagam pugum”

Entire “Nedumaarku Adimai” (Ref 8.10.X) can be
summarised as emphasizing bhagavatha sambandam !!!
Thirukural: =======
This matches with “Sitrinam Seraamai” Athikaaram
(10 kurals). I will use one kural.

” Nilath-Iyalvaan Neer thirinthu Aatragum MAantharku
Inath-iyal-va Thaagum Arivu”

In this example, The essence of Good (company)
association is emphasized and elaborated in classic 10
kurals.
Let us take first Paasuram Uyar-vara Uyar-Nalam (Ref :1.1.1)
” Thuyar aru sudar adi Tholuthu Yelu yen mananey ”
same meaning implied by valluvar

Thirukural – First Athikaaram

“Thanakku-uvamai illathaan thaal sernth-tharkku allal
Manak kavalai maatral arithu” Another example.
“Eedum Yeduppum iL Easan Maadu vidaathu Yen Mananey” Ref 1.7

Kural – (First Athikaaram)
“Venduthal Vendaamai Ilaan adi sernthaarkku…. Yaandum
idumbai Ila”

Thiruvaaimozhi Ref 1.2

“Odunga Avan kan Odunga Yellam Vidum pinnum Aakkai vidumpoluthu Yeannay”
Thirukural: ( 2 Kurals. Same Meaning !)

“Saarbu unarnthu Saarbu Keda Olukin Matru-Alithuch Saar Tharaa Saar tharu Noi”

“Patruka Patru Atraan Patrinai Ap-Patrai Patruka Patru Vidarku”
This time .., message is stolen from Pongum parivu azhwar
(Periazhwar) !

Thirukural :
========“Aiyathin Neengi thelin-thaarkku vaiyathin Vaana Naniya thudaithu”

Periazhwar Thirumozhi :

“Ak-karai Yennum Manathak Kadalul Alunthi un per-arulaal Ik-karai Yeri
Ilaithiruntheynai….. “ Ref:5.3.7

Sutram : “Thannai Kandaal Paambai Kandaap poley”

Who is a Mumukshu ?

He who sees himself as Snake is Mumukshu !!!

DERIVED FROM THIRU-VAAI-MOZHI !!!

Thiru-vaai-Mozhi : Ref ; 10.7.9, 10.7.10, 10.7.11

“Vaazhi Manamey Kaividael .., Udalum Uyirum Manga Wottaey !”
“Manga Wottu–un-Maa-Maa-yei-yei” 10.7.10
“Maana-aangaara manam keda 10.7.11

(Reference P.B.A Swamy Vyakyaanam ). This paasuram emphasize
that One has to give up the desire in this Alukku body &
Abandon
the body and Catch hold of sar-ves-waran (Anthima-smaranai).

Thiru-Kural same meaning,wordings are easy to remember !)
========
“Matrum Thodar Paadu Evan kol pirappu-arukkal Utraarkku
Udambum Mikai”

.) Our Saasthraas says ” Jnaana Naan Moksha:ha”
Only through knowledge you can attain Moksham.

Same implied(Complimented) by Thiruvalluvar

“Katru-Eendu Mei-porul kandaar Thalai paduvar Matru-Eendu vaaraa Neri”
Classic Kural & Shri vaishnavism:-

ENTIRE SHRI VAISHNAVISM CAN BE STARTED WITH ONE(OR SAY PUT UNDER ONE ROOF) THIRU-KURAL

PIRAPPU-YENNUM PEY-THAMAI NEENGA SIRAPPU YENNUM
SEM-PORUL KAAN-BATHU ARIVU”

Thiru-voi-mozhi: “aRavanai Azhip paDai andhaNanai..” 1-7-1; The Lord who grants anything to the devotees even if they wish for things other than Him and the Lord with SudharsanAzhwAr indicating the difficulties of the devotees will be removed.
  
ThirukkuRAL ” aRavAzhi andhaNan thAL sEArndhArkallAl piRavAzhi nEndhal aridhu” kaDavuL vAzhthu 8.
 
Those who do not fall unto the Divine feet of the Lord Almighty cannot swim and cross the cycle of births.
 
It may be observed that the  terms ‘aRavan-Azhi and andhaNan‘  are stikingly similar.
 
Further, Sri ANDAL likened the Lord to a ship to cross the samsAram.” thunbak kaDal pukku-GOvindhan enbadhOar thOni peRAdhuzhalginREAn“5-4; nAchiyAr thirumozhi
 
 
Sri nam-AzhwAr also likens this difficult cycle of births as ‘nEndhum thuyarp piRavi” 2-8-2-thiru-voi-mozhi.
 

Sri Varaha Perumaan Mahimai..

November 19, 2010

Avathara palankal moontrum..saathu parithraanam thushda nikrakam and darma sthaabanam.. many avathaaram.. dasa avathaaram.. meenodu..kalkiyum aanaan.. madsya koorma varaka narasimha vamana thiru vikraman parasurama rama bala rama krishna and kalki..ajayamaana pahuthaa vijaayathe-pirappili pal pirappum yeduththavan..we have also gone thro many births..karmam adiyaaka..rakasyam geethai 4th athyaayathil arulukiraan He knows all. we do not recollect previous births..it is better that we do not.. yoki can perhaps. thiru kala yagjaraay palar irunthu irukiraarkal..

bakthars-poorna avathaaram.. varaka most important.. ubadesithaar boomaa devi.. varaka puraanam..Battar aruliyathu madsya himself in ocean.. if it gets out water can not survive.. koorma -manthra parvatham is already pressing Him. he is stuck under/ narasimhar has two -one above and one below.. kaluththukku mel vera maari pesuvaar.. mana vaakku kai moontrum ontraka irukkanum..mind is close to athma which is close to paramaathmaa-manas is close to athma /vamanan- cheated maha bali tiny feet vaiththu kettu periya adiyaal alanthaan He grew faster and measured with His own feet..kidu kidu yentru valarnthu alanthaar/ parasu raman -afraid to go near ..dasaradar pleaded but could not convince can not show mercy/ rama chakaravarthu– sunnaambu yaanai mel erukiravan yaanai mel iruppavan idam thaan kedppaar..suseelan raman..kukan sukreevan vibeeshanan -anaivarum avar kula thalaivarkal thaane.. eivar aanom yeluvar aanom yentraalum..true sowseelyam kannan idam common gopikal idaiyar kooda palakinaan..bala raman drinks a lot/ yamunai nathiyai kooda kooppittaar course maaththi naar//andaal says maale seyyum manaalanarai yelaa poykal uraippaan. liking to saying lies..spoke to Arjuna- seraching and researching geethai artham even now.. learned ones are confused..kim karma kim akarma -yentru theriyaamal.. only he knows. smiling face udan pesuvaan.. kashdamana pechai pesa siriththu kondu pesanum..baya kruth baya naasana irandum avan thaan inburum iv vilaiyaattu udaiyaan..smiling ans srippaay sirippaar/ sambala uyarvu kedkka -sirikkum pothu yenney vaanka koni pai kondu poka siriththaan appo sambalavu uyarvu kettathu pola..yethukku sirithaar yentru theriyaathu.. krishna snaps ties-mathurai punya boomi. thirumbi poka villaiye.. orey iravil ponaan.gokula 10 varusham irunthaan meendum poka villai uththavar anuppinaan ..ujjain-katru kondaan aaya kalaikal 64 saantheebini idam. 64 naal kaliththu ponaan/ dvaarakai nirnayithaan/ inthra prastham ponaan.. pirabaasa shthrathil irunthu thaniyaaka than udai sothikku yelunthu arulinaar..kalki yet to happen..427000 years kaliththu vara pokiraan..only varahar..krutha yukathil muthal einthum adutha irandum thvaabara yukam ..

resqued boomaa deviyai kaathaar pola- yena solaayinum. gnaap piraanai allaal illai naan kanda nallathuve..sanjayan-krishna arjunan sernthu irukkira idam victory wealth sri maka lashmi mathir mama -his opinion ..chathur yukam cycle.. all avatharams happen repeatedly..puraanam baagavaththil varakam muthalil solvaar..

hiranyaashaan..hiranya kasibu-curse by brahma kumararkal..jaya visjayar thadukka..sanaka sanath kumaaraathikal saabam ida..thrice pirakka/after third birth will come back/ravana kumba karnna/ sisubaala dantha varthan.. moral story-any one can err we have to correct..swaayambu manu-create panna boomi venumey-creation began just now- where did hiranyaashan come from ?..brahma was created by Brahmam ..brahma starts -manushya deva asura varkkam pithrus/ demons asuras-gross created.. swaayambu manu creates details.. man paanaikkukali man pola.. hiran yaashan was created by this gross process..pasi thoorthu kidantha paar makalukku.

boar can walk on earth and marshy land swim in samuthram..no compromise on His aauspicios qualities..takes the form still formless ajobi san..slokam.. aamaiyaana kesane- kesavan yentha avathaaraththilum. rooba laavanya ovthaaryam yellaa avathaarankalilum undu..boomaa thevi was in agony.. athanaal thaan ivanum..maana milaa pantriyaay..maaya maan kitte ontrum poka villai..radshathvathvam maraikka mudiya villai yeesvarathvam maraiththu kondaane ivan..appan .yeitril konda naale. spuda pathma loshanan-rishikalum munikalum -pundaree kaashan ever..meru pebbles pola irunthathaam. avallavu makaa varaaka roobam..perum kelalaar–nam mel orunke pirala vaiththaar..kadaasha palan yellaam avar pakkam vilunthathu..kalan karai vilakkam light house pola..silambin idai sirai paral pol periya meru kanna kannappa..anklets noice meru ..kottidai vaiththu aruliya komaam kandeer..yethuve yen pani yennaathu athuve aad seyyum yenkiraar aalvaar..parivathil yeesanai paadi pathikaththil..yethuve yen panni yentru kettu konde irukkaamal aal seyya venum..

bigform so thaat boomi is too light/malai kadal kooda asaiyaamal irukkum padi ..thiru aakaaram kulunka nila madanthai idanthu. koottidai konda komaan..idathu thiru kaiyil relax panna right thiru kai thindu pola.. avalin thiruvadikalai namakku kaatti kodukiraar..lakshmi varaaka perumaal..master servant role..Pankuni utharam thaayaar pleasingly stands Nam perumaal stands for carrying out instructions.divya thambathies..ninaippathaiye requests panuvaal. athaiye panni mudippaan annalum nokkinaar avalum nokkinaal..pirinthavar koodinaal pesavum vendumo -kambar..abimatha anurooba thaambathyam..

