Geetha Saram 18-33 to 18-39..

..sloha 18-33..

dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ
yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ pārtha sāttvikī

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-33..The potency of unwavering meditation and pranayama or breath control by which one enables and directs all the energies of the mind and controls the senses is an auxillary of yoga the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness and is the only means of moksa or liberation from material existence. Bhakti yoga is exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of authorised avatars or incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures. This is absolutely the only way one may be freed from the enslavement of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. There is no other alternative. Bhakti is glorious and sanctified, bestowing beatific bliss upon the performer and blessings upon all creation and is the only means for attaining the ultimate goal of all existence. On who has cast all other conceptions and designations far away and exclusively engages in bhakti yoga to the Supreme Lord with their mind, senses and body has their dhriti or determination situated fully in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

 ..sloha 18-34.and sloha 18-35…nymisaranyathil Vyasa Gati. It is also known as Jaimini Sthan. Here all important books are stored. On a pedestal, all books are kept and poojas are performed. It is customary to call the seat on which Upanyasakas [lecturers giving religious discourses] sit, as Vyasa Peetam. This is because sage Vyasa has done so much in spreading matters on Bhagavan. We see a portrait of sage Jaimini, to whom Vysa taught Sama Veda..we see an ancient temple. In the center is Vyasa and surrounding him is all books on Puranas, Itihsas and Vedas. In Naimisharanyam we have to see Three important spots: 1) Vyasa Gati. 2) The tree under which Vyasa preached his students. It is about 5,100 years old; that is, Vyasa was sitting here in the beginning of Kali Yug. 3) The temple for Vyasa…We will see Rajasa Dhruti in sloka 34:
yayā tu dharmakāmārthān dhṛtyā dhārayaterjuna
prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī

Partha = Arjuna, sa dhrti = that Dhruti is, rajasi = Rajasa [Dhruti]. Yaya tu dhrtya = by which resolve, dharma kama artha = righteousness, desires and materials..Dharayate = are sustained, prasangena = with attachment, phala akanksi = in desire for results, such a resolve is Rajasa Dhruti..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-34..The dhrita or determination that is influenced by raja guna the mode of passion is motivated by desire for rewards and desires for kama or enjoyment and artha or wealth and hopes for dharma or righteousness keeps the impetus activated. For these are the means by which one interacts in life using the mind, senses and physical body; but the rewards that are reaped are only material and temporary. Moksa or liberation form material existence is never able to be achieved if one is motivated for rewards for their actions. So Lord Krishna has confirmed that activities which engage the mind, senses and body for the purpose of recompense and rewards is situated totally in raja guna and although may achieve kama, artha and dharma such activities can never bestow moksa.

 yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madam eva ca
na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī ..

Partha = Arjuna, sa dhrti = that Dhruti is, tamasi = Tamasa [Dhruti]. Here, the Lord points to the person, possessing Tamasa Dhruti! Durmedha = [person with] evil knowledge..Satvika Dhruti resolves to gain only Moksham. Rajasa Dhruti resolves to gain others excepting Moksham. Tamasa Dhruti directs involvement in wrong matters. Yaya = by which [resolve], svapnam = dream [we have to interpret as sleep], madam = ego or pride [being well educated or born in famous family or being wealthy]. That dhruti which directs a person in laziness and ego, is Tamasa Dhruti. Bhayam = fear, sokam = sorrow, visadam = worries..Na vimuncati = unending or not getting released [from these wrongful actions]..

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-35..The word svapnam means slumber inferring slothfulness. Madam is the delusion of enjoying sense objects. The dharmedah or unintelligent fools do not oppose their mind from allowing their senses to buffet then hither and thither in pursuit of sense gratification. They even sanction such treatment to satisfy their desires. The terms bhayam or dread, sokam or grief and nisadam or dejection are the by products of this delusion and those who occupy their time and energy and waste their invaluable human life as such Lord Krishna confirms are indispensably situated in tama guna.

