Geetha Saram 18-40 to 18-44..

..sloha 18-40.and sloha 18-41…Esha narayana sriman ksheerarnava niketana: |
nagaparyanka udrushya hyakatom maturam purim ||

From this sloka in Purana, we understand Three important states of Sriman Narayana. In Sri Vaikuntam, He is gracing, seated. In Ksheerabdi or Milk ocean, He is reclining on Adisesha. The Lord also takes Avatars like Sri Rama and Sri Krishna..Swami Pillai Lokacharya calls  thiru paar kadal as  ‘kooppidoo ketkumidam [கூப்பீடு கேட்க்குமிடம்]..lord Brahma created Swayambhu Manu. It is the start of creations by Brahma, described in Vishnu Puranam and other scriptures. Swayambhu Manu had Two sons, Priyavrata and Utthanapada. Utthanapada’s son was Druva, whose story of obtaining the grace of the Lord, after very hard tapas, is well known. Swayambhu Manu asked Priyavrata to rule the entire Universe. Priyavrata had Ten sons. Three of them declined to rule as Kings. To the remaining Seven sons, Priyavrata desired to partition the Kingdom, for them to rule. He ran his chariot to carve out one area, surrounded by a large trench. It became an island. The chariot again made another round and another isle was formed. Like this seven isles were formed. Wherever his chariot ran and the wheels made dents, they became oceans. Thus we come across Seven Dweepams [islands] and Sapta Samudrams [oceans]. Of these the Fifth ocean is Ksheera Sagar. We are all in Jambu Dweepam, which we mention in our sankalpam, before commencing any religious ceremony..

Sl.no ISLAND DIAMETER [in YOJANAS] SURROUNDING OCEAN LENGTH OF OCEAN [in YOJANAS]
1 JAMBU 100,000 SALT WATER 100.000
2 PLAKSHA 200.000 CANE JUICE 200,000
3. SHALMALI 400,000 ARRACK 400,000
4 KUSHA 800,000 GHEE 800,000
5 KRAUNCHA 1,600,000 MILK 1,600,000
6 SHAKA 3,200,000 CURD 3,200,000
7 PUSHKARA 6,400,000 PURE WATER 6,400,000

..Sri Andal mentions about Milk ocean in the second pasuram [vaiyatthu வையத்து] of Tiruppavai. There the Lord is having Yoga Nidra. All the Alwars, excepting Tiruppanalwar, have mentioned about Ksheerabdi in their pasurams.
na tad asti pṛthivyāṃ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ
sattvaṃ prakṛtijair muktaṃ yad ebhiḥ syāt tribhir guṇaiḥ

Prithivyam va = among those existing [humans and others] in this Universe, divi devesu va puna = or, also, Devas and others [like Gandharvas, Kinnaras, etc.] in the sky, sattvam = any living being, yad ebhi = all these, tribhir gunai = these Three qualities, prakrtijai = of this prakruti, muktam = liberated, na tad asti = nothing exists..The quality of raw material will be seen in the end product also. Our body is a product of Prakruti. Since these Three qualities are properties of Prakruti, all bodies of all living beings also have those properties. Lord Brahma and all living beings are all product of Prakruti. Beyond Prakruti is river Viraja and crossing that, one reaches Vaikuntam. Sri Vaikuntam is also known as Aprakrutha mandalam or place not formed from Prakruti. Persons in Vaikuntam are free from all these Three qualities..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-40..On Earth, on other worlds, in the higher celestial spheres and the lower demoniac planets, in all of creation from the highest material being known as Brahma down to a simple plant; there is no living entity anywhere in material existence that is exempt from the influence of the three gunas or modes of material nature which arise from prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence. Yet as the Vedic scriptures confirm by tyaga or renunciation one is released from the enslavement of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death and achieves moksa or liberation from material existence. As the means to moksa the tyaga does not differ from the meaning sannyasa symbolises which is also renunciation. Both mean the same and do not consider themselves the doer; but tyaga renounces the desire for rewards for actions and sannyasa renounces all actions. 1) Renunciation of rewards 2) Renunciation of thinking one is the doer 3) Renunciation for recognition for actions These three are realised by knowing that all is accomplished solely by the grace of the Supreme Lord Krishna alone and no other. This elevated state of consciousness can only be perceived under the dominating influence of sattva guna the mode of goodness and never raja guna the mode of passion or tama guna the mode of ignorance. In order to give credence and inspire regard for sattva guna that it is most worthy to be cultivated Lord Krishna had to show the demerits and deficiencies of raja and tama guna as well.