varaha purana is born now as He speaks to Her.. i am relaxed still disturbed.. my puthraas puthrees are in samsaara saakaram we have to resque them preach me so that I can teach them..She incornates as Andal and gives us Thirupaavai.. sva sa keerthanam..sing in praise of mr to purify their tongues/ bow down legs walk kaikalaal thoo malar thoovi/ manasaal ninainthu moontrum focus panni/ vaakinaal karumam thannal manaththinaal sraththai thannal- dedication.. Thiru mankai aalvaar vedkkai meethoora vaanki vilunkinerkku..subaasrayam avan..rechanalise our pulankal on Him hrushi kesan avan.. nam organs avan control pannuvaan..vilunkinerkku inyavaare..

intro thiru aadi pooram yemakkaaha antro avathariththaal..foster kulanthai-einchu kudikku oru santhithiyaay ..pinchaay paluththaal.vaayinaal paadi thoo malar thoovi tholuthu manaththinaal sinthikka- inthiriyaas created by Him. expecting us to use for His benefit..simplest means to control and reach Him.. kesavam .murairi thejo bajas sritharam paanithvam samasthuka-mukuntha maalai.. paatham kacha to wards to Him..if not done you have wasted these..neel naanakam sutri.. kelaa sevi alla.. thiru mangai aalvaar pathikam muluvathum.. ottai paambu puththu kuulum ullathu kaathu kaathu kaathe illai bakavath pirabaavam illa vidil..

moontrum sernthaal bakthi aarambikkum para bakthi para gjnaana parama bakthi samsleshanathil thariththum visleshaththil thariyaamaiyum ..bakthi valaranum..

nama kamala padraadsha-maka pirabo–nithya anushdaanamum sollum varaaha puraanam..sraartha vithi.. gaya shethram palkuni nathi karaiyil..at least once in a life time..rithyaa rishi-sraartham varusham thorum panni next day brahmana bojanam..gayayil pinda pirathaanam pannanum. exclusive statements.. ethu pann athuvumpannanum..listen to their words thanthai sol mikka manthram illai thaayil sirantha kovi illai/ yennai.. ninaiye majanaay pera peranum dasarathan..yel pirappum nedum thol venthey..gjaana anushdaanam pola karmavum mukyam..sruthi smirthi mamay vaakyam.. violators are my enimies..avaishnava abakthar aakiraan..asaasthram -asurar thaan pannuvaarkal..karma pannaa vidil bakthan aakum chance vittu viduvom..karma yokam is  reqd to purify..min qualification.. hall tichet pola..gaya asuran-raithyar rishi talks to brahma kumararkal-his lotus feet always on him 5 yojana holi ..pithru saasthram-on the day you are in gaya..50 kms radiyar ashaya vada -pindam ..motherkku mattum 16 baals of pindam koduppom..recite manthraas-garbamtharkuum patta paadu.. pola pala thukkum vaarthai yethirthu irunthathu..avale kovil namakku.. gaya ponaal amma perumai therinthu kollanum. pona pinbu thaan gaya .kan ketta pin thaan soorya namas kaaram.. gaya sraartham aana pinbu bathri brahma kabaalam-idar keduththa thiru vaalan..bathri visaal-brahma kabaalam pinam vethankalil illai customay practise..gathaatharan..

sraartha vithi..srathai udan seyyanum. kaalamum mukyam..kuthaba kaalam boomi warmaaka irukkanum..stomach starts feel hungry-ku thaba kaalam..preethi adaiya oru naal pannanum.. vetha nool piraayam nooru..aamai hiranya srrartham yenbaar.. well qualified first /if short coming second type.. settle to last pannuvathu thappu..three vasthram thaanam udathudan pannanum/paarvana homam.. cook and offer to them/third dilution raw vegetables/ aduththu hand ful of yell/ aduththu seven grains yellu/think you are offering to me thro pithrus..grains kooda illaa vidil pasu vin nekkai thadavi koduththaal pothum..ithu thirpthi paduthattum yentra piraarthanai udan/island -ashda thik baalarkal naanku pakkam paarthu plead to them ..accept my cry as sraartham..

pooja vithiyum varaaka puranam solkirathu..pathram pushbam–purity devotion mattume venum..not satisfied with 100s of yagnams /i can not be bought by maney. koodaarai paasuram.. mulankai valiaara-previous day husband and wife talk about this one two / ghee sukar/ cooked in hot milk, almonds cashews niraiya pesi pesi.. spend the whole night talking .no money.. well water thulasi paasuram. kovaivaayaal poruttu.. poosum saanthu yen nenjame..nenjame cream-thiru vaay moli solle maalai/ folding hands deeba kaaraththi/ pesineerkale -athuve vayirai nirabi vittathu ulakam unda peru vaayaan devotion udan pesum poluthe vayiru nirambi vittathu..viruthan sanjayan idam thruthraashdran-kannanai kodi koduththu kodiyile vaankalaam..you are blind internally.. anna poorna kumbaath-open dors light lamps poorna kumbam thaan ..sprinkle sri paatha theertham..clean His lotus feet with your tears only way to get Him..bakthi suththamaana manasu thaan venum..yekadasi fasting/ white flower i am happy/offer and take food/ other wise you are consuming pots of paapam..wheat rice products..appam kalantha sitrundi akkaaram paalil kalanthu ..theiva thevaki pulambalil- ilanhathai kulesekarar aruliyathu pola..32 abacharam irukkum panna koodaathu.. theettu aadai/ velai aadfaiyudan thiru aaraathanam pannanum pala aruli irukiraar varaaka puraanaththil..polika polika polika ..

Aalvaar Emberumaanaar, Jeeyar Thiru Vadikale Saranam.

Shri Ubanishathukalil Kathai..

November 19, 2010

Difficult meanings in good package-kathai moolam. uba =close to nishad =palace us.. these take us close to Him..vethas-vethaanthams.. ubanishads .. rik yajur sama artharvana / karma paakam-as per varna  tharma aasramam ..karma -actions and deeds– not jusy papa punyams..results of actions paapa puntam.. actions per say karma karma anushdaanam/ santhyaa vanthanam sraartha bagavath aaraathana polvana vaayavja yagna sena yaakam also karma.. poorva baakam vethas talk about this.. we have to surrender to brahmam.. later part talks about this vethaantham.. both together helps to cross samsaaram.. karma kaandam brahma kaandam.. innumerable .. count less. sareeraka meemaamsa/ brahma soothra .. 4 athyaayam..jaymini-karma kaandam iyatrinaar soothraas.. summaraing.. thus -after that begins.. research in karma brahma kaandam.. meemaamsa reflection of research..karma meemaamsa brahma meemaansam irandum.. mukyam..great study ..inkey anubavam ivatrai therinthu kondaal..20 chapters in all..

uba nishads are many –10 dasa ubanishad ..yeesa, kena ,kada,prasna  munda, maandookya,ththriya itharika  saanthoka..-bruthaaranya -mukya principal ubanishads..experince if we immerse in these..five years reqd to feel happiness..conversations between master.. largest brahthaaranya and saanthoka.. brukath-big preached in forest- sarelite to vedas. santhokya -sama vethathukku.. each one -culminating part of vedas..

thathriya ubanishad -poppular thiru manjanam  pothu solvaarkal..sishaa valli aanantha valli bruku valli naarayana valli.. bruhu valli-  varunan son bruhu-bows down and asks -brahmam yethu yentru kedkka-he thinks lot about him. slowly sthoolaa valiyaay-arunthathi kaatta stars kaatti near kootti poy kaattuvathu pola body-athma-paramaathmaavai kaattum vethamum vathaankalum..sustainer inside–athma– can not sustain ourselves.. para maathmaa purinthu kolkirom..gross body/ aathma/ para aathma sthoola arunthathu nyaayam..

varunam-anantham is brahmam yenkiraar muthalil..annam brahmam..food for all.. we are concerned with this.. son comes closer this way.. think annam is brahman.. can not settle. keeps changing.. nithyam nirvaaka thathvam avan ..annam changes every day.. we can ot live with out Him we can live without annam for some time..smiling father..but for food the world will not survive..from annam al are born all are absorbed .. sustain by annam..brahmam pevades permiates annam athu pola thaan.. naked eyes moolam paarkkalaam..athyathe limit kul saapittaal ok/ illaiyaanaal athu namai saappidum..

it was not complete pancha kosa- annam first /branna maya aduththu..braana vaayu is brahman.. can equate our existance depends on this..eyes ears -potti pancha enthriyankalukkum piraananukkum. yaar ponaal body exist ilaiyo athuve ..brahman pottiyil piraananai sonna kathai..by piraanan al are sustained..pirana vaayuvai control pannukirome– first doubt can get out from another body we can get piraana.. father now changes-manas mind is brahmam..athma vera manas vera -darma bootha gjaana puththi intellect are same..brain is an instrument ..manas karuvi pola thaan.. eye pola think.. to decide puththi is instrument.. manas-thinking.. thinker decider is athmaa..tools matravai yellaam.. athman is knower..varuni now equates manas to brahma..third layer after annam piraanam.. ithilum flaw manas is controllable my instrument can thin wronngly thinks differently can not be brahman..vedas repeat tirelessly..so fond of deciples ..aignaanam aanantham adutha nilai.. etc so on so forth etc erukkaathu.. mis intrerauptions niraiya varum..saasthras never give room for this..in animate jadammanas can not be brahmam.. when we die manas can not think.. vigjaana maya..full of knowledge..happiness satisfaction illaamal vigjaanam yennause this is also innanimate. finally aanantham ..eternal bliss is brahmam.. aanantha valli treies to mreasure the aanantham of brahmam.. yard stick with familiar thing.. manushya aanantham vaiththu..

yuva best aanantham..healthy youth/ digest anything..kallaiyum jeeranikka/10 people 10 hrs pannuvathai 1 hrs pannubavan..asana seelathvam.. aaseervaatha boothathvam..ubadesam petru kolla .role model..1mr full of gold and diamond koduthaalum kooda kedppaan. thinks and smiles..100 times bigger .devas/indras/brahaspathi/piraja bathi/ 100 times more thaanaa brahmanukku no no ..ONE ATTRIBUTE IS IM MEASURABLE..aanantham is brahmam he accepted now..annamaya piraanamaya..konjam konjamaaka vyabnthu kandu kondaan.. sthoolaa arunthathi nyaayam..infinite can not be measured by finite thing..

