Geetha Saaram 13-19 to 13-23..

..sloham 13-19..mudali aandaan..mudalvar aanathaal pettra peyar.. dasarathy eyar peyar..ramar/baradan eruvaraiyum kurikkum..chitirai punarvasu-purusha mangalam-pettai avathaaram..kanthaadai aandaan evar pudalvar..sanyasam yeduthu  kondaalum vidaatha vuravu evarathu..Today many descendents of Swami Mudaliyandan, are there as great Acharyas. They are all titled Kandadai [கந்தாடை]. One of them is Koil Kandadai Annan Swami in Srirangam. Another is Koil Kandadai Sirupuliyur Suddhasatvam Annan Swami, also in Srirangam. In Cholasimhapuram [Sholingur] two houses [திருமாளிகை] are there of Koil Kandadai Chandamarutam Doddayacharya Swami. Koil Kandadai Ilayavalli Swami also is present in Cholasimhapuram. In Sriperumbudur Koil Kandadai Appan Swami is there. In Tiruvallikeni [Triplicane] Koil Kandadai Appan Tirumalai Swami is there. Similarly, Koil Kandadai Appaacchi Anna [Kumara Varadacharya ] Swami is there. Like these Eight houses [tirumaligai ] are there..paaduhai/thiri thandam aaha erunthaar..athuzaay-periya nambi pudalvi- seethana vellattiyaha ponavar..pathu  vaarthaikall  arullinavar..

prakritim purusham caiva
viddhy anadi ubhav api
vikarams ca gunams caiva
viddhi prakriti-sambhavan

“Material nature and the living entities should be understood to be beginningless. Their transformations and the modes of matter are products of material nature.”

In this sloka, Sri Krishna tells how our body made of prakruti and atman are having indispensable relationship. In sloka 19, the Lord tells that atman is always associated with a body. In sloka 20, He tells the consequences of this bondage. In slokas 21 and 22, He tells why an atman is bonded like this. Thus, these Four slokas tell about the imprisonment of atman in a body. It is like Sri Sita imprisoned in Ashoka vana, according to Swami Mudaliyandan. Prakrutim = body. Earlier we had seen that prakruti is primordial matter. The Lord initially created using prakruti. Prakruti was transformed into pancha bhoota or the Five great elements – space, air, fire, water and earth. Our body is a compound of all these Five. So here we have to interpret prakruti as the body formed from prakruti. Purusham = atman or soul [and not males or females, but all living beings]. Anadi = [both body and soul] are beginningless; from time immemorial. Thus soul and body are related for very long time. Atman‘s present body alone is not mentioned, but all previous infinite births. Atman from time immemorial is bound by one body or the other. Thus we should know that both body and atman have been bonded together always. Vikaram = changes and, gunam ca = qualities are of the body. What are vikaram and guna? Vikara [विकारं] is iccha-dwesha, desire-hate, love-hate, etc. These feelings emanate from the body. Gunam [गुणं] are the Twenty noble qualities one should possess to acquire atman darshan..In explaining vikaram, Three things have to be remembered: Gyanam [intellct to percieve], Iccha [desire to acquire or hatred to discard] and Prayatnam [efforts]. If we see a thing, say gold, we percieve it as gold. Then we like to possess it. Then we make efforts to acquire that object, here gold. Similarly, if we may percieve danger, like a snake. Then we hate or have fear. Then we try to move away. Thus for any object we percieve, these three factors are encountered: Knowledge, desire or hatred and effort. These Three are indicated by the Lord in the word vikaram....sloham 13-20..brundaraanya shedram-kairavanni pushkaranni..neeraazi mandabam in the middle.. starting from masi -amavasai 7 days theppa uthsavam-mudal 3 naal paartha sarathy aduthu narasimhar/renganathan/ramar/varadar..indra/meena/soma/agni/vishnu..theerthangalum unndu..Float is floating on the water in the pond. The Lord is inside the float. Water in the pond is like our body; float is like the atman in the body; the Paramatman resides in atman, just like He is inside the float. This pond is near the ocean, where the Lord arrives, mounted on Garuda vahanam, for theerthavari [தீர்த்தவாரி], in Masi – Magam [மாசி மகம்].

karya-karana-kartrtve
hetuh prakritir ucyate
purushah sukha-duhkhanam
bhoktrtve hetur ucyate

“Nature is said to be the cause of all material causes and effects, whereas the living entity is the cause of the various sufferings and enjoyments in this world.”