Now that the complex elaboration of the three gunas and their influence on the previously mentioned subjects by modifying them to manifest natural expression among the various classes of society while conforming to their individual and collective levels and classifications of existence. This will be illustrated to exemplify that all activities pertaining to moksa are of the nature of transcendence and are actually performed for the Supreme Lord. When such is invariably the case the actions performed themselves become the goal assuring communion with the Supreme Lord will be attained. How this is to be lucid and comprehensible will be revealed next.

 

brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ ca paraṃtapa
karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavair guṇaiḥ 18.41

Svabhavaprahavair gunai = the influence of these qualities [over infinite births], pravibhaktani = their actions or duties, way of life, make them as Brahmana, Kshtriya, Vaisya and Shudra..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-41..The word svabhava means one’s inherent nature. This inherent nature arises from samskaras or past impressions and karma or reactions from past actions and is the root cause of determining birth as a Brahmin. The three gunas or modes of material nature arising from prakriti or the material substratum pervading all existence are determined by karma and samskaras as well. The predominating attribute of the Brahmins or spiritual class is sattva guna the mode of goodness. The predominating characteristic of the ksatriya or administrative class is raja guna the mode of passion. The predominating characteristic of the vaisyas or mercantile class is tama guna mixed with raja guna and the predominating characteristic of the sudras is only tama guna. Duties and responsibilities vary according to position and status in society as assigned by the Vedic scriptures. It is the Vedic scriptures which defines what qualities are possessed by Brahmins and what are the duties proper to their status as well as what occupations they may engage in. This Vedic directive applies to the other orders in society as well.

 ..sloham 18-42..vyuha murthy..In Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam, in sloka 15, it is said:
Chaturatma chaturvyuha chaturdamshtra chaturbhuja:.…’
The Four [chatur] mentioned here pertains to the Four Murtys of Vyuham. The Four Murtys are Vyuha Vasudeva, Sankarshana,Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are the Four Murtys, the Lord has divided Himself..He is Vyuha Vasudeva and is in between Para Vasudeva and Vyuha Murtys Shankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. It is like a transition stage and can be compared to the intermediate stage between milk and curd. Para Vasudva is going to divide Himself into Three Murtys and Vyuha Vasudeva is intermediate stage..

  SHANKARSHANA PRADYUMNA ANIRUDDHA VYUHA VASUDEVA
RESIDENCE IN KSHEERABDI AMODHAM PRAMODHAM SAMMODHAM ANANDAM
COLOR IN VARIOUS YUG KRUTA: RED

TRETA: GREEN

DWAPARA: BLACK

KALI: WHITE

GREEN

BLACK

WHITE

RED

 

BLACK

WHITE

RED

GREEN

WHITE

RED

GREEN

BLACK

WEAPONS UPPER RIGHTHAND CONCH:

UPPER LEFT HAND:LOTUS

LOWER RIGHT HAND:MACE

LOWER LEFT HAND: DISCUS

CONCH

MACE

DISCUS

LOTUS

MACE

LOTUS

DISCUS

CONCH

 
DUTIES DESTRUCTION CREATION SUSTENANCE ALL THREE
CHARACTERS GYANA & BALA AISWARYAM & VEERTAM SHAKTI & TEJAS  
SVS DIVINE NAMES 123. MAHATAPA

124.SARVAGA:

125. SARVAVID

126.BHANU:

127.VISHVAKSENA

128.JANARDHANA:

 
KNOWLEDGE AS IN SVS DIVINE NAMES GRANTS VEDAS MAINTAINS VEDAS. CREATES TATVA GYANA AND RESTORES VEDAS.  
ADISHTANAM JEEVATMAN MANAS AHANKARAM

..śamo damas tapaḥ śaucaṃ kṣāntir ārjavam eva ca
jñānaṃ vijñānam āstikyaṃ brahmakarma svabhāvajam .