  ..sloha 18-36..and sloha 18-37..Veda Vyasa was preaching Vedas and Puranas. His disciple Romaharshana was taught Itihasa and Puranas and he spread them all over. Soota Pouranika was Romahashana’s son. In this place, once Romaharshana was preaching Puranas to his disciples. Sri Balarama, elder brother of Sri Krishna came to Naimisharanya. Romaharshana was so much involved in the Puranas, that he did not notice arrival of Sri Balarama. Thinking that he was humiliated, Sri Balarama, with his weapon, plough, killed him. All disciples were sad that such an eloqvent narrator Romaharshana was killed. They prayed the Lord, Who blessed Romaharshana’s son Soota Pouranika, with the same skill. After some days, Soota Pouranika resumed preaching Puranas. That way Srimad Bhagavatam was born here. Srimad Bhagavatam was preached earlier by sage Sukha to King Parikshit. Thus, the Purana composed by Vyasa was told by Sukha to Parikshit. While he was telling, Romaharshana, with the permission of Sukha, also listened to the narration. Romaharshana taught his son Soota and now, Soota was lecturing to his disciples. Sukha is personified as a parrot. This parrot pecked a fruit. Normally, parrot pecked fruits are sweeter. This fruit was Vedas, and we are now enjoying its juice..He described about Gyana, Karma, Karta, Buddhi and Dhruti, in the past slokas..He would explain what sukham was and tells sukham is also of Three types – Satvika Sukham, Rajasa Sukham and Tamasa Sukham..

sukhaṃ tv idānīṃ trividhaṃ śṛṇu me bharatarṣabha
abhyāsād ramate yatra duḥkhāntaṃ ca nigacchhati

We will first see the First line alone. Sukham tu = while happiness is, trividham = of Three types, srnu = listen, me = from Me [Sri Krishna], bharatarsabha = bull among men [Arjuna]. We should read the next line with the next sloka 37:

yat tadagre viṣam iva pariṇāmemṛtopamam
tat sukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktam ātmabuddhiprasādajam ..

Abhyasat = [this Satvika happiness is realized by] repeated practice, ramate = happiness is achieved, yatra = where, nigacchati = attains, dukhantam = the end of sorrows [in samsaram]. Yat = which [happiness], tadagre = in the beginning or initially, visam iva = will appear like poison, parinameva = [but] transforms [when continued and matures], amrtotpaman = [and is sweet] like Amrut or elixir..Tat sukham = that happiness is, proktam = called, sattvikam = Satvika [Sukham], atmabuddhiprasadajam = as a result of involving buddhi in atman itself..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-36..The aforementioned descriptions of knowledge, action, performer, etc. are all utilised for the purpose and intention of obtaining happiness as influenced by the three gunas or modes of material nature. Now Lord Krishna reveals that the sukham or happiness that one becomes habituated to by constant endeavour gradually deriving exquisite pleasure at the cessation of misery with the termination of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Such sukham is achieved by industrious effort right from its very commencement with the yoga of meditation and pranayama breathing exercises which bring the mind and senses under control. The singular, unique nature of such sukham never having been experienced seems to be like venom in the beginning, but in the end after a lifetime of devotional practice its unique, sublime nature becomes just like nectar. Such happiness arises solely from atma tattva or realisation of the immortal soul. The consciousness of one which is absorbed in the atma is one who can realise the atma. The bliss of tranquillity and serenity is experienced within after all conceptions and designations have been renounced except the atma. It is by such renunciation that the atma is perceived and its ananda or bliss experienced and it is this ananda that awards the highest happiness and such sukham is like nectar and situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

 ..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-37..The aforementioned descriptions of knowledge, action, performer, etc. are all utilised for the purpose and intention of obtaining happiness as influenced by the three gunas or modes of material nature. Now Lord Krishna reveals that the sukham or happiness that one becomes habituated to by constant endeavour gradually deriving exquisite pleasure at the cessation of misery with the termination of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Such sukham is achieved by industrious effort right from its very commencement with the yoga of meditation and pranayama breathing exercises which bring the mind and senses under control. The singular, unique nature of such sukham never having been experienced seems to be like venom in the beginning, but in the end after a lifetime of devotional practice its unique, sublime nature becomes just like nectar. Such happiness arises solely from atma tattva or realisation of the immortal soul. The consciousness of one which is absorbed in the atma is one who can realise the atma. The bliss of tranquillity and serenity is experienced within after all conceptions and designations have been renounced except the atma. It is by such renunciation that the atma is perceived and its ananda or bliss experienced and it is this ananda that awards the highest happiness and such sukham is like nectar and situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