There are Two versions of this sloka. One is Kaarya -kaarana [கார்ய காரண कार्य कारण] and the other is Kaarya -karana [கார்ய கரண कार्य करण]. Better is Kaarya’kaarana. Karya indicates the body and kaarana indicates the Eleven organs in the body [Five karmendriya, Five Gyanendriya and Mind]. Kartrtve = their actions [of the body and the Eleven organs], hetu = cause, prakruti = body.  Purusha = atman, sukha-dukhanam = happiness and sorrow [as results of the actions of the body], bhoktrtve = experiences, hetu = cause. ucyate = is told.

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-20.. 

 

 

 

 

Here Lord Krishna explains that from the beginning of time purusa or the immortal soul and prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence have been existing united together. The word vikarams means modifications and transformations this denotes non-spiritual material attributes and passions. The word gunas or three modes of material nature being sattva or goodness with its virtues, rajas or passion with its desires and tamas or nescience with its ignorance are all by products of prakriti. Virtuous qualities such as reverence and humility are situated in sattva and effectuate moksa or liberation from material existence. The qualities of passion with their desires and attachments are situated in rajas and effectuates bondage to material existence. The qualities of ignorance with sense gratification as the goal of existence is situated in tamas and effectuates degeneration into less evolved species next life. Purusa uniting with prakriti has been perpetuating since the beginning of time and expresses itself as a ksetra or field of activity which is a physical body. The jiva or embodied being influenced by the modifications of rajas and tamas in the form of desire and attachment, attraction and aversion, shrouds the atma or immortal soul and keeps it in bondage. Contrarily the jiva being influenced by the modifications of sattva in the form of the 20 super excellent attributes of spiritual endowment given in verses 8 to 12 headed by reverence and humility constitutes the cause of the atma attaining moksa.

 

 

 

..sloham 13-21..brunda is also thulasi..thulasi kaanana shedram..thondai mandala rajakal kainkaryam pannina shedram.. nam aazlvaar -10 naal uthsavam.. ubadesa mudrai udan sevai..[செத்ததின் வயிற்றில் சிறியது பிறந்தால், எத்தை தின்று எங்கே கிடக்கும்?]’ Alwar opened his mouth and answered: ‘atthai thinru ange kidakkum! [அத்தை தின்று அங்கே கிடக்கும்!]’ ….

purushah prakriti-stho hi
bhunkte prakriti-jan gunan
karanam guna-sango ’sya
sad-asad-yoni-janmasu

“The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil among various species.”

It is a cause – effect – cause cycle. Purusha =atman, prakruti-stha = residing in body, gunan = [satva, rajo and tamo] qualities, prakruti-jan = always associated with body. These three satva-rajas- tamas qualities are always associated with the body. Action is propelled by these three qualities. That is why pleasures and pains. Thus atman housed in body, experiences happiness and sorrow, result of the actions driven by satva-rajo-tamo qualities of the body. Sad-asad-yoni-janmasu = [thus, atman] takes variety of births in many bodies [like Devas, human, animal, bird,etc.], karanam = reason being, guna-sangha = [attachment to] the group of [satva-rajo-tamo] qualities..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-21.. 

 

 

 

 

The word karya meaning effect refers to the physical body. The word karana means the instrument of action denoting the senses of perception, the organs of action and the mind. In the activation of both karya and karana to function the atma or immortal soul alone is the cause. This confirms that all manifest activity by which the jiva or embodied being experiences existence is dependent upon prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which is predicated by the impulses of the atma. The atma merely performs its natural function as monitor and director of the jiva in all respects. Affirmation of this is given in the following Vedic aphorism found in the Vedanta Sutra II:III.XXXX beginning krita prayatna apekesah meaning the Supreme Lord induces the atma to act according to the effects experienced by the jiva so that there is no contradiction in the prohibitions and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The function of the atma is to witness the karma or reactions to one’s actions and govern the jiva effects of karma as they evolve and grow. The atma being embodied is the sole cause for a jiva to experience joy and grief through the medium of matter. Thus the difference in function in regard to both the atma and the physical body has been briefly elaborated seperately and in conjunction.