Brahmins perform these duties with these characters. Sama = controlling external sense organs, like eyes, ears, etc. Dama = control of mind, tapa = undergoing sufferings [like fasting, in Karmas permitted by Vedas]. This is like observing Ekadasi or performing Tarpanam for deceased ancestors. Saucam = cleaning [of body, to qualify to perform a karma], ksanti = observing patience [even when circumstances provoke], arjavam = honesty [mind should think good and speech and action to follow mind], jnanam = [real] knowledge [about the Lord or Brahmam], vijnanam = special knowledge [about the Lord’s all features, powers, capacity, etc.], astikyam = belief [that Lord is Most Supreme, Vedas are basic reference, atman and body are different, atman is servant to Paramatman, He is the controller and commander of Universe, He is good to all, His Divine feet are the only asylum for atman, etc. He believes in each of them as opposed to Nastikyam, saying ‘not’ for all above], all these are, brahmakarma = those involved in serving Brahmam [or Brahmins’ duties], svabhavajam = characteretics..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-42..The natural duties appropriate for the Brahmins the priestly class are the following: 1) Samah is control of the inner sense the mind. 2) Damah is restraint of the external senses. 3) Tapas is austerity of the body as prescribed in Vedic scriptures like fasting. 4) Saucam is purity, sanctifying oneself to perform Vedic ordained duties. 5) Ksantih is forbearance, maintaining composure from provocation of others. 6) Arjavam is uprightness, expressing to others what one thinks without duplicity. 7) Jnanam is knowledge of the Vedic scriptures. 8) Vijnanam is realising the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures. 9) Astikam is absolute, irreversible faith the veracity of the Vedic scriptures which is impervious to any attempt to dissuade it. Such a resolute conviction is aware that: A) the Supreme Lord Krishna is the ultimate creator, maintainer and sustainer of all creation and that He is localised within every living being throughout all existence as Paramatma the omnipresent, supreme soul and that His all pervasive impersonal aspect is the Brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and that His personal sound frequency is the transcendental sound vibration OM. B) The Supreme Lord Krishna and any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the indomitable antithesis to all that is evil and unrighteous. C) The Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations possess unlimited, glorious attributes and resplendent qualities such as omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, full power, full beauty, full cognizance, full renunciation, full opulence etc. which are eternal and transcendental.D) The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole object to be known in Vedic scriptures. E) He is the sole cause of all creation. F) He is the sole foundation of all creation. G) He is the Supreme controller of all creation. H) All prescribed Vedic activities enjoined to perform are variations of His worship I) Worshipped as such He confers blessings on humans according to their deeds.

This reality has already been evidenced in verses throughout Srimad Bhagavad-Gita like: In chapter 5, verse 29: One who understands that Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all achieves liberation. In chapter 7, verse 6: Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and destruction of all existence and in verse 7: There is nothing superior to Lord Krishna. All creation is dependent upon Him. In chapter 10 verse 3: One who knows Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all the worlds is not deluded among mortals and in verse 8: The wise know that Lord Krishna is the source of both the material and the spiritual worlds. In chapter 15 verse 15: Lord Krishna is the supreme soul within the heart of all living entities by the Vedas alone He is to be known and coming in chapter 18 verse 46: As everything is pervaded by Him, one attains perfection from performing prescribed Vedic activities to Lord Krishna. In this way this topic has been well evidenced.

 ..sloha 18-43,,Among Sri Vaishnava Acharyas, Swami Vatsya Varadacharya, more popularly known as Swami Nadadur Ammal, lived long back. He has composed Paratvati Panchakam stotram. In that he describes Vyuham as below:
Amode bhuvane pramoda uta sam.mode ca sankars.an.am.
pradyumnam.ca tath¯aniruddhamapi t¯an sr.s.t.i sthit¯ı c¯apyayam |
kurv¯an.¯an matimukhya s.ad.gun.avaraih.yukt¯am.striyugm¯atmakaih.
vy¯uh¯adhis.t.hitav¯asudevamapi tam.ks.¯ır¯abdhin¯atham.bhaje ||

“[I] bow to Ksheerabdinatha. He has evolved Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, for creation, sustenance and destruction. Their residences are amodam, pramodam and sammodam “. Modham means happiness. There are four stages in happiness. First we grasp the real nature of a matter. This is First stage, perception. When we attain that, it is second stage. Third stage is enjoying that matter. Fourth stage is the continuation of this enjoyment. These are the Four stages of happiness expressed as amodam, pramodam, sammodam and anandam. To indicate these four stages we have to imagine Visaka Yupa Sthambam. This is a tall pillar in Vaikuntam. It has four stages, with different names. We have four stages called Jagrata dasha [awakened], Swapa dasha [dreaming stage], Sushupti dasha [deep sleep] and Turiya dasha [fainted]. In the first dasha, we see everything and this is perception. In the second dasha, outside matter are not visible, but dreams are felt. This is attainment. In the third dasha it is deep sleep, without even dreams. Fourth dasha, turiya means like fainting. All these four indicate the four stages of happiness. We have to imagine this tall pillar. First we see Jagrata stage, where like four branches, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Vasudeva Murtys are there. Next is, Swapna stage, again with Four Murtys like four branches. Next is, Sushupti stage with Four Murtys. Finally, we see Turiya stage with Four Murtys. Vasudeva Murty in Eastern direction; Sankarshana in South; Pradyumna in Western direction; and, Aniruddha in North. A devotee has to perform upasana or devotion, starting from the lowest, Jagrata stage and raise every stage. This is why, the Lord is gracing in Ksheerabdi, in Vyuha form, dividing Himself into Four Murtys..