 ..sloha 18-38..Hanuman Gaddi, where in Treta Yug, Hanuman carried Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders and came..In each of the Ramayana in other languages, some additional incidents can be seen, based on the local legends. In this way the story of Ahi Ravana and Mahi Ravana is found. They were Ravana’s children. Ahi Ravana, in the guise of Vibheeshana, came to the battle field, and took away Sri Rama and Lakshmana to Patal Lok, where Sri Rama and Lakshmana were to be offered as sacrifice [bali பலி கொடுப்பது]. If Sri Rama and Lakshmana were not there how the war could take place? Therefore, Hanuman went to Patal Lok in search of Sri Rama and Lakshmana. There, he caught Ahi Ravana and killed him. From there he lifted Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders and appeared at this place, Hanuman Gaddi. At a height of 21 Feet, in open space, we can worship Hanuman carrying Sri Rama. In one hand he is carrying a big hillock and in the left hand he is carrying Gada [mace]. Ahi Ravana is being pressed by Hanuman’s feet. On both the shoulders, he is carrying Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Since he appeared here spontaneously, we find the face of a hill itself as Hanuman. Besides, Pancha Pandavas establshed the temple and got Hanuman installed. Temple for Pandavas also can be seen at the foot of the hills. It is called Pandava Kila. Pandavas lived in the Third Yug, Dwapara Yug. Hanuman was in Treta Yug. Naimisharanyam was formed in Krita Yug. And, we are all now in Kali Yug, worshiping. Thus, Naimisharanyam is the confluence of Four Yugs..

viṣayendriyasañyogād yat tad agremṛtopamam
pariṇāme viṣam iva tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam ..

Tat sukham = that happiness is, rajasam sukham = Rajasa Sukham. Visaya indriya sanyogad = the union of object [of pleasure] and [corresponding] sense organ..Rajasa Sukham is association of body organs with materials. While, Satvika Sukham is association of Lord with mind! In Rajasa Sukham, if the objects of pleasures are removed, happiness will not be felt..Satvika Sukham is permanent. Tad = that [rajasa sukham] would be, agremrtopamam = initially like amrut or sweet, pariname = [but] transforms to, visam = poison [on continued use..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-38..The sukham or happiness of those who enjoy the objects of the senses and take great pleasure in sense gratification Lord Krishna states which seems like nectar in the beginning but which in the end after incessant repetition and habitual engagement seems to be just like a potion of poison when detected too late that such activities are a guaranteed premium paid reservation for samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death is situated in raja guna the mode of passion.

 ..sloha 18-39..Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy temple of Sri Ahobila Mutt.established about 50 years back..we can also have darshan at Sri Devaraja temple nearby. Sri Kanchi Varadaraja is gracing in Naimisharanyam, for a long time. We are welcomed by the Sri Rama sthupa raised during Sri Rama Yagna performed by Sri Sri Tridandi Sriman Narayana Jeer. After worshiping at Dwajasthambam, we go inside. We first worship Sri Thayar Sri Maha Lakshmi. The mantapa where Sri Thayar is gracing is very beautiful. She is seated with right hand showing Abhaya and left hand pointing to Her Divine feet. We go round the temple. Swami Ramanuja is gracing seated. Nearby, we can also worship Tirumangai Alwar. In the garbhagruham, Sri Devaraja is gracing. Like in Kanchipuram, the Lord is holding discus and conch in the upper hands, lower right hand is in Varada mudra, promising to grant all the devotees desire, and lower left arm holding mace. Sri Utsavar is with Sri Ubhaya Nacchiyar, with lower right hand in Varada mudra and lower left arm as Kati hasta. One wonders, whether He is Sri Srinivasa of Tirumala or Sri Devaraja of Kanchi.Outside, all the ten pasurams of Tirumangai Alwar on this Kshetram, are engraved in Devanagari script, with commentaries in Hindi. In one pasuram Alwar says that instead of remembering the Lord in the mind and not uttering His names in the mouth, many had lived; but we also know what was their fate. To avoid that, Alwar says that he had come to surrender to Him, Who is like poison to Asuras and Amrut to Devas, at Naimisharnyam.

yad agre cānubandhe ca sukhaṃ mohanam ātmanaḥ
nidrālasyapramādotthaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 18.39

Tat = that [sukham or happiness], udahrtam = is called, tamasam = Tamasa [Sukham]. Yad = which [sukham] is, agre ca = initially and, anubandhe ca = at the end, mohanam atmana = deludes atman. This will confuse atman to understand one for another. This sukham emanates from, nidra = sleep, alasya = laziness, pramada = carelessness, uttam = originated..we should sleep only for six hours-two yamam..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-30..That sukham or happiness which enthrals the jiva or embodied being both at the beginning and as well at the end even after the habitual, repetitive experience exhibits its true nature of enslavement and bondage to samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death is affirmed by Lord Krishna as tama guna the mode of ignorance. The word mohanam means delusion and is the obscuration of the true nature of reality. Nidra or slumber denotes unconsciousness which can transpire even while engaging in an act of enjoyment. Alasya is slothfulness, the lassitude which comes from habitually dulled senses and which certainly contributes to dullness of mind. Pramada is inattention to what is required and is connected to dullness of mind. So the delusive nature of nidra, alasya and pramada are all situated firmly in tama guna and along with the characteristics of raja guna are very detrimental to the aspiring jiva.

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