 

 

 

 

The process by which the inherently pure and spiritual atma which is most blessed comes to experience pleasures and pain derived from contact with products of matter is through the three gunas being modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which are effects of prakriti and figuratively symbolise all derivatives of matter as all matter is within the purvey of the three gunas. Here in this verse the word purusa is referring to His expansion as the atma within the heart of all living entities which by its own intrinsic nature is liberated and blissful but by the influence of karma and prakriti is entangled in the material existence undergoing experiences of enjoyment and suffering based on this relationship which manifest according to the dicitates and constraints of the adventitiously and contrary circumstances of past actions from which arise effects known as karma. The word bhoktrtve meaning the experience of happiness and distress confirms this.

..sloham 13-22..peyaazvaar sannithy..thaayar avan nenjil erupathai mangalaa saasanam seythavar.. thiru kanndeyn yentru aarambithaar.. naachiyaar  thiru kolathudan brahmodsavathil paartha sarathy yum azlahiya singarum 5th naall ezluvaarkall evar sanithykku..saathu murai antru maa muniyum ezluvaar..

upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe ’smin purushah parah

“Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul.”

Asmin deha = in this body [anyone’s body], para = supreme, purusha = soul or jeevatman. Atman is superior to body as atman is everlasting and is not made of the Five great elements. Atman is embodiment of Gyana or intellect, and ananda or happiness. But due to karma, is bound by a body. Upadrasta = seeing [the nature of body] for activation.

upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe ’smin purushah parah

“Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul.”

Asmin deha = in this body [anyone’s body], para = supreme, purusha = soul or jeevatman. Atman is superior to body as atman is everlasting and is not made of the Five great elements. Atman is embodiment of Gyana or intellect, and ananda or happiness. But due to karma, is bound by a body. Upadrasta = seeing [the nature of body] for activation. Atman sees with the eyes of the body; atman hears with the ears in the body; atman tastes with the tongue of the body, etc. When we say we taste, what is actually meant is that the atman in our body tastes the food with the aid of the tongue in the mouth of the body! Soul sees through the eyes in the body, etc. This is implied in the word upadrasta. Anumanta ca = and permits or understands [that such actions are done by the body]. Bharta = supporter [normally, this word is used to denote husband. It is also correct, as usually husband supports the family]. Soul supports the body. This is evident when soul departs the body. Atman supports the body by its power. Bhokta = experiences pleasures and pains of the body. Maheswara = great commander, atman. We should not mistake it for the Lord, here. Atman commands and rules this body and so is iswara for the body. This power of the atman is its natural power. Paramatma = atman, the superior..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-22.. 

The atma or immortal soul is compelled to accept unlimited varieties of physical bodies from all levels of creation. Sometimes as a demigod, sometimes as a human, sometimes as an animal etc. These forms are neutrally awarded according to the gunas or three modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which adhere in strict accordance to the karma or reactions from past actions in proportion to the degree of attachment and cravings one is predisposed to pursue in order to procure pleasure and enjoy sense gratification. Taking birth one launches into activities pursuing good and evil in order to satisfy and gratify ones desires and propensities. Hence is order to exhaust the karma one is incessantly creating by innumerable actions one is born into wombs of good and evil perpetually in material existence. That is why it is stated that attachment to the gunas is the cause of birth in good and evil wombs. Born one performs actions and from the reactions one is forced to take birth again and again without cessation. This circumvolution never ends until by the aggregation of sukriti or pious activities one seemingly by chance has the auspicious opportunity to attain the association of a Vaisnava devotee of the Supreme Lord Krishna and being blessed by them alters the course of their destiny and upgrades their karma as Lord Krishna Himself confirms in chapter seven verse 19 beginning bahunam janmanam ante meaning after many births a knowledgeable living entity gets association of a mahatma or great soul.

