Archive for February, 2009

Geetha saaram 13-29 to 13-33..

February 26, 2009

..sloham 13-29..ramanujar sannithy.. partha sarathy yey avathaaram.. athanaal  saathu muraikku  partha sarathy ezlunthu arulluvathu  ellai..

prakrityaiva ca karmani
kriyamanani sarvasah
yah pasyati tathatmanam
akartaram sa pasyati

“One who can see that all activities are performed by the body, which is created of material nature, and sees that the self does nothing, actually sees.

atman has to be understood as akartha or non-performer [of actions].  Prakritiyaiva = by prakruti [related body] alone, sarvasa karmani = all actions [like eating, walking, seeing,etc], kriyamanani = are being performed. Body is made of prakruti and it does all the actions… Yah pasyati = [like this] when sees, tatha = in that way, atmanam = atman or soul as, akartaram = non-performer, pasyati = is the [proper] viewer [perceptor or has vivekam].

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-29.. 

 

The Supreme Lord Krishna is known as isvara is residing saman equally sarvatra within all beings. This includes demigods, humans, animals, etc. The word pasyati here meaning perceives denotes that the atma or immortal soul is recognised wherever it may abide. By thus comprehending the actual nature of the atma one never degrades themselves and na hinasti never causes harm to oneself. Contrarily if one insists on identifying the atma in the same way as the physical body in the differentiating light of unlimited bodily forms one injures and degrades their eternal self. This understanding saves one from acquiring karma or reactions to actions which is the main cause of confinement to samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death. By gaining this basic realisation one achieves the goal of atma- tattva or soul realisation and then becomes eligible for param gatim the supreme destination and highest attainment.

 

 

..sloham 13-30..ssri Andal sannithy..adi poora uthsavam/ neeraattam uthsavam..boghi antru thiru kalyanam..markazli masam muzuvathum over coat saathinndu naal  paasuram saathi kolvaan venkada krishnan.. thiru kaithala sevai manavaala maa muni sathu murai antru.. dvadasa aradanakadaisi naal antru -partha sarathy/ thelliya singar eruvarukkum. anaivaraiyum -perumaal/aazlvaar/aacharyar..serthy sevai vunndu..anaivarukkum  thiru manjanam..

yada bhuta-prithag-bhavam
eka-stham anupasyati
tata eva ca vistaram
brahma sampadyate tada

“When a sensible man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies and he sees how beings are expanded everywhere, he attains to the Brahman conception.”

Brahma sampadyate = attains atma anubhavam [experiences soul]. Brahma here denotes atman. Yada = when, bhuta = living beings such as Deva, men, women, animals, trees, etc. Each of them has a soul inside. Thus the association of soul and body or prakruti and prusha, is denoted by bhuta. Prithag = difference, bhava = nature..Eka-stham anupasyati = sees [the difference] only in body. Tata eva = because of that, vistaram = expansion [of family with young ones, sons, daughters, grand children and so on]. ..Tada = then, that is when this knowledge dawns, that person attains atmanubhavam, or experiences soul.

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-30.. 

 

Lord Krishna reveals that one who truly perceives understands that all actions proceed from the agency of prakriti or the material substratum that pervades physical existence. One perceives that for creating effects and instruments insentient prakriti is the cause. One perceives that the atma or immortal soul although sentient is not the doer. One perceives that tamas or ignorance in the shape of karma or reactions to actions is the reason for forced confinement in the material existence, the terms and conditions of the confinement and the experiences of pleasure and pain in correlation with the duration of the confinement. One who comprehends all these truly perceives reality.

 

 

..sloham 13-31..sri kadikachalam/aal ari.. kadihai-naazihai..chola simha puram..periya /chinna malaikal..1305 padikal/750 feet vusaram..chalam-moving.. achalam-stationary..Our body changes while atman and the Lord remain constant. Therefore, our body which is not constant even for a period of one ghatika, should not be seen but the ever constant and everlasting atman and the Lord. This is the lesson we get from this hill. In Krita yug, this hill was golden; in Treta yug, it was silvery; in Dwapara yug, it was of copper; and, now in Kali yug, it is of stone. It is also said that the Lord appeared here for Seven sages – Atri, Kashyapa, Vasishta, Jamadagni, Gautama, Bharadwaja,etc., for about a ghatika time. Swami Doddayacharya. He lived here for 65 years from 1543 to 1607, and established the temple for Sri Utsavar and renovated this temple..

anaditvan nirgunatvat
paramatmayam avyayah
sarira-stho ’pi kaunteya
na karoti na lipyate

“Those with the vision of eternity can see that the imperishable soul is transcendental, eternal, and beyond the modes of nature. Despite contact with the material body, O Arjuna, the soul neither does anything nor is entangled.”

