Geetha Saram 18-12 to 18-17..

..sloha 18-12..Sarayu nathi then karaiyil Ayodya ..Manas saovar-brahma bakthi uruhi varum nathi ethu. pinbu kizakku poy gangaiyudan kalakirathu..Sarathi hi sarayu – because it is flowing it is Sarayu. Sage Vasishta is said to have brought the river from North. Sarayu is to have originated from the eyes [netram – of Sriman Narayana, and so it is Netrata! Sage Vasishta, who was the family Guru of Ikshvaku dynasty, desired all Kings should get the blessings of the Lord, and so he brought it from Manasarovar, down South and so it is known as Vaasishti..pinda pradanam/pithru tharbanam/go daanam engey panninaal viusesham..vaitharini nathi pasuvin vaalai podithu pithrukal thaanduvaar kalaam..ashoka vanathil ramar pannina go danam solli sirithaal seethaa devi..

aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam
bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit

..one had to perform those karmas without desire in results, but as a pooja for the Lord and think that such act would please the Lord. If we desired in that manner and performed the karma, then that karma would fetch us this pleasure of the Lord and this in no way would be against reaching Moksham. Therefore, we have to perform these prescribed karmas, in accordance with our varna-asrama Dharma, without aspiring for any inferior results, but purely as Bhagavataradhanam and for His pleasure…This is in logic [tarkam] called viniyoga- prutakya nyayam.. Vniyoga means objective and prutakya means different. Anistam = undesirables [like hell], istam = desirables [like swarga], misram = combined [like the life in this world mixed with happiness and sorrow], karmana = actions’, phalam = results are, trividham = Three types [as mentioned – only happiness or only sorrow or mixture]. Who will get these Three results? Atyaginam = [persons who do] not sacrifice [results], bhavati = realize these results, pretya = after completing the karma. Samnyasinam = [but] for sanyasi [person, who has sacrificed results and perform karma], na kvacit = never happens…

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-12..

There are three types of rewards that a jiva or embodied being accepts after death as a result of actions. They are anistam or hellish rewards in naraka the hellish planets, istam or godly rewards in svarga the heavenly realms and misram or human rewards in the material worlds. These results only bind those who have not renounced the desire for rewards for their actions expecting renumeration. The three types of renunciation to be abandoned are: the rewards of the actions, the attachment to the actions for the reward and the sense of authorship as the doer. If these three are relinquished then there is no bondage to any action. The word preyta means after death when in the next life the appropriate rewards will be reaped but it does not preclude that some results cannot be experienced even before death such as having a son or being exposed and that as such renunciation may still be applied even while receiving the results in life. But the emphasis is on renouncing the desires to receive rewards for one’s actions. Anyway even if there is some desire for rewards one should never under any circumstances peform any activity inimical to the Vedic scriptures, the Supreme Lord Krishna or His devotees the Vaisnavas.

It is undeniably true that prescribed Vedic activities are obligatory for everyone according to varnasrama or rank and status in life. This is confirmed by the fact that one is born automatically in a certain family, in a certain society, country, continent, planet, etc. based on the hankering for rewards in the previous life by which karma or reactions to actions were incurred awarding the results of one’s past life activities. Yet the very same prescribed activities performed without desire for rewards bestows completely different results. This is known as known as viniyogah prithaktva nyaya and is the justification of dispensation by appropriate application. The aspirant for moksa or liberation from material existence who does not desire any rewards is awarded something different then the furtive hankerer. As declared previously, by study of the Vedic scriptures, by yagna or ritual propitiation and worship, by tapah or austerities and by danam or charity the Vaisnava Brahmins seek to commune with the Supreme Lord. Hence the sannyasa or renunciation that is revealed in the Vedic scriptures is non-different from tyaja the renunciation of the desire for rewards, both which include absence of authorship and ego sense and no attachment. In this way prescribed Vedic activities and obligatory activities can be performed without reactions proving the reality that the cessation of all activity is not necessary neither is it feasible or even practical.

The manner of divesting from oneself conceptions of authorship thinking of oneself as the doer is to be situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness and assign authorship of all actions which conform to Vedic scriptures over to the Supreme Lord. From this correct determination arises the feeling of selflessness while performing actions and an absence of desire in actions performed. The Supreme Lord controls everything external through His agency of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence and its triplicate agency of the three gunas or modes of material nature which impels all jivas or embodied beings to follow the impulses of the pranas or life airs and the natural propensities of the body they inhabit based upon karma or reactions to actions due to desire for rewards in previous lifetimes. Hence even the gratification of the senses such as appeasing one’s appetites and all activities which natures demands necessitates all belong to the Supreme Lord and not the individual. Surrendering all actions solely unto the Supreme Lord is the understanding aspirants are imbued with.