MURTY WEAPON IN ALL FOUR ARMS COLOR PART OF OUR BODY DIRECTION TAMIL MONTH REP. BY ADITYA SRI THAYAR DIVYADESAM OF SRI THAYAR WITH HER NAME THERE
KESAVA DISCUS GOLDEN FOREHEAD EAST MARGAZHI ANTA SRI: SRI RANGANAYAKI, SRIRANGAM
NARAYANA CONCH BLUE CENTRAL STOMACH WEST THAI BAGA AMRUTOTBHAVA SRI AMRUTAPALAVALLI, SHOLINGUR
MADHAVA MACE LIGHT BLUE CHEST FROM TOP MASI TVASHTA KAMALA SRI KAMALAVALLI WORAYUR
GOVINDA BOW MOONLIGHT CENTRAL NECK SOUTH PANGUNI VISHNU CHANDRA SHOBHINI SRI PARIMALA RANGANAYAKI TIRU INDALUR.
VISHNU PLOUGH YELLOW [POLLEN OF LOTUS] RIGHT STOMACH NORTH CHITTIRAI BASA VISHNUPATNI SRI

VANJULAVALLI NACCHIARKOIL.

MADUSUDANA PESTLE LOTUS RIGHT SHOULDER SOUTH EAST VAIKASI ARYAMA VAISHNAVI SRI YADUGIRI, MELKOTE.
TRIVIKRAMA SWORD FLAME RIGHT NECK SOUTH WEST AANI MITRA VARAROHA SRI VARAMANGAI, VANAMAMALAI.
VAMANA VAJRAM RISING SUN LEFT STOMACH NORTH WEST AADI VARUNA HARIVALLABHA SRI ANDAL, SRIVILLIPUTTHUR
SRIDHARA SPEAR WHITE LOTUS LEFT SHOULDER NORTH EAST AAVANI INDRA SARNGINI SRI KOMALAVALLI, KUMBAKONAM
HRISHIKESA HAMMER LIGHTNING LEFT NECK FROM BOTTOM PURATTASI VIVASWAN DEVADEVIKA SRI PERUNDEVI, KANCHI.
PADMANABHA ALL THE FIVE WEAPONS SUN BOTTOM BACK FROM HEART AIPPASI POOSHA MAHALAKSHMI SRI PADMAVATI, TIRUCCHANUR
DAMODARA ROPE BUTTERFLY BACK OF NECK FROM INSIDE AND OUTSIDE KARTHIKAI PARJANYA

śauryaṃ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
dānam īśvarabhāvaś ca kṣātraṃ karma svabhāvajam ..

Ksatram karma = duties of Kshatriya or rulers [are these]. Sauryam = bravery [not perturbed by opponent’s army and bravely facing. Person with sauryam is soora], tejo = courage [unconquerable], dhriti = determination [unperturbed at any obstacle and remaining steadfast], daksyam = capability to complete [task undertaken], yuddhe = in battles, apalayanam = never withdrawing at defeat [even if, to face death]…Danam = bountiful or charity..Isvarabhava = commandership or leadership..Leader or Iswara means Sri Rama only.

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-43..Lord Krishna describes the natural duties of ksatriya the royal governing warrior class. 1) sauryam is bravery, valour and intrepidness in conflict without hesitation. 2) tejah is courageous, fiery nature that does not back down. 3) dhritih is endurance to persevere in an endeavour despite difficulties. 4) daksyam is adroitness, dexterity the ability to adjust in th execution of duties. 5) apalyanam is absence of cowardice even in the case of life or death. 6) danam is benevolence, generosity to others in need. 7) isvara-bhavah the capacity to lead and govern dependents.