This atman is praised as paramatman. Here in this sloka, paramatman does not denote the Lord, but the superior [param] atman, that is jeevatman. Ayam = this, paramatma = jeevatman, sarira-stho’pi = in spite of being in this body, avyaya = everlasting or indestructible or unchanging. Anaditvan = without a beginning. That is atman is never created any time; it is existing for ever, without a beginning and end. Nirgunatvat = without the Three qualities of satvam, rajas and tamas. Nirgunam does not mean without any Gyana. It means those qualities satvam, rajas and tamas, which are considered as blemishes are not in jeevatman. Na karoti = [absence of these qualities make atman] actionless. Na lipyate = [atman is] not affected by body’s nature. Body has no influence on atman, in spite of residing in the body. Body has many components, like for example it is the product of intercourse of two [male and female] bodies, it is having three – vata [air], kapam and pittham [according to ayurveda], it is made of four – consuming by drinking, licking, chewing and swallowing, etc..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-31.. 

 

Lord Krishna is stating that one must realizes that all the diversity of forms throughout creation is manifested by the medium of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which gives rise to unlimited bodies and their correlating senses. All jivas or embodied beings whether demigods, humans or animals are constituted of the dual natures of purusa the supreme spirit and prakriti. The compound word eka-stham meaning situated in one refers to the singularity of prakriti which the ksetra or sphere of activity exists within. The word vistaram meaning expansion refers to the variegated myriads of differentiated existences in successive form manifestations such as children, grandchildren, great grandchildren all uniquely emanating from the same principle of prakriti. Whosoever understands that all external appearing differences have their origin in prakriti and not in purusa or the supreme spirit nor paramatma the supreme soul; such a person attains the realization of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence.

 

 

..sloham 13-32..Sri suda valli thaayaar -uthsavar..sannithy..amrutha bala valli thayar-moolavar..Perumaal uthsavar sri Baktho sithan..renovation nadapathaal serthy sevai thiru malai meley..

yatha sarva-gatam sauksmyad
akasam nopalipyate
sarvatravasthito dehe
tathatma nopalipyate

“The sky, due to its subtle nature, does not mix with anything, although it is all-pervading. Similarly, the soul situated in Brahman vision does not mix with the body, though situated in that body.”

space –akash– is never influenced by the object in which it is there! Why it is so? Because of the imperceptible nature –sookshmam – of space..Yatha = just as, sarva-ghatam = every where present, akasam = space, sauksmyat = being imperceptible or atomic, nopalipyate = is not affected or influenced [by the objects in which space exists], tatha = similarly, sarvatra = in every, vastitho = object, deha = of bodies, atma = soul or atman, nopalipyate = is not influenced [by the body’s nature… Sri Thayar presents one amrutam – our atman – to another Amrutam – the Lord – as fruits of our devotion.

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-32.. 

 

 

 

 

So now the eternal, omniscient and all pervading nature of paramatma or the Supreme Soul is being revealed by Lord Krishna as being totally distinct from the physical body of the jiva or embodied being. Although residing within the exhaustible physical body which is perishable, paramatma is inexhaustible and imperishable due to it being anaditivat of eternality. It is infinite in time and infinite beyond time. It is nirgunatvat or possessing no material qualities or attributes and neither performs any actions nor is affected or implicated by any actions the physical body performs. Next it will be explained how the paramatma although having constant association within the physical body is not degraded by any of the bodily properties.

 

 

 

..sloham 13-33..moolavar sri yoha nara simhar..Alwars praise the Lord as Sri Akkarakkani [அழகியான் அழகியான் கனி]. Contrary to populr belief, the Lord does not show frightening image and has a band on His knees and we can notice Dasavatara. Alwar says that if we are able to grow sugar as such into a tree and then get a fruit, it will be so sweet! The Lord is compared to that fruit by mentioning Akkaram [sugar] + kani [fruit]! Such a tree does not exist and this type of comparison is called abhuthopama [imaginary comparison]. Alwar feels that since nothing which exists in the World is below comparison for Him, he had to create an imaginary plant and fruit! So sweet is the Lord, says Thirumangai Alwar and Nammalwar. In Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam immediately after the Divine name Narasimha, comes the name Sriman. Alwar says ‘azhagiyanthane ariyuruvan thane!’ [ அழகியான் தானே, அரியுருவம் தானே..This is the place where the Lord appeared to King Indradyumna. Sage Viswamitra worshiped the Lord here and got the title Brahmarishi. We know how much Viswamitra struggled to get him accepted by sage Vasishta as Brahmarishi! After meditation here by Viswamitra, sage Vasishta recognized Viswamitra as Brahmarishi! .

yatha prakasayaty ekah
krtsnam lokam imam ravih
kshetram ksetri tatha krtsnam
prakasayati bharata

“O son of Bharata, as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body by consciousness.”