..sloha 18-13..vasishta beedam in Ayodhya..Sri Rama and His Three brothers studied here only [gurukula vasam]…We see sage Vasishta with his wife Arundati on his left. Sarayu river was born as daughter to Vasishta and Arundati. Sarayu is on his right side. We can also see Sri Rama, Sri Sita, Lakshmana and Anjaneya..As we go down further through long steps, we find water filled Vasisht kund. This pond was supplying water to the Ashram of Vasishta. Water for this kund comes straight from Sarayu river. The water level of Sarayu river and Vasisht kund are always same. Near this kund is written Sarayu’s history, tapas of Vasishta, reasons for names of Sarayu like Netraja, Vaasishti, Ragabandha, etc. In this place Sri Rama studied from sage Vasishta. He studied for Tweleve years only…At present we are going to see a very important spot. In this place Putrakameshti Yaga was performed. This place is called Yagnashala, Yagna Bhoomi, Putra Kama Ishti Bhoomi, etc. There is Yagna bhoomi in Vasishta’s Ashram we already visited. This Yagna Bhoomi is about 20 KMs from there. Here the King invited sage Rishyasringa and performed a yagna, when a Deva emerged from the havan kund, with a vessel containing payasam..

pañcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me
sāṃkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām

..Mahabaho = long handed [Arjuna]! Perhaps, Sri Krishna is pointing to Arjuna’s muscle strength, so that he should get mental strength also from His teachings. Etani = these, panca karanani = five reasons, me = from Me [Sri Krishna], nibhoda = learn. The Lord asks Arjuna to learn from Him the Five reasons. Sarvakarmanam = all actions, siddhaye = to fructify or even to start yielding results. Sarva karmani includes all domestic [laukika] karmas and also Vedic [Vaideeka] karmas…Sankhya = buddhi or intellect, in accordance with Vedas. Krta = to be done, ante = decision.A princess uses a parrot for her plays. Surely, here, princess only enjoys. But to keep her enjoyment, she nourishes the parrot. Unless, the parrot is well looked after, she can not enjoy. Therefore, whatever parrot does, like eating and sleeping, is all for the enjoyment of the princess. Similarly, we are like the parrot and all our actions like eating, etc., are meant for the Lord, like the princess! Therefore, we are not doers, nor karmas are ours and neither results are ours. We should note tha sankhya mentioned is not about sankhya philosophy, which never accepts there is Lord or Sarveshvara! Sankhya here means intellect conforming to Vedas…

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-13..

The word sankhya means rational, analytical reasoning and refes to the sankhya philosophy established by Lord Krishna’s incarnation of Kapila Deva. The word kritante means deriving the perfect conclusion of the categorical and essential nature of all things based upon the tenents, ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The five causes Lord krishna will reveal are component factors combining to manifest individual acts. The word nibodha meaning comprehend denotes that they must be contemplated and reflected upon. The absolute conclusion of the Vedic scriptures verily regards Lord Krishna’s expansion as paramatma the Supreme Soul existing simultaneously in the etheric heart of all living entities as the sole author of all acts. The body, the prana or life airs, the ego, the senses, the are the four instuments of the atma or individual soul which is powered by paramatma the Supreme Soul. Evidence confirming this is found in the Taittiriya Upanisad II.III.I beginning prana deva anu prananti meaning: That which is within the body is the prana and that which is seated within the body is the the atma and that which rules the immortal atma is paramatma.

.sloha 18-14 and sloha 18-15…hanuman gadi..Steep steps and tall gopuram welcome us.There is an Yagnashala, where daily yagna is performed. Through out the day, Hanuman is offered ‘Bhog‘ [eatables]. Apart from fresh preparations, Hanuman is also offered eatables we procure from outside. These are returned to us as prashad! Hanuman lived for a long time in Ayodhya – he is still living in Ayodhya..Tamil Poet Kamba says that during coronation, Hanuman supported the Simhasanam or throne [Ariyanai anuman thanga அரியணை அனுமன் தாங்க]. It is a great fortune to worship Hanuman here. Hanuman is gracing as Vinaya Anjaneya with folded hands…In Upanishads it is said ‘nanyapantha: ayanaya vidyate tamevam vidwan amrutam ihabavati ‘ – to reach Moksham, other than Gyana marg, there is no other means.We had earlier seen that for doing an acton Paramatman [God], Jeevatman [self], our body [essential for the atman to reside], organs of the body and the Five pranas [airs, indicating the body was active] are necessary. An association of all these Five only can initiate any action…

adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā kartā karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham
vividhāś ca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam

arīravāṅmanobhir yat karma prārabhate naraḥ
nyāyyaṃ vā viparītaṃ vā pañcaite tasya hetavaḥ