 

 

..sloham 13-23..thiru mazisai aazvaar sannithy.. 10 naal uthsavam.. saathu murai antru  pey aazlvaar prasadam evarukku kidaikka yerpaadu. einthalai naaha sayana perumaal. sri mannaathan -yennai aall vudai appan naangu thiru karangal.. divya  aayutham entri kidantha sevai.. saathu muraiku varadarum ezunthu arullukiraar..Swami Alavandar in his Gitarta sangraha, has summarized the aspects covered by Chapter 13. Deha swaroopam – body’s real nature, atma apti hetu – means like the Twenty qualities, to reach or visualize atman, atma vicodanam – understanding atman and realizing the same, reason why atman is imprisoned in a body [this we had seen very recently: inherent qulaities of satvam- rajas -tamas in the body, consequent pleasures and pains, and atman, desiring to experience them, resides in a body. Once bonded, atman can not retrace the path; so, what should be done after atman is bonded in a body? Atman should try to avoid further birth in future. For this first, it should be understood that atman is different from body. If this difference is not understood, then body will be misunderstood as atman, and pleasures of body will be thought as happiness for atman. All those which cause sufferings to body, will not be done, thinking they are bad for atman. This way neither kaivalyam nor atman reaching Vaikuntam, will ever be attempted. Therefore, viveka gyana – analysing knowledge is needed. That is to clearly understand, atman is different from bodyprakritim ca gunaih saha
sarvatha vartamano ’pi
na sa bhuyo ’bhijayate

“One who understands this philosophy concerning material nature, the living entity and the interaction of the modes of nature is sure to attain liberation. He will not take birth here again, regardless of his present position.”

The Lord tells that he who understands these, even if he [atman] is in a body, and experiencing pleasures and pains, would never have rebirths. Evam = this, purusham = atman, vetti = is understood [of its nature], prakrutim = [and] prakruti [its Five great elements and the body made of them]. Earlier the Lord told the body as Kshetram or cultivable land, and atman which realizes so is Kshetragya. Gunai saha = the Three qualities of satvam, rajas and tamas. That is atman’s nature, body’s nature and the body associated Three qualities are to be understood. Such a person, sarvatha vartamano’pi = even if residing in a body always, sa = such a person [jeevatman], na bhuya = never again, abhijayate = will have birth. .

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-23.. 

The purusah or the manifestation of the Supreme Lord Krishna transcends both the body and the mind dwelling within all sentient beings as paramatma the Supreme Soul and is upadrasta or the impartial witness who by means of the will directs the operations pertaining to the physical body and anumanta or sanctions the activities performed by all jivas or embodied beings that lead to joy and grief in pursuing activities in material existence. Thus by virtue of ruling, supporting and guiding the jivas the purusah is the Mahesvarah the Supreme controller of the physical body, the senses and the mind of all jivas. The conjunctive particle api meaning also refers to the epithet of great lord which denotes that as far as the body is concerned it applies to paramatma as well. The phrase purusah parah means that the Supreme Being as paramatma is to be differentiated and separate due to its unlimited omnipresence within all jivas, from the atma or individual soul which is localised within each jiva. Although both are immortal and possess the omniscient propensities of infinite cognizance and divine consciousness.

 

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-19.. 

Previously a concise description of what is to be known as constituting the ksetra or field of activity has been given by Lord Krishna beginning in verse six with maha-bhutani meaning the five fundamental elements of material nature and in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanivitam or reverence the 20 excellent are enumerated as the means for acquiring the knowledge of atma-tattva or soul realisation up to perception of the eternal spiritual reality, knowing the Supreme Lord reside within the etheric heart of all living beings. Here Lord Krishna states mad bhakta meaning His devotees are knowledgeable of the reality regarding the ksetra, knowledgeable of the means by which to realise the atma or immortal soul which is of the nature of ksetra-jna or knower of the sphere of activity and distinctly different from the ksetra. Only His devotees are those situated in such knowledge and mad bhavayopapadyate meaning qualified to attain exclusive loving devotion to Him which is everlasting and eternal and which is different from samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next Lord Krishna will explain the beginingless state of the two distinct natural verities of matter and soul conjoined together and the different functions each is engendered to perform as well as how these two verities came to be situated in this condition.

 

 

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