brahmam is not only aanantha maya.. yellaam avan thaan..does not mean that he is not anna maya.. brahmam is not annam alone.. all statements are valid..grow as much food as possible.. distribute them thani oruvanukku unavu ilai yenil jahathai alithiduvom..vethaas are like sahasram parents..feed all .virumthombal..feed those in need.. pakalilvilakku yerika koodaathu..arms to skilled persons is waste.. feeding after square meals is waste..do not waste food..yeriya koodaathu..annan na ninthiyaathu..ninthikka koodaathu..well wisher for one and all vethaas ..experiance that eternal bliss.. sama kaanam haavu udan mudiyum.. aham annaathu.poorvam..you are that annam yentraar ippo..aham annam  aham annam aham annam aham annaathaha- i am the one who eats the food. brahmam enjoys my food is His happiness..vaari kondu.. munnam paariththu yennai mutrum parukinaan kaar okkum kaadkarai appan..sakarai ponkal pola mulunka ivar yenni irukkum pothu, avan galped aalvaar !. unnai vilunkuvan yentru.. tennai mutra parukinaan..undittaay ini undu oliyaay..mature in thoghts to realise this..bruhu valli story paarthom..anaathi apavrusheyam ubanishad-rapt attention udan ketteerkal..never parallel-seyya marai thannudane sernthu vaalanum-Maa munikal.. gjaanathaale modsham..

katho ubanishad-yama-nachikethas conversation..his father – kauthamar -yagjam pannum poluthu..cow lean..thaanam kodukka..selavu vethilai santhanam vaankuvathu pola. pottukavaa vaichu kodukkavaa.. sharethe best you have..useless cow go thaanam kodukka makan kobiththu kondu..whom are you going to give to..miruthya thevathaikku- kobathudan solla.. yama pattanam neraaka ponaan.. yama was out of town. three nights fasted there..none could feed him. yama came and was shocked. blessed long life..why have I come here..boon yenna venum.. doubt irukku theerppaay yentraan..I am granting the boon myself.. return -father will not be angry..create agni-in your name nachiketh agni..doubt clear pannu..meendum kettaan..

rebirths- irukka illaiyaa -renka ramanuja muni commentary..vaithikan ivan is there rebirth–bad cow koduththaal narakam povaan yentraar..so he does not have doubt about this.. santhehamum puriyavillai..athma  -svarkam narakam pithru loka kaivalya loka vaikunda -asthi naayamasthi..sreyastha-beautiful qn..material pleasures.. eternal pleasures. irandu..vidya avidyaa..divine knowledge– studies not talking about brahmam are all wasted knowledge seruppu kuththa ..abstainfrom these..veedu mun mutravum veedu seythu–what ever you are doing vittu vidungo pola..muttravum veedu..brahmathaiye patranum.. yeesvaran olinthavar radshakan aala yenbathai ..sonnom..kaikeyi vali ravanan karna rashikka villai.. karna wrong advice..draupathikku avan thaane rashiththaan..pirakalaathanaiyum/wealth save pannumaa–brahma vithyai thaan help pannum..iththaal thaan amrtham kittum..thabas focussed on this ..that patham sri vaikundam..nachi keth first you should know who you are.. left old body.. who am I -lucky to be in that position..kado ubaanishad–na jaayathey-na anya maane -geethaiyilum sonnaan .inside body nanaikka arukkavo mudiyaathu.. never born never dies/pirappili nithya ssavatha/ancient/karmamum neeyum anaathi karmam ponathum adaivaay.. not driable burnable..athmavum kill pannaathu adutha slokamum geethaiyil..think of one abode of vishnu..nachi kethas-where is vaikundam is this the way. eager to know qualities kettaan aniyilum ani/ makatho makiyaan.. periyathilum periyathu. pillaikku puriya villai..athmaa kukaayaam-thaarakam and permiates.. narayana vyaabakan anthaka and pakusya.. holds us and leads us..around us . sarva vibu..omni present..holds and enters us..akaditha kadana saamarthiyam..nal kuravum selvamum.pal vaiyum. narakum svarkamum aay/vel pakaiyum nadppum paranthavan.. contrast  things are got toghether..aakasam pola vyaabiththum arasan pola nyamiththum..vyabakathvam niyanthruthvam..

sreyas is important–how to reach that place..pesinaar piravi neethaar -adaiya mudiyaathu .. nammaal mudiyaathu.. He chooses some and takes to His place.. thena lapyaka–He opens every thing to chosen few.. rusi vilaivikiraan avane..are you one yamanai kettaan naanum try pannukiren yenkiraan yaman we will try toghether..mirthyu thevathai thannai patri solkiraan..anaivarum His food.we are consumed by Him.. i am only instrument for Him..piralayaththil yellorum vaayil pukunthom. uooru kaay pola yennaiyum pottu kolvaan..vigjaanam mind use panni ,chariout is body wisdom  mind rains kadivaalam..archiraathi maarkam poy anku adaiyanum thath vishno parama patham..inthiriyankal- artham objects of pleasure are strong- inthriyankal stronger.. manas is stronger of the two/kandu kettu stronger than eys..puthi stronger than manas.. inthiriyas artha manas puthi- athma is strongest in line.. know this formalaa..eys are fixed only one objective..anushdamaana-purushaka– un ulle irukiraan brahmaa– mathya aathma– he has accepted to be inside us..

ratham seel sathai namakke paarkka pidikkaathu-ukanthu Avan irukiraan..loves to be there..He knows that one day we will ride the chariot to reach Him..helping hand vendaam thamb sizil avan ankushda..vaikunda vaasamum vendaam nee inku iruppathu therinthaal. ullathu veliyathaanal kaakkay otta aal illai..atharkullum ukanthu nammai correct panna irukiraan..recognise him.to go there I am not needed.. yaman says to nishikes.. nithyo nithyaanaam- waiting to grand us-eternal/yeko bakunaam/ kettathai yellaam kodukiraan.. na thathra soorya chandra …right exit yethu..101 nadi visesham thinner than nerve brahma ranthram.. all those reaching vaikunda brahma ranthram breaks open.. 101 sushumnaa naadi veliyil pokanum..sathancha-100 solli ithai yekaa naadi yenkirathu saasthram..

hartha roobi anthar yaami itharkku thaan yeduththaan.. light yenku irunthu varum.. sooriyan chandran nadshathram agni yethum kodukka mudiyaathu minnal kooda avan mu twinkle thaan original light avan thaan.. nachi kethas -avan idam kadan vaanki ivai oli vidukintrana..lusture are lent by brahmam. athma is full of gjaanam jothi roobam..archiraathi markam yethu kettaan–go back satisfy your father.. He will direct-12 lokams on the way  archis muthal lokam/day time/ sukla pacham/utharayana/suns rays are vehicle-kalkandu saappittu thaan thiththikkum yentru therinthu kollanum..year fifth/vaayu sixth/ 7th soorya/ 8th chandra loka/as per astronomy-chandran above- 9th vidyuth loka/abimaani thevathaa solkiraar places of these devathaas..vithyuth -lighting god as well as aathivaakaka-one who leads us ..varuna /indra/ sathya loka/soolnthu aalnthu akantru uyarntha mudivil perum paal –moola pirakruthi–virajai kadanthu subtle body shed panni vittu/ pirakruthi sambantham atru..aprakrutha mandalam puhuvom.. suththa sathva mayam thaan..Thiru maa mani mandabam pukunthu..nithyar mukthar invites us there..tears roll down as we see Him..vananki vananki pokukirom..baagavathai saha– adiyavar kulankalodu -beethi payam poy preethi udan.. no short coming -vaikunda-aathi sesha paryantham.. where have you been all along-please be happy that I have come at least now. barathar hanumaan akroorar parish kariththa kuru maa mani poon thikalum thiru maarbaal aalinkanam petrom..Blissful only aham annam nasa punar aavarthathe ..

Destination sonneer vali sollum. avane ubaayam..

Aalvaar Emberumaanaar Jeeyar Thiru Vadikale Saranam..

The Mandukya Upanishad-Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli..

November 19, 2010

Om ! O gods, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;

May we see with our eyes what is auspicious;

May we, while offering our praise to gods

With our bodies strong of limbs,

Enjoy the life which the gods are pleased to grant us.

May Indra of great fame be well disposed to us;

May the all-knowing (or immensely wealthy) Pusha be propitious to us;

May Garuda, the vanquisher of miseries, be well pleased with us;

May Brihaspati grant us all prosperity.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

1. All this is the letter Om. A vivid explanation of this (is begun). All that is past, present, and future is but Om. Whatever transcends the three periods of time, too, is Om.

2. All this is certainly Brahman. This Self is Brahman. This Self, as such, is possessed of four quarters.

3. (The Self) seated in the waking state and called Vaisvanara who, possessed of the consciousness of the exterior, and seven limbs and nineteen mouths, enjoys the gross objects, is the first quarter.

4. (The Self) seated in the state of dream and called Taijasa who, possessed of the consciousness of the interior, and seven limbs and nineteen mouths, enjoys the subtle objects, is the second quarter.

5. Where the sleeper desires not a thing of enjoyment and sees not any dream, that state is deep sleep. (The Self) seated in the state of deep sleep and called Prajna, in whom everything is unified, who is dense with consciousness, who is full of bliss, who
is certainly the enjoyer of bliss, and who is the door to the knowledge (of the preceding two states), is the third quarter.

6. This is the Lord of all; this is omniscient; this is the in-dwelling controller (of all); this is the source and indeed the origin and dissolution of all beings.

7. The Fourth is thought of as that which is not conscious of the internal world, nor conscious of the external world, nor conscious of both the worlds, nor dense with consciousness, nor simple consciousness, nor unconsciousness, which is unseen,
actionless, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable, indescribable, whose proof consists in the identity of the Self (in all states), in which all phenomena come to a cessation, and which is unchanging, auspicious, and non-dual. That is the Self; that is to be
known.

8. That same Self, from the point of view of the syllable, is Om, and viewed from the stand point of the letters, the quarters are the letters, and the letters are the quarters. The letters are a, u and m.

9. Vaisvanara seated in the waking state is the first letter a, owing to its all-pervasiveness or being the first. He who knows thus verily accomplishes all longings and becomes the first.