 ..sloha 18-44..Tirupparkadal or Ksheerabdi is 107th Divya Desam. Earlier we noted that the Fifth ocean is Ksheerabdi. The Lord there, is called Sri Ksheerabdi Natha or Sri Vyuha Vasudeva. Ashtanga Vimanam is here. Sri Kadal Magal Nacchiyar is gracing and in the midst of Amrut Teertham, the Lord is gracing. Excepting Tiruppan Alwar, all Alwars have praised the Lord here. Poet Pillai Perumal Ayyangar, in his 108 Tiruppati Andhadhi, has described this Kshetram…There are 147 pasurams on this Kshetram. Before that we will see what is described in 108 Tiruppati Andhadhi. In ‘thozhum vayanan..’, the poet says that if one holds on to the feet of the devotees of Ksheerabdi Natha, one’s problems would be solved. Let us now see one pasuram of each Alwar:
Poigai Alwar: The Lord is reclining in Ksheerabdi, to protect us.
Boothatalwar: The Lord is in Ksheerabdi as Destroyer [Sankarshana] during pralayam, Creator [Pradyumna] after pralayam and Sustainer [Aniruddha].
Peyalwar: The Lord on Ananta [Adisesha] comes to our mind and rescues.
Tirumazhisai Alwar: Oh! Adideva [Originator]! He is One in Paramapadam, Three and Four in Ksheerabdi, innumerous as Avatars and as Ksheerabdi Natha in Ksheerabdi and as Divya Mangala Murtys in all Kshetrams.
Nammalwar: Hearing that the luminous Lord is reclining in Ksheerabdi, makes one’s mind melt and body stagger.
Kulasekara Alwar: The Lord is mad of devotees and so He is at Ksheerabdi.
Periyalwar: Sacrificing Vaikuntam and Ksheerabdi, the Lord found comfort in Alwar‘s mind.
Sri Andal: The Lord is the seed, in Ksheerabdi [origin of creation].
Tondaradipodi Alwar: The waves of Ksheerabdi, sprinkle droplets on the Lotus eyed Lord.
Tirumangai Alwar: The Lord is reclining in Ksheerabdi, where even ships are moving

..kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṃ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam
paricaryātmakaṃ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam ..

Krsi = farming or cultivation, gauraksya = taking care of cows, vanijyam = commercial activities, vaisya karma = [these] are duties of Vaishya..If the Lord was asked to choose between being Lord of Nityasuris at Vaikuntam and being Sri Gopala, playing with Gopis and cows, He would prefer the latter..Swami Periyavacchan Pillai in his commentary, asks why the wife of the Leader of Gokulam, should do the churning? Could she not ask her servants to do that? He then answers that though she could be in such exalted position, could she forsake her swayam dharma or own duties? Can a rich man ask his servant to prostrate before God, on his behalf?! One has to do one’s own duty. Even Lord Sri Krishna never abandoned His duties! That is why in the war He decided to maintain Arjuna’s horses and be a mere driver! We can worship the Lord as Sri Gopala in Mannargudi or in Therazhundur..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-44..The natural duties allocated to the vaisyas or agricultural, mercantile class are: 1) krishi or farming. 2) go-raksa or cow raising and cow protecting 3) vanijyam or acts of commerce and trade endorsed by the Vedic scriptures. The natural duties of sudras or worker class are amenable service to the upper 3 classes.

Thus by defining the duties of the four classes in Vedic culture the necessary performance of prescribed Vedic activities and the appropriate participation of each of the four classes is implied. For example in yagna or ritualistic performance of propitiation and worship the Brahmins will perform the ceremony, the ksatriya will donate wealth, the vaisyas will supply the ingredients such as ghee or clarified butter and cow products, the sudras will serve the ksatriyas and vaisyas.

The Brahmins being naturally endowed with sattva guna the mode of goodness are allotted with samah or self control of the mind which bestows the purity required to perform Vedic rituals and ceremonies. Although qualified for initiation this was not allocated to ksatriya and vaisyas due to they having a preponderance of raja guna mode of passion and tama guna mode of ignorance which is not compatible with samah.

The Brahmins exemplify by example the teachings of the Vedic scriptures instructing others the proper way to live a human existence according to the status of life they are in. The ksatriyas duty is to righteously govern and protect the citizens of the country. The vaisyas duty is cow protection and cultivating food for the population. The sudras duty is to do all the menial services for a fair compensation, necessary for the upper three classes to discharge their duties expediently and efficiently.

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