..Tasya hetava panca = for that, factors are Five. That is, for all our actions or karmas, Five are responsible. Sarira = by body, vak = by speech, manobhi = and also by mind, yat karma = whichever action, nara = human, prarabhate = initiates, nyayyam va= justified [by Vedas], viparitam va = restrained [by Vedas]…Adhisthanam = body [occupied by soul], tatha kartha = and the doer, that is atman or soul, prthag = different, vidham = types, karanam = implements [to perform various actions – like karmendriya mouth, hands, legs, excretion and reproductive organs, etc., and gyanendriya like eyes, nose, tongue, ears, skin, etc., and various others], prthakcesta = involved in various activities [Five vayus or airs – prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana, each having different tasks like for respiration, exhaust gas, keeping pressure balance in the body, for yawning, for assisting limbs to move, for digestion, etc.], caiva = and, atra = here [where all these Four factors are described], daivam = God [most important and all controlling Lord], pancamam = [these] Five [factors]. Body, atman, organs and airs are important; but all these Four factors are controlled by the Lord, and all these constitute Five factors. Atra word qualifies only daivam and so all the other Four [body, soul, organs and airs] are controlled and commanded by God..

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-14..

The word sankhya means rational, analytical reasoning and refes to the sankhya philosophy established by Lord Krishna’s incarnation of Kapila Deva. The word kritante means deriving the perfect conclusion of the categorical and essential nature of all things based upon the tenents, ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The five causes Lord krishna will reveal are component factors combining to manifest individual acts. The word nibodha meaning comprehend denotes that they must be contemplated and reflected upon. The absolute conclusion of the Vedic scriptures verily regards Lord Krishna’s expansion as paramatma the Supreme Soul existing simultaneously in the etheric heart of all living entities as the sole author of all acts. The body, the prana or life airs, the ego, the senses, the are the four instuments of the atma or individual soul which is powered by paramatma the Supreme Soul. Evidence confirming this is found in the Taittiriya Upanisad II.III.I beginning prana deva anu prananti meaning: That which is within the body is the prana and that which is seated within the body is the the atma and that which rules the immortal atma is paramatma.

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloham 18-15..

The actions enacted by mind, speech and body which are righteous and meritorious are those that are sanctioned by the Vedic scriptures. Those actions which are unrighteous and unmeritorious are those that are prohibited and those not prescribed in the Vedic scriptures.

In all actions of any nature whether pertaining to mind, speech or body the following are the five-fold cause. 1) Adhistathanam the physical body comprising the five elements of material creation. 2) Karta the jiva or embodied being endowed with the properties of intelligence and action giving the ability to think and act accordingly. 3) Karanam are the various organs such as eyes, ears etc. along with those of locomotion such as feet, hands, etc. endowed with functions of combining to produce actions. 4) Pranas is the vital airs which in the form of automatically breathing sustains life 5) Paramatma the Supreme Soul exists simultaneously within all jives as the witness and monitor and includes the atma or individual immortal soul.

That the jivas ability to perform activities is dependent upon paramatma but not influenced by Him is confirmed in Vedanta Sutra II.III.XXXX beginning krita prayatnapek shastu vihita prati siddha meaning: The Supreme Lord impels the jivas according to their nature and tendencies from previous activities and does not interfere in the freewill or invalidate the injunctions or ordinances of the Vedic scriptures in any way.

It might be speculated with an objection that if the jiva performance of action is dependent upon and is a consequence of paramatma then there is no need to be concerned about karma or reactions from actions. But this is an erroneous conception and not harmonious with the injunctions and interdictions of the Vedic scriptures. Paramatma grants the jiva a physical body and its organs to function by the powers inherent in them. All jives are empowered by and dependent upon paramatma without exception. The jivas thus equipped to function are factually dependent upon paramatma although they have been bequeathed freewill which is above instinctual animal behaviour and if they choose to utilise it they have the ability to determine and choose their actions and execute the appropriate effort for such to manifest. Internally within the etheric heart paramatma unbeknownst to the jiva is monitoring all thoughts and actions, sanctioning them silently by not interfering in the freewill of any jiva. The jiva in this sense is the secondary doer because of freewill and thus is subject to the mandatory results of karma or reactions to actions. Just as a heavy boulder requires the combined efforts of many people to move it yet the person for whom it is effected for derives the benefit or detriment of its removable. In the same manner the effort to accomplish an action although comprised of different elements, bestows the positive or negative results to the jiva who enacted the effort.

..sloha 18-16..Nandigram..15 miles south of Ayodya..seeing hanuman and barada-One was the devoted brother of Sri Rama, while the other was the faithful servant of Sri Rama; one was worshiping Sri Rama as elder brother, while the other was His messenger. It was like the union of Bhakti and Bhakti, Gyana and Gyana, and Vairagya and Vairagya! Asakrutva Anusandhanam’s personification were Bharata and Hanuman! Each embraced the other..A great old person is maintaining this for the past 70 years or so. He is so intimately connected with this, that Bharata and Hanuman converse with him!..seeing both we will know we are never independent [swatantram], but dependent [paratantram] on another Entity

..tatraivaṃ sati kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tu yaḥ
paśyaty akṛtabuddhitvān na sa paśyati durmatiḥ..