10. Taijasa seated in the dream is u, the second letter (of Om), owing to the similarity of excellence or intermediate position. He who knows thus verily advances the bounds of his knowledge and becomes equal (to all) and none who is not a knower of Brahman is born in his family.

11. Prajna seated in the state of deep sleep is m, the third letter (of Om), because of his being the measure or the entity wherein all become absorbed. He who knows thus measures all this and absorbs all.

12. That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth, beyond apprehension through ordinary means, the cessation of the phenomenal world, the auspicious and the non-dual. Thus Om is certainly the Self. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self.

Om ! O gods, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;

May we see with our eyes what is auspicious;

May we, while offering our praise to gods

With our bodies strong of limbs,

Enjoy the life which the gods are pleased to grant us.

May Indra of great fame be well disposed to us;

May the all-knowing (or immensely wealthy) Pusha be propitious to us;

May Garuda, the vanquisher of miseries, be well pleased with us;

May Brihaspati grant us all prosperity.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Here ends the Mandukyopanishad, as contained in the Atharva-Veda.

MANDUKYA KARIKA OF GAUDAPADA

I. AGAMA PRAKARANA

Invocation

1. I bow to that Brahman who pervades the entire world by a diffusion of the rays of knowledge that pervade all things that are moving and unmoving, who after having enjoyed (in the waking state) all objects of enjoyment that are gross, and who again, after having drunk (in the state of dream) all objects born of desire and illumined by the intellect, reposes while experiencing bliss Himself and making us all enjoy by (His own) Maya, and who, through an attribution of Maya, is the fourth in number, and is supreme, immortal and unborn.

2. May he, the Self of the universe, dwelling in the fourth state, protect us, who, after having enjoyed (in the waking state) the gross enjoyments resulting from virtue and vice, enjoys again (in the dream state) the other subtle objects which are created by His own intelligence and illumined by His own light, and who, after having absorbed all of them gradually into Himself and having abandoned all distinctions, becomes devoid of attributes.

I-1. Visva having exterior consciousness is all-pervading, whereas Taijasa has interior consciousness, and Prajna, similarly is dense with consciousness. Thus the One alone is regarded in there ways.

I-2. Visva is seen in the right eye which is its seat of experience, whereas Taijasa is inside the mind and Prajna is in the space inside the heart. In these three ways he dwells in the body.

I-3. Visva is ever the enjoyer of the gross, taijasa of the subtle, and, similarly, Prajna of bliss. Know (therefore) the enjoyment in three ways.

I-4.The grass satisfies Visva, the subtle satisfies Taijasa and, similarly, gladness satisfies Prajna. Know (therefore) the satisfaction in three ways.

I-5. He who knows these two, viz that which is shown to be the thing to be enjoyed and that which is (shown) to be the enjoyer, in the three states, does not become affected, even though enjoying.

I-6. It is a settled fact that coming into being can be said only of positive entities that exist. Prana creates all; and Purusha creates the conscious beings separately.

I-7. Those who think of creation hold it as the manifestation of God’s power; while others regard creation as same as dream and illusion.

I-8. Creation is the mere will of the Lord, say those who thought out well the (process of) creation, but those who rely upon time hold that the birth of beings is from time.

I-9. Some others hold that creation is for the enjoyment (of God), yet others say that it is for His sport. But it is the very nature of the resplendent Being, (for) what desire can he have whose desire is all fulfilled?

I-10. Turiya, the Lord powerful to bring about the cessation of all sorrows, is imperishable, is regarded as the non-dual Lord of all entities, and is all-pervading.

I-11. Visva and Taijasa are regarded as conditioned by cause and effect. Prajna is conditioned by cause. But these two (viz cause and effect) do not exist in Turiya.

I-12. Prajna knows neither himself nor others, neither truth nor untruth. But that Turiya is ever the all seer.

I-13. The non-cognition of duality is common to both Prajna and Turiya. Prajna is possessed of sleep of the nature of cause, whereas that sleep does not exist in Turiya.

I-14. The first two (viz Visva and taijasa) are associated with dream and sleep, but Prajna (is associated) with sleep devoid of dream. The knowers of Brahman do not see either sleep or dream in Turiya.

I-15. Dream belongs to him who perceives wrongly and sleep to him who knows not Reality. When the false notion of these two comes to an end, the state of Turiya is attained.

I-16. When the individual Self, sleeping under the influence of Maya that is beginningless, is awakened, then he realises (Turiya that is) unborn, sleepless, dreamless and non-dual.

I-17. If a phenomenal world were to exist, it should, no doubt, cease to be. This duality is but an illusion; in reality it is non-dual.

I-18. The notion (such as the teacher, the taught and the scripture) will disappear, if anyone had imagined it. This notion (of the teacher etc.,) is for the purpose of instruction. When (the Truth is) realised, duality does not exist.

I-19. When the identity of Visva with the letter a is meant, ie., when the identity of Visva with the letter a is admitted, the common feature of being the first is seen to be obvious, as also the common feature of all-pervasiveness.

I-20. In the event of Taijasa being apprehended as identical with u, ie, when the identity of taijasa with the letter u is admitted, the common feature of superiority is seen clearly and so, too, is the intermediate position.

I-21. In the even of Prajna being apprehended as identical with m, ie, when the identity of Prajna with the letter m is admitted, the common feature of being the measure is seen to be obvious and so too is the common feature of absorption.

I-22. He who knows conclusively the common similarities in the three states, becomes worthy of worship and adoration by all beings, and is also a great sage.

I-23. The letter a leads to Visva and the letter u to Taijasa. Again, the letter m (leads) to Prajna. For the one who is free from letters, there is no attainment.

I-24. Om should be known, quarter by quarter. It is beyond doubt that the quarters (of the self) are the letters (of Om). Having known Om, quarter by quarter, one should not think of anything else.

I-25. Let the mind be fixed on Om, for Om is Brahman, the fearless. For him who us ever fixed on Om, there is no fear anywhere.

I-26. Om is indeed the lower Brahman; Om is (also) regarded as the higher (Brahman). Om is without a cause, without interior and exterior, without effect, and is undecaying.

I-27. Om is indeed the beginning, middle and end of everything. Having known Om thus, one attains immediately the identity with the self.

I-28. One should know Om to be the Lord dwelling in the hearts of all. having known the all-pervasive Om, the intelligent one does not grieve.

I-29. He by whom is known Om which is without measure and possessed of infinite magnitude and which is auspicious, since all duality ceases in it, is a sage and none else

II. VAITATHYA PRAKARANA

II-1. The wise declare the unreality of all objects in a dream because they are located within (the body) and (also) because they are confined within a limited space.

II-2. Since the period is short, one does not go to the place and see. Also, every dreamer, when awakened, does not exist in that place (of dream).

II-3. The non-existence of the chariot etc., (seen in dream) is heard of (in the sruti) from the point of view of reasoning. The knowers of Brahman say that the unreality thus arrived at (through reasoning) is revealed (by the sruti) in the context of dream.

II-4. There is the unreality of the objects even in the waking state. Just as they are unreal in dream, so also are they unreal in the waking state. the objects (in dream) differ owing to the location within the body owing to the spatial limitation.

II-5. The wise say that the states of waking and dream are same, in view of the similarity of the objects (seen in both the states) and in view of the well-known ground of inference.

II-6. That which is non-existent in the beginning and at the end is definitely so in the present (ie., in the middle). The objects, though they bear the mark of the unreal, appear as though real.

II-7. Their utility is opposed in dream. therefore, on the ground of having a beginning and an end, they are regarded as definitely unreal.

II-8. (To see) unusual things (in dream) is indeed an attribute of the dreamer just as it is in the case of those who dwell in heaven. These he perceives by going there, even as one, well instructed, does in this world.

II-9. Even in dream what is imagined by the mind (chitta) within is unreal, while what is grasped outside by the mind is real. But both these are seen to be unreal.

II-10. Even in the waking state what is imagined by the mind within is unreal, while what is grasped by the mind outside is real. It is reasonable to hold both these to be unreal.

II-11. If the objects of both the states be unreal, who comprehends all these and who again imagines them?

II-12. The self-luminous Self, by Its own Maya imagines Itself by Itself and It alone cognises all objects. This is a settled fact of the Vedanta-texts.

II-13. The Lord imagined in diverse forms the worldly objects existing in the mind. With the mind turned outward, He imagines diversely permanent objects (as also impermanent things). Thus the Lord imagines.

II-14. Things that exist within as long as the thought lasts and things that are external and conform to two points of time, are all imaginations alone. The distinction (between them) is caused by nothing else.

II-15. The objects that seem to be unmanifested within the mind, and those that seem to be manifested without, are all mere imaginations, their distinction being the difference in the sense-organs.

II-16. First of all, He imagines the Jiva (individual soul) and then (He imagines) various objects, external and internal. As is (a man’s) knowledge, so is (his) memory of it.

II-17. Just as a rope, the nature of which is not known in the dark, is imagined to be things such as a snake, a water-line, etc., so too is the Self imagined (as various things).

II-18. As when the (real nature of the) rope is known, the illusion ceases and the rope alone remains in its non-dual nature, so too is the ascertainment of the Self.

II-19. (The Self) is imagined as infinite objects like prana etc. This is the Maya of the luminous One by which It itself is deluded, (as it where).

II-20. The knowers of Prana hold Prana (to be the cause of the world), which the knowers of the elements regard the elements (to be the cause). Qualities (are the cause), say the knowers of quality, whereas the knowers of category consider categories (to be so).

II-21. The knowers of the quarters (such as Visva) hold the quarters (to be the cause), while the knowers of sensory objects regard sensory objects (to be the cause). the worlds (are real), say the knowers of the worlds, and the knowers of the gods consider the gods (to be so).

II-22. Those well-versed in the Vedic lore hold the Vedas (to be real), while the sacrificers subscribe it to the sacrifices. Those who know the enjoyer hold the enjoyer (to be real), whereas those familiar with the enjoyable things think of them (to be real).

II-23. Subtlety (is real), say those who know the subtlety, while those familiar with the gross regard it to be so. (Reality is) possessed of a form, say the worshippers of God with form, while the worshippers of the formless (hold the reality) to be formless.

II-24. The astrologers hold time (to be real), while the knowers of directions consider directions (to be so). Those stiff in debate affirm that disputations (lead to the reality), whereas those who aspire after the worlds consider them (to be real).

