Geetha Saram 18-26 to 18-32..

..sloha 18-26..Yogi Partha Sarathy and yogi Singammaal ..appeared in her dreams and ordered that in Tiruppullani, where the Lord was Sri Dharba Sayana Perumal, the Utsavar idols would be found. In about 1898-99, this couple visited here. Within Five years, all construction was completed..She looked after the administration of the temple and also taught important aspects of Sri Vaishnava philosophy, and spread Swami Ramanuja Sampradhayam. Though her original name was Singammal, she was known popularly as Ammaji and the temple also was called Ammaji Mandir.
Sri Utsavar is Sri Rama standing at the center. He is holding His bow, Kodandam. On His side is Lakshmana, ever ready to serve Sri Rama. On the other side is, Sri Sita. Nearby is Sri Nartana Krishna, dancing! Next is Vishvaksena, the commander. Sri Balaji of Tirumala is also gracing here. Sri Ranganatha, the Lord, Who was worshiped by Sri Rama, is also here in a separate sannidhi. In this sannidhi, there is another set of Sri Rama, Sri Sita and Lakshmana! There is another sannidhi of Azhvars and Acharya..

muktasaṅgonahaṃvādī dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ
siddhyasiddhyor nirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate 18.26

Karta = [such a] doer, sattvika ucyate = is called Satvika [Karta]. Mukta sanga = sacrificed attachmants. That is abandoning kartrutva buddhi [feeling of I-am-doing], mamata [karma is for-me] and phalam [desire for rewards]. Anaham vadi = never speaking that [karma was] for self..Dhrti = [with] determination, utsahasamanvita = full of involvement..Siddhi asiddhi = accomplishment or not, nirvikara = not changing..

Satvika Karta. His attributes are:

  1. Total detachment.
  2. Never boasts.
  3. Resolute in performing karma.
  4. Full involvement.
  5. Unaffected by results.

..Satvika Karta performs karma for the pleasure of the Lord…

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-26..Now Lord Krishna describes the threefold effects of the three gunas or modes of material nature on a performer of activity beginning with sattva guna the mode of goodness. 1) muktah-sangah is free from attachment and exempt from desires for results. 2) anaham-vadi is free from egoism as the doer and hence devoid of pride. 3) dhrti is fortitude and determination in surmounting all odds for accomplishment. 4) utsaha is enthusiasm and zeal in undertaking prescribed Vedic activities. The words siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikarah means equipoise in success or failure of all activities, realising that all results are under the auspices of karma or reactions to actions and the ultimate will of the Supreme Lord. Such consciousness is situated in sattva guna.

 ..sloha 18-27..Lakshman ghat.. Adi seshan avatharam.. Ramar avatharitha pinbu avatharithu munnamey sri vaikundam ezunthu arulinavar..kaladevan/durvasar kathai..evan munnam sella kaaranam.

.rāgī karmaphalaprepsur lubdho hiṃsātmakośuciḥ
harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ

Parikirtita = such a person acting is, Rajasa karta= Rajasa Karta. Ragi = desirer [one who desires..Lubdha = calculative [in spending for noble causes]. . Himsatmaka = hurts others and himself.makes others to suffer for his work. Ravana made Mareecha to suffer to get his work done. Asuci = unclean..

Harsasokanvita = governed by the happiness and sorrow of performing a karma. That is he is moody and changes temperement. Thus, Rajasa Karta is qualified by:

  1. Desire in fame.
  2. Expects results.
  3. Ungenerous for good karma.
  4. Hurts others and self.
  5. Unclean.
  6. Mercurial.

..ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naiṣkṛtikolasaḥ
viṣādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate ..

Karta = such a performer is, ucyate = called, tamasa = Tamasa [Karta]. Ayukta = unqulified [to perform a karma]. Prakrta = ordinary learning [as opposed to learning Vedas]. Stabdha = like a wood [expressionless, with no interest to perform a karma]. Satha = [indulging in] evil karma [abhichara karmas, directing evil to others, something like witchcraft]. Naiskrtika = hurting others, alasa = very lazy [no interest to continue and complete task undertaken], visadi = displeasing [ always scornful behaviour], dirghasutri = scheming [against others as a habit] for a long time. Thus, Tamasa Karta is qualified as:

  1. Disqulified for a karma.
  2. Shallow learning.
  3. Expressionless.
  4. Practicing sorcery.
  5. Being cruel to others.
  6. Lazy.
  7. Unpleasant.
  8. Habitual schemer.

..Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-27..Now Lord Krishna describes the nature of one performing activities in raja guna the mode of passion. One who is ragi zealously ambitious in seeking fame, power, wealth, etc. One who is prepsuh always hankering for recompense and reward. One who is asucih or impure and greedy, envious and unrighteous causing injury to others by mental and physical cruelty. Such a one who is never in equipoise, who rejoices at success but is depressed by failure is indisputably known to be situated in raja guna.

 ..sloha 18-28..Charam means jumping and pracharam means making good jump. Jumping from this world to Sri Vaikuntam..also called guptar ghat..Gupt means secret or disappear..as a means to attain Moksham, Sri Rama was equal to Sahasranamam! we have to see Buddhi and Dhruti. Buddhi is intellect. Dhruti is determination. These two also vary according to the Three qualities.

.buddher bhedaṃ dhṛteś caiva guṇatas trividhaṃ śṛṇu
procyamānam aśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṃjaya ..

Dhananjaya = Arjuna! It seems when Arjuna visited places [dik vijayam], he used to distribute wealth [dhanam  to all and thus conquered desire for wealth. So he is called Dhananjaya. The Lord says that conquering wealth was not a great feat, but he must be victorious in Buddhi and Dhruti! Bhuddher bhedam = difference in intellect, dhrte caiva = and also of [difference in] determination, gunata = on the basis of quality [satvam-rajas-tamas], trividham = are Three types, asesena = without any balance [exhaustively], prthakvena = separately, procyamanm = to be told [by the Lord], srnu = listen..Buddhi precedes Gyana..Buddhi is the threshold to Gyana..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-28..The threefold characteristics have been described by the knowledge of the action to be don0-e, by the method of the action to be done and by the performer of the action done. Next the threefold nature of buddhi or intelligence and dhriti or determination which are the essential factors for ascertaining what is truth and what is reality. Buddhi is the intelligent function of intellect that ascertains existence. Dhriti is the steadfast resolve that stands for righteousness in accomplishing the objective. Next Lord Krishna will illustrate the three gunas or modes of material natures influence upon them both.

..sloha 18-29..Goprachara TeerthamCharam means jumping and pracharam means making good jump. Jumping from this world to Sri Vaikuntam, is not an easy task. But, Sri Rama made all His people to jump to Vaikuntam, very easily! That is why this place is called Prachara Teertham..The place where Sri Rama departed for Sri Vaikuntam, is known as Guptar Ghat..Lord Shiva replies that Divine name Sri Rama was equal to the Thousand Divine names…

buddher bhedaṃ dhṛteś caiva guṇatas trividhaṃ śṛṇu
procyamānam aśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṃjaya ..

Dhananjaya = Arjuna! It seems when Arjuna visited places [dik vijayam], he used to distribute wealth [dhanam धनम्] to all and thus conquered desire for wealth. So he is called Dhananjaya…Bhuddher bhedam = difference in intellect, dhrte caiva = and also of [difference in] determination, gunata = on the basis of quality [satvam-rajas-tamas], trividham = are Three types, asesena = without any balance [exhaustively], prthakvena = separately, procyamanm = to be told [by the Lord], srnu = listen..Buddhi precedes Gyana..Buddhi is the threshold to Gyana..Dhruti is determination, once a decision is made..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-29..The threefold characteristics have been described by the knowledge of the action to be done, by the method of the action to be done and by the performer of the action done. Next the threefold nature of buddhi or intelligence and dhriti or determination which are the essential factors for ascertaining what is truth and what is reality. Buddhi is the intelligent function of intellect that ascertains existence. Dhriti is the steadfast resolve that stands for righteousness in accomplishing the objective. Next Lord Krishna will illustrate the three gunas or modes of material natures influence upon them both.

