Geetha Saram 17-27 to 18-1..

..sloham 17-27..In Bharat dynasty were born Pandu and Dhridarashtra. To get relieved of the curse of sage Durvasa, Pandu came and lived here and so this place is called Pandukeshwar.  Pandukeshwar is on the way to Badrinath. This place is situated on Ganga river..Swami Ramanuja had come here and stayed. Where Pandu meditated and where Swami Ramanuja stayed, there is a temple for Swami Ramanuja. As if this place is connected with him, names here are interesting! The river is called Sesha Dhara; nearby forest is called Sesha Vanam; and, the mountain is called Sesha parvat! Sesha means Adisesha, who incarnated as Swami Ramanuja! In Swami Ramanuja temple, we can see Sri Seshasayi Perumal, reclining on Adisesha! It seems the Lord was in Ganga river for Thousand years and was discovered by a noble person, in whose dreams the Lord indicated the place, where He was lying! A very beautiful idol, with Sri Maha Lakshmi at His Divine feet! Swami Ramanuja is seated with right hand in Upadesa mudra and left arm holding manuscript! He is seated on a Sesha peetam and the hood of the serpent is like umbrella. Nearby is an idol of Nammalwar. There is also an idol of Sri Sakshi Gopal, crawling with butter in one hand! Here a Go-shal [cow shed] is maintained. Since all pilgrims might not be able to come here and worship the Lord, a Sri Raghunatji Mandir is on the main road itself. We can worship marble idols of Sri Rama, Sri Sita and Lakshmana. In Pandukeshwar, Dhyana Badri and Yoga Badri are there.The Lord appeared to King Pandu, when he was meditating here, and so He is also appearing in meditating pose! And so, He is holding the conch in the right hand and discus in the left hand! Beneath Him is Sri Utsavar. Nearby is Sri Lakshmi Narayana Perumal, seen embracing Sri Lakshmi. On another side we can note Madri, second wife of King Pandu…

yajñe tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ sad iti cocyate
karma caiva tadarthīyaṃ sad ity evābhidhīyate ..

..Yajne tapasi dane ca = yagnas, tapas [meditation] and danam [charity], sthiti = are sustained [by SAT]…Karma caiva = even such Vedic karmas or activities..Tad artiyam = such karmas are meant for such Vedic scholars to perform, sad ity eva = is also SAT, abhidiyate = as told…In Chandokya Upanishad it is told that a father preached his son. He says SAT is Sriman Narayana or Brahmam. ‘San moola: somya! ima sarva praja: sadaayatana: sat pratishta:’ – ‘ My dear son! All those which are perceived in the Universe, including movables and stationary, have originated from SAT. They are sustained by SAT. And, merge with SAT in pralayam’! Thus Brahmam or God is SAT responsible for Creation, Sustenance and Convergence in the end. Swami Koorattalwan says that Mahopanishad and Subalayopanishad, etc., say that SAT, Brahmam, etc., convey Sriman Narayana..

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloham 17-27.. The Supreme Lord Krishna explains that the word SAT denotes eternal existence and perpetual goodness. The words sad-bhave exemplifies eternal existence and the words sadhu-bhave exemplifies perpetual goodness. This is the correct understanding in which SAT is to be comprehended in the Vedas as well as its utilisation by the recitation of SAT in prescribed Vedic rituals performed exclusively by the Vaisnavas and brahmanas. Similarly the transcendental sound of SAT may be evoked for any auspicious activity ordained by the Vedic scriptures by duly initiated Vaisnava brahmanas in any of the 480,000 types of humans existing throughout creation.To follow the prescribed Vedic duties of yagna or propitiation and worship by the Vaisnava brahmanas, tapah or austerities by the ksatriyas the royal warrior class and danam or charity by the vaisyas or merchant class are all considerd in sattva guna or mode of goodness because they are conscientiously following the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. Thus all such activities are known as SAT denoting perpetual goodness and due to being dedicated to the Supreme Lord they possess auspicious attributes of an eternal nature and for this they are also known as SAT.

Thus the relationship of OM TAT SAT to the Vedas, the performance of prescribed Vedic activities performed by Vaisnava brahmanas and protected by the ksatriyas while supported by the vaisyas clearly and succinctly demonstrates what is factually Vedic in society and what is actually situated in sattva guna while simultaneously clarifying comprehensively by the logic of opposing parallels what is not Vedic in society and thus doomed to the perdition of exclusion from the ascending orbit of sattva guna.