II-25. The knowers of the mind hold it (to be the Self), while the knowers of the intellect regard it (to be so). The knowers of the heart ascribe (reality to it), whereas it is attributed to virtue and vice by those who know them.

II-26. Some say that twenty-five categories (constitute the reality), whereas others speak of twenty-six. Again, some say that thirty-one categories (constitute it), yet some others hold that they are infinite.

II-27. Those who know the people (and their pleasures) find reality in pleasures. Those who are familiar with the stages of life regard them (as real). The grammarians (ascribe reality) to the words in the masculine, feminine and neuter genders, whereas others (know reality) to be the higher and lower (brahman).

II-28. Those who know all about creation (say that reality consists in) creation. (Reality lies) in dissolution, say those who know it, while those who know about subsistence (hold it to be the reality). All these ideas are always imagined on the Self.

II-29. He to whom (a teacher) might show an object sees that alone (as the reality). That object, too, becoming one with him, protects him. That state of being engrossed culminates in his self-identity with the object shown.

II-30. By these things that are non-separate (from the Self), this Self is manifested as though separate. He who knows this truly comprehends (the meaning of the Vedas) without entertaining any doubt.

II-31. Just as dream and magic, as well as a city in the sky, are seen (to be unreal), so too, is this universe seen (to be unreal) from the Vedanta-texts by the wise.

II-32. There is no dissolution, no origination, none in bondage, none possessed of the means of liberation, none desirous of liberation, and none liberated. This is the ultimate truth.

II-33. This (Self) is imagined to be unreal objects and also to be non-dual. The objects are also imagined on the non-dual (Self). therefore non-duality is auspicious.

II-34. This (world) viewed on the basis of the Self, is not different. Neither does it ever exist independent by itself nor is anything different or non-different (from the Self). Thus know the knowers of Truth.

II-35. By the sages who are free from attachment, fear and anger and well-versed in the Vedas is realised this Self which is beyond all imaginations, in which the phenomenal world ceases to exist and which is non-dual.

II-36. Therefore, having known it thus, one should fix one’s memory on non-duality (ie., should give undivided attention). Having attained the non-dual, one should conduct oneself as though one were a dullard.

II-37. The ascetic should be free from praise and salutation and also from rituals. The body and the Self should be his support and he should depend upon what chance brings.

II-38. Having perceived Truth internally and having perceived it externally, one should become identified with Truth, should derive delight from Truth, and should never deviate from Truth.

III. ADVAITA PRAKARANA

III-1. The aspirant, resorting himself to devotion, remains in the conditioned Brahman. Prior to creation all this was of the nature of the birthless Brahman. Hence the man (with such a view) is considered to be of narrow outlook.

III-2. Therefore, I shall describe that (Brahman) which is free from limitation, is unborn and is ever the same. Listen how nothing whatsoever is born, though it appears to be born in all respects.

III-3. The self is said to be existing in the form of Jivas (individual souls), just as (the infinite) ether exists in the form of ether confined within jars. Similarly, It is said to be existing as the aggregate of bodies, even as ether exists like jars etc. This is the illustration with regard to birth.

III-4. Just as when the jars etc., cease to exist, the ether etc., confined within them become merged in the infinite ether, so also the individual souls become merged in the Self here.

III-5. Just as when the ether confined within a particular jar contains dust and smoke, that is not the case with all jars, in the same way, all the individual souls are not associated with happiness etc.

III-6. Though forms, functions and names differ here and there (in respect of the ether contained by jars etc.,), yet this causes no differences in the ether. Similar is the conclusion with regard to individual souls.

III-7. As the ether within a jar is not a modification nor a part of the (infinite) ether, so an individual soul is never a modification nor a part of the (supreme) Self.

III-8. Just as to the children the sky becomes soiled by dirt, so too, to the unwise the Self becomes tainted by impurities.

III-9. The Self, in regard to Its death and birth, going and coming, and Its existence in all the bodies, is not dissimilar to ether.

III-10. All aggregates (such as body) are created like dream by the Maya of the Self. Whether they be superior (to another) or equal, there is no ground to prove their reality.

III-11. The individual Self of the sheaths beginning with that made of food, which have been described in the Taittiriya Upanishad, is (the same as) the supreme Self, as explained (by us already) on the analogy of ether.

III-12. Just as it is taught that ether in the earth and the belly is verily the same, so also the supreme Brahman is declared to be the same with reference to every two (viz., the corporeal and superphysical), in the Madhu-Brahmana (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad).

III-13. Since the non-difference of Jiva (individual soul) and the supreme Self is extolled on the basis of their identity, and since diversity is censured, therefore, that (non-duality) alone is reasonable.

III-14. The separateness of the individual soul and the supreme Self which has been declared (in the sruti) prior to the discussion of creation (in the Upanishads), is in a secondary sense in view of the result of the future, for it (separateness) is not in fitness if held in
its primary sense.

III-15. The creation which is differently set forth by means of (the illustrations of) earth, gold, sparks etc., is (just) a means to reveal the idea (of identity). But multiplicity does not exist in any manner.

III-16. There are three stages of life – low, medium, and high. This meditation is enjoined for their sake out of compassion.

III-17. The dualists, firmly settled in their own doctrine which is arrived at by their own conclusions, contradict one another. But this (view of the non-dualist) is in no conflict with them.

III-18. Non-duality is indeed the supreme Reality, inasmuch as duality is said to be its product. For them duality constitutes both (the Real and the unreal). Hence this (our view) is not opposed (to theirs).

III-19. This unborn (Self) undergoes modification through Maya and not in any other way. For, if the modifications are to be a reality, the immortal would tend to be mortal.

III-20. The disputants think of the very unborn Self on terms of birth. How can the Self that is unborn and immortal tend towards mortality?

III-21. The immortal can never become mortal. So, too mortal can never become immortal. For a change in one’s nature cannot ever take place in any manner.

III-22. How can the entity that is immortal remain unchanged according to one to whom a thing that is immortal by nature can be born, since it is a product (in his view) ?

III-23. The sruti favours equally the creation in reality and through Maya. That which is settled by the sruti and supported by reasoning is true, and not anything else.

III-24. Since the sruti says, “There is no multiplicity here”, “the Lord, owing to Maya, (is seen diversely)”, and “The Self, though unborn, (appears to be born in many ways)”, it becomes obvious that He is born through Maya.

III-25. By the censure of (the worship of) Hiranyagarbha is negated creation. By the statement, “Who will cause it to be born?”, is denied causality.

III-26. On the ground of non-apprehension (of Brahman), all the preceding instruction (for Its comprehension) is negated by the sruti, “This Self is that which has been declared as ‘Not this, not this’”. Hence the unborn Self becomes revealed by Itself.

III-27. Birth of that which exists occurs only through Maya and not in reality. He who thinks that something is born in reality, (should know) that that which is already born is (re)born.

III-28. The birth of that which is non-existent cannot occur either through Maya or in reality, for a son of a barren woman cannot be born either through Maya or in reality.

III-29. As in dream the mind vibrates through Maya, as though with dual roles, so in the waking state the mind vibrates through Maya, as though with dual roles.

III-30. There can be no doubt that the non-dual mind alone appears in dream in dual roles. Similarly, in the waking state too, the non-dual mind appears to possess dual roles.

III-31. Whatever there is, moving and unmoving, which constitutes this duality, is perceived by the mind, for when mind does not exist as mind, duality is never perceived.

III-32. When the mind ceases to imagine consequent on the realisation of the Truth which is the Self, then it attains the state of not being the mind and becomes a non-perceiver, owing to the absence of objects to be perceived.

III-33. (The knowers of Brahman) say that the knowledge which is free from imagination, and unborn is not distinct from the knowable. The knowledge of which Brahman is the sole object is unborn and everlasting. The unborn (Self) is known by the (knowledge that is) unborn.

III-34. The behaviour of the mind (thus) restrained, which is free from all imagination and which is endowed with discrimination, should be noticed. The mind in deep sleep is of a different character and is not like that (when it is under restraint).

III-35. The mind becomes dissolved in deep sleep, but when under restraint, it doesn’t become dissolved. That (mind) alone becomes Brahman, the fearless, endowed with the light that is Consciousness on all sides.

III-36. (Brahman is) birthless, sleepless, dreamless, nameless, formless, ever-resplendent and omniscient. (As regards That) there can be no routine practice of any kind.

III-37. The Self is devoid of all (external) organs, and is above all internal organs. It is exquisitely serene, eternally resplendent, divinely absorbed, unchanging and fearless.

III-38. Where there is no thought whatever, there is no acceptance or rejection. Then knowledge, rooted in the Self, attains the state of birthlessness and sameness.

III-39. This Yoga that is said to be not in touch with anything is hard to be perceived by anyone of the Yogis, for the Yogis who behold fear in what is fearless, are afraid of it.

III-40. For all the Yogis, fearlessness, cessation of misery, awareness and everlasting peace, depend upon the control of their mind.

III-41. By a tireless effort such as that by which the emptying of an ocean, drop by drop, is aimed at with the help of the edge of a Kusa grass, the conquest of the mind will become possible through absence of dejection.

III-42. With the (proper) means one should bring under restraint the mind that is torn amid desire and enjoyment. Even when the mind is well settled down in sleep, it should be brought under restraint, for sleep is as harmful as desire.

III-43. Remembering that everything is productive of grief, one should withdraw (one’s mind) from the enjoyment of the objects of desire. (Similarly), remembering that everything is the unborn Brahman, one does not certainly see the born (ie., duality).

III-44. The mind that is in deep sleep should be awakened and the mind that is distracted should be brought back to tranquillity again. One should know the mind as passion-tinged, and should not disturb it when it has attained the state of equillibrium.

III-45. In that state one should not enjoy the happiness, but should, by means of discrimination, become unattached. When the mind that has become still tends towards wandering, it should be unified (with the self) with efforts.

III-46. When the mind does not become merged nor distracted again, when it becomes motionless and does not make appearances (as objects), then it verily becomes Brahman.

III-47. That highest Bliss exists in one’s own Self. It is calm, identical with liberation, indescribable, and unborn. Since It is one with the unborn knowable (Brahman), the knowers of Brahman speak of It as the Omniscient (Brahman).

III-48. No Jiva (individual soul), whichsoever, is born. It has no cause (of birth). (Such being the case), this is the highest Truth where nothing is born whatsoever.