  ..sloha 18-30..King Ikshvaku, brought the Lord with the Vimanam, and installed in a grand temple in Ayodhya. Starting from Ikshvaku, every succeeding Kings, like Dilipa, Sakara, Bhagiratha, Ambarisha, Mandhata, Amshuman, etc., worshiped the Lord. Finally after Aja and his son Dasaratha, Sri Rama worshiped the Lord in Ayodhya. While in Ayodhya, the Lord was not known by the name Sri Ranganatha. The Lord was then known as Sri Narayana and Sri Jagannatha..

pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye
bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī

Partha = Arjuna!, sa buddhi sattviki = that buddhi is called Satvika [Buddhi]. Which one? That Buddhi, pravrtti = [which guides to] pravrutti marg for worldly happiness, ca nivrttim = and Moksham for eternal happiness, karya akarya = [distinguishes between] actions to be done and not to be done, bhaya abhaye = [differentiates as to which should be] feared and not feared, bhandam = [understands what all make us] bound [in samsaram], moksam = liberation [from samsaram], vetti = understand. Thus Satvika Buddhi should guide one to:

  1. Worldly happiness, in pravrutti Marg.
  2. Eternal happiness, in Moksham, in Nivrutti marg.
  3. Actions which are do’s and don’t’s.
  4. Afraid or not afraid of things or activities.
  5. Things that would bind us in samsaram.
  6. Things that would liberate us from samsaram.

That Buddhi or intellect which would guide the person to true Gyana as above, is Satvika Buddhi..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  for sloha 18-30..1) pravrttinca is actions performed under the auspices of dharma or righteousness 2) nivrittinca is refraining from actions opposed to dharma which gives liberation 3) karya-akarye is knowing what is appropriate according to time, place and circumstance whether adhering to pravrittinca or nivrittinca 4) bhaya-abhaye is fear stemming from not adhering to the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and fearlessness is by observing the ordinances of the Vedic scriptures 5) bandha is samsara or enslavement in the perpetual cycle of birth and death 6) moksa is liberation from material existence and release from samsara

Lord Krishna is affirming the essentials of those whose buddhi or intellect is situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness as only they have the ability to realise these points.

 ..sloha 18-31and 18-32….Nymisaranyam..Saranagati is to think His Divine feet are the means and asylum, for obtaining Moksham for us. Charanam + iti + Aagati = Saranagati. Person, who comes to the Lord and states that He is the only means and He is the destination, is called Saranagata. Saranagati is unconditional surrender..Naimisharanyam is a beautiful place. The Lord is here in the form of forest [Aaranyam ]. In Pushkar, the Lord appears in the form of water..This gomathi  river is also called Dhenumati [dhenu = go = cow]. Go also means water. So this river has plenty of water. This river flows from Himalayas and should not be confused with Gomati river in Dwaraka, where the river flows West. Here, Gomati river mixes with Ganga, near Kanpur..

yayā dharmam adharmaṃ ca kāryaṃ cākāryam eva ca
ayathāvat prajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī
Partha = Arjuna, sa buddhi = that intellect is, rajasi = Rajasa [Buddhi]. Yaya = by which [buddhi], dharmam adharmam = misunderstands Dharma as Adharma..Karyam ca akaryam eva = mistakes between do’s and don’ts..

Ayathavat = reversing the true nature. By this one mistakes one for another. Prajanati = [like this] guides to understand. So, Rajasa Buddhi guides:

  1. To mistake Dharma for Adharma.
  2. To provoke to do an action not to be done, and vice versa.
  3. To misunderstand one for another, by suppressing the true nature

..Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-31..Here Lord Krishna explains that the buddhi or intellect of those situated in raja guna the mode of passion are unable to discern between the two types of dharma or righteousness given in the previous verse or their opposite of adharma or unrighteousness which subjects one to inappropriate actions according to time, place and circumstances.

 ..adharmaṃ dharmam iti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā
sarvārthān viparītāñś ca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī

Partha = Arjuna, sa buddhi = that buddhi is, tamasi = Tamasa [Buddhi]. Tamasavrta = [an atma] surrounded by Tamas quality, manyate = understands, adharmam dharmam iti = understands Adharma as Dharma..

Sarvarthan = all matters are, viparitan ca = indicated wrongly. This Buddhi will guide to understand wrongly all things. Instead of appreciating Lord’s auspicious qualities, it will guide to describe them as illusion. Tamasa Buddhi will guide:

  1. Adharma as Dharma.
  2. Misapprehand matters.

..Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-32..Now Lord Krishna states that the buddhi or intellect of those in tama guna or mode of ignorance are enveloped in the darkness of consciousness. What they perceive is a distortion of reality. They think what is worthy is worthless and what is worthless is worthy, what is fact is fiction and what is fiction is fact what is inferior is superior and what is superior they consider inferior. They are easily led astray having no grasp of truth and no scope for what is real and what is unreal and thus endlessly they revolve in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death..

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