 ..sloham 17-28.. Kandam yennum kadi nahar-Deva prayag..saranagathi.ananya sharanathvam..His feet is the only means..purushartham is kainkaryam.

.aśraddhayā hutaṃ dattaṃ tapas taptaṃ kṛtaṃ ca yat
asad ity ucyate pārtha na ca tat prepya no iha .

..Asraddhaya = without interest or involvement, krtam = performed, hutam = yagna like homam, dattam = danam or charity, tapas taptam= performing meditation..Ity = such uninterested performing is, asad = ASAT, ucyate = so called. SAT means good karma; ASAT means not good. Tat = that [karma], na prepya = will neither reward with superior Moksham, no iha = nor this worldly [pleasures]. Therefore, the essence we get, is that we should perform only Shastras accepted Karmas and with involvement!..

Ramanuja’s Commentary for sloham 17-28.. Lord Krishna concludes this chapter by emphasizing that even if prescribed Vedic activities are performed meticulously according to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures; if they are devoid of sraddha or resolute faith they have absolutely no value and are known as a-sat the antithesis of SAT or perpetual goodness. Without the prerequisite faith in the Supreme Lord Krishna, in the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures, in the Vaisnava spiritual preceptor; the performance of prescribed Vedic activities bestow no rewards in this life or in subsequent reincarnations. For all time and energy, all efforts are wasted for nothing is obtained in the present life and nothing is attained in a future life for the practitioner of prescribed Vedic activities who is devoid of sraddha. So the indispensable value of resolute faith cannot be overestimated.
 ..Summary of chapter 17..Deva prayag..Perialwar, while praising this Kshetram says that the green color of Tulasi on Sriman Narayana mixed with Ganga; also, the brown color of Konrai [கொன்றை] flower on lord Shiva mixed with Ganga! That is how Bhagirati is green and Alakananda is brown!..From time immemorial this place has been haunted by Devas and so this is Deva Prayag…Perialwar says in his pasuram that the smoke from the Yagnas’ agni kunds, used to spread on both the shores of the river Ganga here. There is a witness to the Lord here. Sri Rama after killing Ravana, came here and meditated to wash off the sin arising out of killing Ravana.As we proceed to the temple after a bath in the river, we can notice the Footprints of Sri Rama on a huge rock. Ganga flowed from the Divine feet of Lord Sri Trivikrama; and, Lord Sri Rama’s Divine feet are on the banks of Ganga!..In the temple we see Sri Purushottama, Sri Rama, Sri Maryada Purushottama, Sri Raghunatha, etc. We are surprised to see the rock seat on which Sri Rama meditated. It has a backrest also! We also see a big Vata vruksham [banyan tree]. This tree is existing for many thousands of years. This Divya desam and Sri Rama are connected and Perialwar does not forget to mention in his pasuram! He mentions ‘em dasarathi and em purushottama எம் தாசரதி, எம் புரோஷோத்தமன் ‘[my Dasarathi and my Purushottama]! He says, “He, Who disfigured Soorpanaka and killed her brother, is my Dasarathi” This place is surrounded by Dasaratha parvat [hills]. Lord Sri Dasarathi is gracing as Lord Sri Purushottama…After slaining Ravana, the war was over. All the Devas assembled over the sky and praised the Lord! ‘Bhavan Narayanodeva:‘ [You are Sriman Narayana]! But Sri Rama never accepted and wanted to be as King Dasarata’s Son and one among humans – ‘Atmanam manusham manye. Ramam dasaratatmajam’! Since the Lord wanted Him to be counted one among us, Perialwar also says ‘em dasarathi’ [my Dasarathi]…Perialwar says that recitation of these pasurams would fetch them the same punya of going to Deva Prayag and worshiping the Lord after bath in Ganga.. Sastra = [this Gita] Shastra [with 18 Chapters and 700 slokas], sara artha = essence of meaning, ucyate = are described. Therefore, in this Chapter, Four important aspects are described:

  1. The cognition that Iswara or the Lord is the doer of all actions.
  2. All actions have to be done with satva quality.
  3. Doing our prescribed duties, would get transformed to obtain Moksham.
  4. The essence of Bhagavad Gita is Bhakti.