IV. ALATASANTI PRAKARANA-On extinguishing the fire brand)

IV-1. I bow down to him who is the best among men and who has realised the individual souls that are like ether, through his knowledge which again resembles ether and is not different from the object of knowledge.

IV-2. I bow down to that Yoga which is devoid of touch with anything (that implies relationship), which conduces to the happiness of all beings and is beneficial, and which is free from dispute and contradiction and is taught by the scriptures.

IV-3. Certain disputants postulate the birth of an entity already existing, while some others, proud of their intelligence, and opposing among themselves, postulate the birth of what is not existing already.

IV-4. That which already exists cannot be born and that which does not exist also cannot be born. Those who argue thus are none but non-dualists and proclaim only the birthlessness.

IV-5. We approve the birthlessness revealed by them. We do not quarrel with them. Now, learn this which is free from all disputes.

IV-6. The disputants think of the self on terms of birth. How can the Self that is unborn and immortal tend towards mortality.

IV-7. The immortal can never become mortal. So, too the mortal can never become immortal. For a change in one’s nature cannot ever take place in any manner.

IV-8. How can the entity that is immortal remain unchanged according to one in whose view a thing that is immortal by nature can be born, since it is an effect (in his view) ?

IV-9. By the term nature is to be known that which comes into being through right attainments, which is intrinsic, inborn, and non-produced, and which does not give up its character.

IV-10. All the souls are free from decay and death by nature. But by thinking of decay and death, and becoming absorbed in that thought, they deviate (from that nature).

IV-11. According to him who holds that the cause itself is the effect, the cause must be born. How can that which is born be unborn? How can that which is subject to modification be eternal ?

IV-12. If (in your view) the effect is non-different from the cause and if, for that reason, the effect also is unborn, how can the cause be eternal, since it is non-different from the effect that undergoes birth ?

IV-13. He who holds the view that the effect is born from an unborn cause, has no example (to be cited). If the born effect is viewed as born from another born thing, it leads to ad infinitum.

IV-14. How can they, who hold that the effect is the source of the cause and the cause is the source of the effect, assert beginninglessness for cause and effect ?

IV-15. According to the disputants who hold that the effect is the origin of the cause and the cause is the origin of the effect, birth may be possible, just as a father might be born of a son.

IV-16. If cause and effect be possible, the order (in which they originate) has to be found out by you, for if they originate simultaneously, there is no relationship between the two, as is the case with the horns of a cow.

IV-17. Your cause that is produced from an effect cannot be established. How will a cause, that is itself not established, produce an effect ?

IV-18. If the cause emerges from the effect and if the effect emerges from the cause, which of the two has arisen first on which depends the emergence of the other ?

IV-19. Your inability (to reply) tantamounts to ignorance, or there will be a difference in the order of succession (postulated by you). Thus indeed is the absence of birth revealed by the wise in all manner.

IV-20. What is called the illustration of a seed and a sprout is always equal to the major term (yet to be proved). The middle term (viz., the illustration) that is equal to the unproved major term, cannot be applied for establishing a proposition yet to be proved.

IV-21. The ignorance regarding antecedence and succession reveals birthlessness. From a thing that is born, why is it that its antecedent cause is not comprehended ?

IV-22. Nothing whatsoever is born either of itself or of something else. Similarly, nothing whatsoever is born whether it be existent or non-existent or both existent and non-existent.

IV-23. A cause is not born of an effect that is beginningless, nor does an effect take birth naturally (from a cause that is beginningless). For that which has no cause has no birth also.

IV-24. Knowledge has its object, since otherwise it brings about the destruction of duality. Besides, from the experience of pain, the existence of external objects, as upheld by the system of thought of the opponents, is admitted.

IV-25. In accordance with the perception of the cause of knowledge, the latter is deemed to be based on external objects. But from the point of view of reality, the (external) cause is regarded as no cause.

IV-26. Consciousness is not in contact with objects nor is it in contact with the appearances of objects. For the object is certainly non-existent and (the ideas constituting) the appearances of object are not separate from consciousness.

IV-27. Consciousness does not ever come in contact with objects in the three periods of time. Without a cause (ie., external object) how can there be its false apprehension ?

IV-28. Therefore consciousness is not born, nor are things perceived by it born. Those who perceive it as having birth, may as well see footprints in the sky.

IV-29. Since it is the birthless that is born (in the view of the disputants), birthlessness is its nature. Hence deviation from this nature can happen in no way whatsoever.

IV-30. If transmigratory existence be beginningless, its termination will not be reached. And liberation will not be eternal, if it has a beginning.

IV-31. That which is non-existent in the beginning and the end is definitely so in the present. The objects, although similar to the unreal, look as though real.

IV-32. Their utility is opposed in dream. Therefore, for the reasons of their having a beginning and an end, they are definitely remembered to be unreal.

IV-33.All objects are unreal in dream, inasmuch as they are seen within the body. In this narrow space, how is the vision of creatures possible ?

IV-34. It is not reasonable to say that objects in dream are seen by (actually) going to them, since it runs counter to the regulation of time that is needed for the journey. Further, none, when awake, remains in the place of dream.

IV-35. (In dream) what has been discussed with friends and others (and settled) is not resorted to when awake. Whatsoever is acquired (in dream0, too, is not seen when awake.

IV-36. And in dream the body becomes unreal, since another body is seen (in the bed). As is the body, so is everything cognised by the consciousness – all unreal.

IV-37. Since the experience (of objects) in dream is just like that in the waking state, the former is thought of as being caused by the latter. Such being the case, the waking state is considered to be real for that dreamer alone.

IV-38. Such birth is not established, everything is said to be unborn. Besides, it is not possible for the unreal to be born from the real, in any way whatsoever.

IV-39. Having seen unreal things in the waking state, one, deeply impressed, sees those very things in dream. Likewise, having seen unreal objects in dream, one does not see them when awake.

IV-40. There is no non-existent that serves as the cause of the non-existent, in the same way as the existent does not serve as the cause of the non-existent. There is no real entity that serves as the cause of another real entity. How can the unreal be the product
of the real ?

IV-41. Just as one, for want of discrimination, takes unthinkable objects in the waking state as real, so too, in dream, one sees things in that state alone, for want of discrimination.

IV-42. For those who, from their own experience and right conduct, believe in the existence of substantiality, and who are ever afraid of the birthless, instruction regarding birth has been imparted by the wise.

IV-43. For those who, for fear of the Unborn, and also owing to their perception (of duality), deviate from the right path, the evil springing up from acceptance of birth (creation), does not accrue. The evil effect, if there be any, will be but little.

IV-44. Just as an elephant magically conjured up is called an elephant by relying on perception and right conduct, similarly, for reasons of perception and right conduct a thing is said to be existing.

IV-45. That which bears semblance of birth, appears as though moving, and, similarly seems to be a thing (of attributes), is Consciousness that is birthless, unmoving and non-material, serene and non-dual.

IV-46. Thus Consciousness is unborn; thus the souls are regarded to be unborn. Those who realise thus certainly do not fall into misfortune.

IV-47. Just as the fire-brand set in motion appears as straight, crooked etc., similarly, the vibration of Consciousness appears as the perceiver and the perceived.

IV-48. Just as the fire-brand devoid of motion is without appearances and birth, so also Consciousness devoid of vibration is without appearances and birth.

IV-49. When the fire-brand is in motion, the appearances do not come from elsewhere. Neither do they, when the fire-brand is free from motion, go elsewhere, nor do they enter into it.

IV-50. They did not go out of the fire-brand owing to their not being of the nature of substance. In the case of Consciousness, too, the appearances must be the same, for as appearance there can be no distinction.

IV-51. When Consciousness is in motion, the appearances do not come from elsewhere. Neither do they, when the Consciousness is free from motion, go elsewhere, nor do they enter again into It.

IV-52. They did not go out of Consciousness owing to their not being of the nature of substance, for they ever remain incomprehensible on account of the absence of relation of effect and cause.

IV-53. A substance could be the cause of a substance and another could be the cause of any other thing. But the souls cannot be regarded either as substances or as some other thing different from all else.

IV-54. Thus external objects are not born of Consciousness; nor is Consciousness born of external objects. Thus have the wise settled the birthlessness of cause and effect.

IV-55. As long as there is fascination for cause and effect, so long do cause and effect come into existence. When the fascination for cause and effect ceases, there is no further springing up of cause and effect.

IV-56. As long as one is completely absorbed in cause and effect, so long does transmigration continue. When the absorption in cause and effect ceases, one does not undergo transmigration.

IV-57. From the relative plane (of thinking) everything seems to be born and is not, therefore, eternal. From the absolute plane (of perception) everything is the unborn (Self) and there is, therefore, nothing like destruction.

IV-58. The souls that are thus born are not born in reality. Their birth is like that of an object through Maya. And that Maya again is non-existent.

IV-59. Just as from a magical seed comes out a sprout of that very nature which is neither permanent nor destructible, so too, is the reasoning applicable in respect of objects.

IV-60. In the case of all birthless entities the terms permanent and non-permanent can have no application. Where words fail to describe, no entity can be spoken of in a discriminative manner.

IV-61. As in dream Consciousness vibrates through illusion, as though dual by nature, so in the waking state Consciousness vibrates through illusion as though possessed of dual appearances.

IV-62. There can be no doubt that the non-dual Consciousness alone appears in dream as though dual. Similarly, in waking state, too, the non-dual Consciousness appears as though dual, undoubtedly.

IV-63. The dreamer, as he wanders in the dream-land always sees the creatures born from eggs or from moisture as existing in all the ten directions.

IV-64. These (creatures), perceptible to the consciousness of the dreamer, have no existence apart from his consciousness. So also this consciousness of the dreamer is admitted to be the object of perception to that dreamer alone.

IV-65. The man in the waking state, as he wanders in the places of the waking state, always sees the creatures born from eggs or from moisture as existing in all the ten directions.

IV-66. These (creatures), perceptible to the consciousness of the man in the waking state, have no existence apart from his consciousness. So also, this consciousness of the man in the waking state is admitted to be the object of perception to that man of the waking state alone.

IV-67. Both these are perceptible to each other. “Does it exist?” (To such a question) “No” is said (by way of answer). Both these are devoid of valid proof, and each can be perceived only through the idea of the other.

IV-68. Just as a creature seen in dream takes birth and dies, so also do all these creatures come into being and disappear.