..asyati = sees, na pasyati = does not see..Evam sati = while it is so [that the Lord is the Motivating Force to act, as explained in the previous slokas], tatra = there [where one tries to understand atman], kevalam = only, atmanam = atma or self is, kartaram = doer or performer, yah = [he,] who, pasyati = looks, akrtabhuddhitvan = with intellect not obtained properly [by understanding of Shastras], sa = he, na pasyati= does not see, durmati = [he is] fool [evil knowledged]…This way asakrutva anusandhanam is explained by the Lord…

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-16..

So because verily the jiva or embodied being is subject to the sanction of paramatma the Supreme Soul, one should never consider themselves as independent nor think of themselves as the doer of anything. Lord Krishna states that one who erroneously does so will be durmati one whose intelligence is perverted and deluded and thus bewildered is oblivious that other elements are the essential factors in manifesting all activities.

sloha 18-17..aayiram ramar ennaiyaavaro baranukku yenkiraar kambar..In the basement we can see Sri Rama’s Padukas! In Chitrakoot, Sri Rama gave His Padukas and Bharata carried them on his head. After paying his respects to Sri Rama, Bharata along with Shatrugna, came to Nandigrama. He placed the Padukas on a throne and performed Pattabhishekam to the Padukas!.Even if the open sky was paper and all the Seven seas were full of ink, and if the 1000 hooded Adisesha were to write, Padukas’ glory could never be completed!-says Desikar..Sri Rama mortgaged His Padukas, so that He could be let off by Bharata, in the bargain! Thus Padukas are more valuable than Sri Rama!..Daily Bharata used to perform Abhishekam to the Padukas, with water from Sarayu river. In the Padukas preserved here, we can note Royal features in them. We find the markings of Chakra, Shanka, Dwajam, Ankusham, Kamalam, Sun, Moon, etc. We worship the Padukas. They are so shaped that the top [front] and bottom [back] are wide and the middle is narrow..The middle portion did not feel the touch of His Divine feet and so yearning for that touch, middle portion pined and grew slimmer! This is how Swami Desika praises Padukas. After Bharata performed Abhishekam for the Padukas, the water drained and mingled with the river, which merged with the Ocean in the East.In the 14 year rule, the Kingdom prospered and Nine times the revenue was presented presented to Sri Rama! Bharata would say that he did not rule, only Padukas ruled the country…

asya nāhaṃkṛto bhāvo buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvā.api sa imāṃl lokān na hanti na nibadhyate.

Hatva api sa= even if he was a killer of, imam lokan = all [the people] in this world, na hanti = he is not a killer…Na nibadhyate = [he] is not immersed [in the papa of killing]. It is like, though Bharata ruled, yet he was not the ruler. He ruled as Padukas’ representative and as his duty, entrusted by Sri Rama. He never considered it as his kingdom [mamata tyagam]; he never thought he was ruling [kartrutva tyagam]; and, he never for a moment thought all comforts of good Kingdom was his [phala tyagam]…Yasya bhava = whose mind or behaviour is, na ahamkrta = was not the result of ego or ahankaram [that is not a result of I-am-doer] [kartrutva tyagam], yasya = [and] whose, buddhi = intellect, na lipyate = not touched [by possessiveness and rewards] [mamata tyagam and phala tyagam].

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloha 18-17..

The word ahankarah means the ego and refers to one who thinks themselves the doer of actions. It is an erroneous figment of the mind that illusorily attaches itself to one’s own self the conviction that: I myself am doing such and such action. This false notion arises out of identification with the false ego and infatuation to a bodily conception. Such notion and conceptions are completely absent in those of spiritual intelligence who have surrendered themselves to the Supreme Lord. The words na lipyate means not attached to the rewards of actions. Since one of spiritual intelligence understands that they are never independent they realise that the rewards from their actions is not of their concern. Hence they do not consider themselves the doer and are solely dependent upon the Supreme Lord. Whose intelligence has been refined in this manner is known to be purified and untainted. The inference is that although one may perform innumerable activities they perform them not because they are bereft of considering themselves the doer they are not subject to be a recipient to receive the consequent merits or demerits resulting from any action. This highly evolved consciousness of being fully dependent upon the Supreme Lord and never considering oneself as the doer of any action arises out of a jiva or embodied being prevalence of sattva guna the mode of goodness. Therefore it is a virtuous trait and worthy of acquisition to be cultured and implemented. Next the differentiation of actions resulting from interaction and influences of the three gunas or modes of material nature will be examined by Lord Krishna in detail to illustrate from where the inducement and incentive to perform actions arises.

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