..We should recollect earlier advice of the Lord, that we should do any action without the feeling that we were doing. We had also seen Three types of Tyaga [sacrifice] earlier: Kartrutva buddhi tyagam, mamata tyagam and phala tyagam. With such sacrifice if we do karma, it becomes the means for Moksham..In Vedanta, both sanyasa and tyaga are mentioned. Arjuna’s doubt was whether these words were one and the same or not. Swami Alavandar says that in this last Chapter, the Lord is the doer. Tyagam and the Lord is the doer, more or less convey the same meaning. Tyagam is sacrificing the feeling that we were doing. Sanyasam is sam  – well, nyasam  – presented or submitted. That is we present the result of our action at His Divine feet! When we sacrifice the feeling that we were the doers, then, someone has to do that action

..arjuna uvāca

saṃnyāsasya mahābāho tattvam icchāmi veditum
tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthak keśiniṣūdana

..maha baho = Long handed!, kesi nisudana = Killer of Kesi [demon]! and hrsikesa = Controller of senses! Sanyasasya = about sanyasa‘s, ca = and, tyagasya = about tyaga‘s, tattvam = truth, veditum = to understand, icchami = I [Arjuna] am eager, prthak = [and their] difference..Upanishads say ‘na karmana na prajaya na danena tyagenaike amrutasyamanishu:’Moksham can not be obtained by more of karmas, or by having children, or by wealth; only tyagam will lead to Moksham. In another place, Upanishad says that one attained Mukti only by sanyasa. Arjuna asks the right Person to clarify!..

In chapter eighteen Lord Krsishna sums up the conclusion of the previous chapters and describes the attainment of salvation by the paths of karma in chapters one through six and in jnana yoga section which are chapters thirteen through eighteen. The Lord explains that while doing so one must offer without reservation everything to God. The knowledge revealed gets progressively more and more confidential then in all the previous chapters. Thus this chapter is entitled: Final Revelations of the Ultimate Truth.

Let us see the summary of this Chapter:

  • It started with a question by Arjuna as to what rewards awaited a person performing non-vedic karmas, but with involvement. An irritated Sri Krishna said that non-shastra karmas are never to be performed; otherwise Asura quality will be obtained.
  • Vedc karmas, in turn, are of Three types, according to the Three qualities satvam, rajas and tamas.
  • Slokas 8,9 and 10 deal with satva, rajasa and tamasa type of foods.
  • In slokas 11, 12 and 13, satva, rajasa and tamasa Yagnas were explained.
  • Tapas performed by body, mind and speech were described in slokas 14,15 and 16.
  • Satvika tapas, rajasa tapas and tamasa tapas were mentioned in slokas 17, 18 and 19.
  • Slokas 20, 21 and 22 described the Three types of danams [दानम्] .
  • In sloka 23, it was told that OM, TAT and SAT words were created along with Vedas, Vedic scholars and Vedic karmas at the time of Creation.
  • In sloka 24, the Lord told that every Vedic karma, whether performed to obtain Moksham or other worldly rewards, had to be associated with OM, in common.
  • TAT word is to be associated with all Vedic karmas by those desirous of Moksham and performing them without any desire for results. This was told in sloka 25.
  • In slokas 26 and 27, it was told that for reward other than Moksham, whether enjoyment in other worlds or in this world, Vedic karmas were to be associated with SAT word.
  • Finally, in sloka 28, the Lord said that doing any Vedic karma without involvement or interest would neither get Moksham nor other worldly rewards…Lord Shiva said the glory of Chapter 17, is connected with the same elephant! When the elephant was mad, it was tried to be controlled by one, Ducchasana; but in the process he was crushed by the elephant and was killed. While dieing, his mind was after the elephant. As told in Gita, earlier, he was therefore, born as an elephant! This elephant was able to recognize freinds and relatives of the past birth, but showed no interest in them. As this elephsnt grew older, it slowly started sinking. The owner of this elephant was worried. At that time, the elephant spoke to the person in human language, that he should read Chapter 17 before the elephant. Listening to that the elephant would reach Moksham, said the elephant. The owner did likewise and the elephant got Moksham..

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