IV-69. Just as a creature conjured up by magic takes birth and dies, so also do all these creatures come into being and disappear.

IV-70. Just as an artificial creature (brought into being by incantation and medicine), takes birth and dies, so also do all these creatures come into being and disappear.

IV-71. No creature whichsoever is born, nor is there any source for it. This is that supreme truth where nothing is born whatsoever.

IV-72. This duality consisting in the subject-object relationship is nothing but the vibration of Consciousness. Again, Consciousness is without object and is, therefore, declared to be ever unattached.

IV-73. That which exists by virtue of being an imagined empirical view, does not exist in reality. Again, that which exists on the basis of the empirical view brought about by other schools of thought, does not really exist.

IV-74. Inasmuch as the soul, according to the conclusions arrived at by other schools of thought, takes birth from a fancied empirical view point, it is said in consistence with that empirical point of view that the soul is unborn; but from the point of view of
supreme Reality, it is not even unborn.

IV-75. There is a mere fascination for unreal things, though there exists no duality. Having realised the absence of duality, one is not born again for want of a cause.

IV-76. When there are no causes – superior, inferior or medium – then Consciousness does not take birth. How can there be any result when the cause is absent.

IV-77. The birthlessness of Consciousness which is free from causes is constant and absolute, for all this (ie., duality and birth) was an object of perception to It which had been unborn (even before).

IV-78. Having realised the Truth that is uncaused and having abstained from obtaining any further cause, one attains the state of fearlessness that is devoid of grief and delusion (kama).

IV-79. Owing to fascination for unreal objects, Consciousness engages Itself in things that are equally unreal. On realisation of the non-existence of objects, Consciousness, becoming free from attachment, abstains (from them).

IV-80. Then, there follows a state of stillness, when the Consciousness has become free from attachment and does not engage Itself (in unreal things). That is the object of vision to the wise. That is the (supreme) state on non-distinction, and that is birthless
and non-dual.

IV-81. This is birthless, sleepless, dreamless, and self-luminous. For this Entity (the Self) is ever luminous by Its very nature.

IV-82. Owing to the Lord’s fondness for any object whatsoever, he becomes ever veiled effortlessly, and is unveiled every time with
strenuous effort.

IV-83. A man of puerile imagination definitely covers the Self by affirming that It “exists”, exists not”, “Exists and exists not”, or again, “exists not”, “exists not”, and by possessing such views as (that It is) changing and unchanging, both changing and
unchanging and non-existent.

IV-84. These are the four alternative views, owing to a fascination for which the Lord becomes ever hidden. He is the all-seer by whom is the Lord perceived as untouched by these.

IV-85. Having attained omniscience in its entirety, as well as the non-dual state of Brahmanhood that is devoid of beginning, middle, and end, does anyone wish anything thereafter ?

IV-86. This is the humility of the Brahmanas; this is said to be their natural control. Since, by nature, they have conquered the senses, this is their restraint. Having known thus, the enlightened one becomes rooted in tranquillity.

IV-87. The duality that is co-existent with both object and (its) perception is said to be the ordinary (waking) state. That state where there is only perception without (the actual presence of an) object is said to be the ordinary (dream) state.

IV-88. The state devoid of object and devoid of perception is regarded as extraordinary. Thus have the wise for ever declared knowledge, object, and the knowable.

IV-89. On acquiring knowledge (of the threefold objects) and on knowing the objects in succession, there follows consequently, for the man of great intellect here, the state of omniscience for ever.

IV-90. Those which are to be abandoned, realised, adopted, and made ineffective should be known first. Of these, the three, excepting the thing to be realised, are regarded as mere imaginations born of ignorance.

IV-91. It should be known that all souls are, by nature, similar to ether, and eternal. There is no diversity anywhere among them, even an iota of it.

IV-92. All souls are, by nature, illumined from the very beginning, and their characteristics are well ascertained. He, for whom there is thus the freedom from want of further acquisition of knowledge, is considered to be fit for immortality.

IV-93. All souls are, from the very beginning, tranquil, unborn and, by nature, entirely detached, equal, and non-different, and inasmuch as Reality is thus unborn, unique, and pure, (therefore there is no need of tranquillity to be brought into the Self).

IV-94. There cannot ever be any purification for those who always tread the path of duality. They follow the path of difference, and speak of diversity and are, therefore, considered to be mean.

IV-95. They who have well-settled convictions regarding that which is unborn and ever the same,indeed are possessed of great knowledge in this world. But the common man cannot comprehend it.

IV-96. The knowledge existing in the birthless souls is regarded unborn and unrelated. Inasmuch as the knowledge has no relation with other objects, it is declared to be unattached.

IV-97. If there be birth for a thing, however insignificant it may be, non-attachment shall never be possible for the ignorant man. What to speak (then) of the destruction of covering for him ?

IV-98. All souls are devoid of any covering and are by nature pure. They are illumined as well as free from the beginning. Thus they are said to be masters since they are capable of knowing.

IV-99. The knowledge of the one who is enlightened and all-pervasive, does not enter into objects. And so the souls also do not enter into objects. This fact was not mentioned by the Buddha.

IV-100. Having realised the non-dual state that is hard to perceive, deep, unborn, uniform and serene,we offer our salutations to It, as best as we can.

Om ! O gods, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;

May we see with our eyes what is auspicious;

May we, while offering our praise to gods

With our bodies strong of limbs,

Enjoy the life which the gods are pleased to grant us.

May Indra of great fame be well disposed to us;

May the all-knowing (or immensely wealthy) Pusha be propitious to us;

May Garuda, the vanquisher of miseries, be well pleased with us;

May Brihaspati grant us all prosperity.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Here ends the Mandukyopanishad, included in the Atharva-Veda.

The Mundaka Upanishad–Translated by Swami Gambhirananda ..

November 19, 2010

Om ! O gods, may we hear auspicious words with the ears;

While engaged in sacrifices,

May we see auspicious things with the eyes;

While praising the gods with steady limbs,

May we enjoy a life that is beneficial to the gods.

May Indra of ancient fame be auspicious to us;

May the supremely rich (or all-knowing) Pusa (god of the earth)

Be propitious to us;

May Garuda, the destroyer of evil,

Be well disposed towards us;

May Brihaspati ensure our welfare.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

I-i-1: Om ! Brahma, the creator of the Universe and the protector of the world, was the first among the gods to manifest Himself. To His eldest son Atharva He imparted that knowledge of Brahman that is the basis of all knowledge.

I-i-2: The Knowledge of Brahman that Brahma imparted to Atharva, Atharva transmitted to Angir in days of yore. He (Angir) passed it on to Satyavaha of the line of Bharadvaja. He of the line of Bharadvaja handed down to Angiras this knowledge that had been received in succession from the higher by the lower ones.

I-i-3: Saunaka, well known as a great householder, having approached Angiras duly, asked, ‘O adorable sir, (which is that thing) which having been known, all this becomes known ?’

I-i-4: To him he said, ‘”There are two kinds of knowledge to be acquired – the higher and the lower”; this is what, as tradition runs, the knowers of the import of the Vedas say.’

I-i-5: Of these, the lower comprises the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharva-Veda, the science of pronunciation etc., the code of rituals, grammar, etymology, metre and astrology. Then there is the higher (knowledge) by which is attained that Imperishable.

I-i-6: (By the higher knowledge) the wise realize everywhere that which cannot be perceived and grasped, which is without source, features, eyes, and ears, which has neither hands nor feet, which is eternal, multiformed, all-pervasive, extremely subtle, and undiminishing and which is the source of all.

I-i-7: As a spider spreads out and withdraws (its thread), as on the earth grow the herbs (and trees), and as from a living man issues out hair (on the head and body), so out of the Imperishable does the Universe emerge here (in this phenomenal creation).

I-i-8: Through knowledge Brahman increases in size. From that is born food (the Unmanifested). From food evolves Prana (Hiranyagarbha); (thence the cosmic) mind; (thence) the five elements; (thence) the worlds; (thence) the immortality that is in karmas.

I-i-9: From Him, who is omniscient in general and all-knowing in detail and whose austerity is constituted by knowledge, evolve this (derivative) Brahman, name, colour and food.

I-ii-1:That thing that is such, is true.

The karmas that the wise discovered in the mantras are accomplished variously (in the context of the sacrifice) where the three Vedic duties get united. You perform them for ever with desire for the true results. This is your path leading to the fruits of karma acquired by yourselves.

I-ii-2: When, the fire being set ablaze, the flame shoots up, one should offer the oblations into that part that is in between the right and the left.

I-ii-3: It (i.e. the Agnihotra) destroys the seven worlds of that man whose Agnihotra (sacrifice) is without Darsa and Paurnamasa (rites), devoid of Chaturmasya, bereft of Agrayana, unblest with guests, goes unperformed, is unaccompanied by Vaisvadeva (rite) and is performed perfunctorily.

I-ii-4: Kali, Karali, Manojava and Sulohita and that which is Sudhumravarna, as also Sphulingini, and the shining Visvaruchi – these are the seven flaming tongues.

I-ii-5: These oblations turn into the rays of the sun and taking him up they lead him, who performs the rites in these shining flames at the proper time, to where the single lord of the gods presides over all.

I-ii-6: Saying, ‘Come, come’, uttering pleasing words such as, ‘This is your well-earned, virtuous path which leads to heaven’, and offering him adoration, the scintillating oblations carry the sacrificer along the rays of the sun.

I-ii-7: Since these eighteen constituents of a sacrifice, on whom the inferior karma has been said to rest, are perishable because of their fragility, therefore those ignorant people who get elated with the idea ‘This is (the cause of) bliss’, undergo old age and death over again.

I-ii-8: Remaining within the fold of ignorance and thinking, ‘We are ourselves wise and learned’, the fools, while being buffeted very much, ramble about like the blind led by the blind alone.

I-ii-9: Continuing diversely in the midst of ignorance, the unenlightened take airs by thinking, ‘We have attained the goal.’ Since the men, engaged in karma, do not understand (the truth) under the influence of attachment, thereby they become afflicted with sorrow and are deprived of heaven on the exhaustion of the results of karma.

I-ii-10: The deluded fools, believing the rites inculcated by the Vedas and the Smritis to be the highest, do not understand the other thing (that leads to) liberation. They, having enjoyed (the fruits of actions) in the abode of pleasure on the heights of heaven, enter this world or an inferior one.

I-ii-11: Those who live in the forest, while begging for alms – viz. those (forest-dwellers and hermits) who resort to the duties of their respective stages of life as well as to meditation – and the learned (householders) who have their senses under control – (they) after becoming freed from dirt, go by the path of the sun to where lives that Purusha, immortal and undecaying by nature.

I-ii-12: A Brahmana should resort to renunciation after examining the worlds acquired through karma, with the help of this maxim: ‘There is nothing (here) that is not the result of karma; so what is the need of (performing) karma ?’ For knowing that Reality he should go, with sacrificial faggots in hand, only to a teacher versed in the Vedas and absorbed in Brahman.

I-ii-13: To him who has approached duly, whose heart is calm and whose outer organs are under control, that man of enlightenment should adequately impart that knowledge of Brahman by which one realizes the true and imperishable Purusha.

II-i-1: That thing that is such, is true.

As from a fire fully ablaze, fly off sparks in their thousands that are akin to the fire, similarly O good-looking one, from the Imperishable originate different kinds of creatures and into It again they merge.

II-i-2: The Purusha is transcendental, since He is formless. And since He is coextensive with all that is external and internal and since He is birthless, therefore He is without vital force and without mind; He is pure and superior to the (other) superior imperishable (Maya).

II-i-3: From Him originates the vital force as well as the mind, all the senses, space, air, fire, water, and earth that supports everything.

II-i-4: The indwelling Self of all is surely He of whom the heaven is the head, the moon and sun are the two eyes, the directions are the two ears, the revealed Vedas are the speech, air is the vital force, the whole Universe is the heart, and (It is He) from whose two feet emerged the earth.

II-i-5: From Him emerges the fire (i.e. heaven) of which the fuel is the sun. From the moon emerges cloud, and (from cloud) the herbs and corns on the earth. A man sheds the semen into a woman. From the Purusha have originated many creatures.

II-i-6: From Him (emerge) the Rik, Sama and Yajur mantras, initiation, all the sacrifices – whether with or without the sacrificial stake – offerings to Brahmanas, the year, the sacrificer, and the worlds where the moon sacrifices (all) and where the sun (shines).

II-i-7: And from Him duly emerged the gods in various groups, the Sadhyas, human beings, beasts, birds, life, rice and barley, as well as austerity, faith, truth, continence and dutifulness.

II-i-8: From Him emerge the seven sense-organs, the seven flames, the seven kinds of fuel, the seven oblations, and these seven seats where move the sense-organs that sleep in the cavity, (and) have been deposited (by God) in groups of seven.

II-i-9: From Him emerge all the oceans and all the mountains. From Him flow out the rivers of various forms. And from Him issue all the corns as well as the juice, by virtue of which the internal self verily exists in the midst of the elements.

II-i-10: The Purusha alone is all this – (comprising) karma and knowledge. He who knows this supreme, immortal Brahman, existing in the heart, destroys here the knot of ignorance, O good-looking one !

II-ii-1: (It is) effulgent, near at hand, and well known as moving in the heart, and (It is) the great goal. On It are fixed all these that move, breathe, and wink or do not wink. Know this One which comprises the gross and the subtle, which is beyond the ordinary knowledge of creatures, and which is the most desirable and the highest of all.

II-ii-2: That which is bright and is subtler than the subtle, and that on which are fixed all the worlds as well as the dwellers of the worlds, is this immutable Brahman; It is this vital force; It, again, is speech and mind. This Entity, that is such, is true. It is immortal. It is to be penetrated, O good-looking one, shoot (at It).

II-ii-3: Taking hold of the bow, the great weapon familiar in the Upanishads, one should fix on it an arrow sharpened with meditation. Drawing the string, O good-looking one, hit that very target that is the Imperishable, with the mind absorbed in Its thought.

II-ii-4: Om is the bow; the soul is the arrow; and Brahman is called its target. It is to be hit by an unerring man. One should become one with It just like an arrow.

II-ii-5: Know that Self alone that is one without a second, on which are strung heaven, the earth and the inter-space, the mind and the vital forces together with all the other organs; and give up all other talks. This is the bridge leading to immortality.

II-ii-6: Within that (heart) in which are fixed the nerves like the spokes on the hub of a chariot wheel, moves this aforesaid Self by becoming multiformed. Meditate on the Self thus with the help of Om. May you be free from hindrances in going to the other shore beyond darkness.

II-ii-7: That Self which is omniscient in general and all-knowing in detail and which has such glory in this world – that Self, which is of this kind – is seated in the space within the luminous city of Brahman.

It is conditioned by the mind, It is the carrier of the vital forces and the body, It is seated in food by placing the intellect (in the cavity of the heart). Through their knowledge, the discriminating people realize that Self as existing in Its fullness everywhere – the Self that shines surpassingly as blissfulness and immortality.

II-ii-8: When that Self, which is both the high and the low, is realized, the knot of the heart gets united, all doubts become solved, and all one’s actions become dissipated.

II-ii-9: In the supreme, bright sheath is Brahman, free from taints and without parts. It is pure, and is the Light of lights. It is that which the knowers of the Self realize.

II-ii-10: There the sun does not shine, nor the moon or the stars; nor do these flashes of lightning shine there. How can this fire do so ? Everything shines according as He does so; by His light all this shines diversely.

II-ii-11: All this that is in front is but Brahman, the immortal. Brahman is at the back, as also on the right and the left. It is extended above and below, too. This world is nothing but Brahman, the highest.

III-i-1: Two birds that are ever associated and have similar names, cling to the same tree. Of these, one eats the fruit of divergent tastes, and the other looks on without eating.

III-i-2: On the same tree, the individual soul remains drowned (i.e. stuck), as it were; and so it moans, being worried by its impotence. When it sees thus the other, the adored Lord, and His glory, then it becomes liberated from sorrow.

III-i-3: When the seer sees the Purusha – the golden-hued, creator, lord, and the source of the inferior Brahman – then the illumined one completely shakes off both merit and demerit, becomes taintless, and attains absolute equality.

III-i-4: This one is verily the Vital Force which shines divergently through all beings. Knowing this, the illumined man has no (further) occasion to go beyond anything in his talk. He disports in the Self, delights in the Self, and is engrossed in (spiritual) effort. This one is the chief among the knowers of Brahman.

III-i-5: The bright and pure Self within the body, that the monks with (habitual effort and) attenuated blemishes see, is attainable verily through truth, concentration, complete knowledge, and continence, practised constantly.

III-i-6: Truth alone wins, and not untruth. By truth is laid the path called Devayana, by which the desireless seers ascend to where exists the supreme treasure attainable through truth.

III-i-7: It is great and self-effulgent; and Its form is unthinkable. It is subtler than the subtle. It shines diversely. It is farther away than the far-off, and It is near at hand in this body. Among sentient beings It is (perceived as) seated in this very body, in the cavity of the heart.

III-i-8: It is not comprehended through the eye, nor through speech, nor through the other senses; nor is It attained through austerity or karma. Since one becomes purified in mind through the favourableness of the intellect, therefore can one see that indivisible Self through meditation.

III-i-9: Within (the heart in) the body, where the vital force has entered in five forms, is this subtle Self to be realized through that intelligence by which is pervaded the entire mind as well as the motor and sensory organs of all creatures. And It is to be known in the mind, which having become purified, this Self reveals Itself distinctly.

III-i-10: The man of pure mind wins those worlds which he mentally wishes for and those enjoyable things which he covets. Therefore one, desirous of prosperity, should adore the knower of the Self.

III-ii-1: He knows this supreme abode, this Brahman, in which is placed the Universe and which shines holy. Those wise ones indeed, who having become desireless, worship this (enlightened) person, transcend this human seed.

III-ii-2: He who covets the desirable things, while brooding (on the virtues), is born amidst those very surroundings along with the desires. But for one who has got his wishes fulfilled and who is Self-poised, all the longings vanish even here.

III-ii-3: This Self is not attained through study, nor through the intellect, nor through much hearing. The very Self which this one (i.e. the aspirant) seeks is attainable through that fact of seeking; this Self of his reveals Its own nature.

III-ii-4: This Self is not attained by one devoid of strength, nor through delusion, nor through knowledge unassociated with monasticism. But the Self of that knower, who strives through these means, enters into the abode that is Brahman.

III-ii-5: Having attained this, the seers become contented with their knowledge, established in the Self, freed from attachment, and composed. Having realized the all-pervasive One everywhere, these discriminating people, ever merged in contemplation, enter into the All.

III-ii-6: Those to whom the entity presented by the Vedantic knowledge has become fully ascertained, who are assiduous and have become pure in mind through the Yoga of monasticism – all of them, at the supreme moment of final departure, become identified with the supreme Immortality in the worlds that are Brahman, and they become freed on every side.

III-ii-7: To their sources repair the fifteen constituents (of the body) and to their respective gods go all the gods (of the senses). The karmas and the soul appearing like the intellect, all become unified with the supreme Undecaying.

III-ii-8: As rivers, flowing down, become indistinguishable on reaching the sea by giving up their names and forms, so also the illumined soul, having become freed from name and form, reaches the self-effulgent Purusha that is higher than the higher (Maya).

III-ii-9: Anyone who knows that supreme Brahman becomes Brahman indeed. In his line is not born anyone who does not know Brahman. He overcomes grief, and rises above aberrations; and becoming freed from the knots of the heart, he attains immortality.

III-ii-10: This (rule) has been revealed by the mantra (which runs thus): ‘To them alone should one expound this knowledge of b who are engaged in the practice of disciplines, versed in the Vedas, and indeed devoted to Brahman, who personally sacrifice to the fire called Ekarsi with faith, and by whom has been duly accomplished the vow of holding fire on the head.’

III-ii-11: The seer Angiras spoke of this Truth in the days of yore. One that has not fulfilled the vow does not read this. Salutation to the great seers. Salutation to the great seers.

Om ! O gods, may we hear auspicious words with the ears;

While engaged in sacrifices,

May we see auspicious things with the eyes;

While praising the gods with steady limbs,

May we enjoy a life that is beneficial to the gods.

May Indra of ancient fame be auspicious to us;

May the supremely rich (or all-knowing) Pusa (god of the earth)

Be propitious to us;

May Garuda, the destroyer of evil,

Be well disposed towards us;

May Brihaspati ensure our welfare.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Here ends the Mundakopanishad, included in the Atharva-Veda.