Bharata = descendent of Bharata dynasty [Arjuna], yatha = just as, ravih = the Sun, ekah = being single, imam lokam = all these [objects] seen, krtsnam = without exception, prakasayaty = are illuminated..Kshetram = body [and associated organs], ksetri = atman [inside body], tatha =similarly, kritsnam = without exception, prakasayati = is able to perceive..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-33.. 

 

Lord Krishna uses the word akasam which means ether and denotes space. As space prevails everywhere and encompasses all objects, yet by its extremely subtle nature the properties of any object are not able to influence, taint or modify it. In the same way the atma or individual immortal soul being subatomic resides within the bodies of all jivas or embodied beings but the physical properties, attributes and qualities that pertain to such bodies be they demigods, human, animal, etc. are unable to influence, taint or modify it.

 

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Geetha Saaram 13-24 to 13-28..

February 26, 2009

..sloham 13-24..venkada krishnan/partha sarathy.. sumathi raja kettu  konda padi venkada chala athibathyey krishnanaha sevai saathithaan..

dhyanenatmani pasyanti
kecid atmanam atmana
anye sankhyena yogena
karma-yogena capare

“Some perceive the Supersoul within themselves through meditation, others through the cultivation of knowledge, and still others through working without fruitive desires.”

Pasyanti = [they] see. That is they view atman and body as separate entities by analyzing power. Here Three words atmani, atmanam and atmana are mentioned. Each has to be interpreted differently. In atmani, atma means body. Atmani = in the body, atmanam = atman or soul, atmana = by mind. Thus body, jeevatman and mind are to be understood by these three words. Its meaning changes with context. So, soul which is in body has to be viewed separately. How? Dhyanena pasyanti = by meditation, seen..Anye = [but] others, those not fully practiced Karma and Gyana yoga, sankyena-yogena = by Gyana yoga [sankya means buddhi and so sankya yoga means yoga attained by intellect, that is Gyana yoga], karma-yogena = in Karmayoga, capare = attain..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-24.. 

 

The word evam means in this way refers to the manner previously described. One must intelligently comprehends the nature of the purusah or manifeatation of the Supreme Lord Krishna and prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence and understand the three components of prakriti known as the gunas which are the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which are inclusive of everything in material existence. They will be fully elaborated on in the next chapter. The word sarvatha means in any way or condition and refers to whatever physical body one finds themselves forced to accept whether demigod, human, demon, etc due to the dictate of karma or reactions to actions. Na sa bhuya abhijayate means never takes birth again, never coerced to enter a womb again, never forced to take a material form again. This means that at the time the physical body ceases to exist the atma or immortal soul will be realized as the eternal essence of the jiva or embodied being and moksa or liberation from material existence will be achieved promoting one to the everlasting spiritual worlds never again subject to birth and death.

 

 

 

..sloham 13-25.. veda valli  thaayaar sannithy.. bruhu maharishi  pudalvi.. yennai  aall  vudai aapanai  thiru  mannam  purinthaall..masi sukla padsha devadesi  thiru kalyaanam..panguni utharathilum thiru kalyaanam..

anye tv evam ajanantah
srutvanyebhya upasate
te ’pi catitaranty eva
mrityum shruti-parayanah

“Again there are those who, although not conversant in spiritual knowledge, begin to worship the Supreme Person upon hearing about Him from others. Because of their tendency to hear from authorities, they also transcend the path of birth and death.”

Shruti-parayana = determined in listening. Anye tu = others, ajananta = ignorant of perfroming, evam = these [Karma yoga and Gyana yoga mentioned in the previous sloka], anyebhya = from others [Acharyas, Scholars and noble persons], srutva = listening well, upasate = devote [in atman]. Te = they, shruti-parayana = deeply interested in listening, api = even, mrityum = this samsaram [of living in this Universe], atitaranty eva = are not crossing?..

Ramanuja’s commentary 13-25..Lord Krishna expounds here that some humans having become perfect in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness; perceive by the lucidness of their mind the atma or immortal soul within the physical body by means of dhyanena or devotional meditation. Others who are novice in yoga develop their minds by jnana or Vedic knowledge and sankhyena or subtle discrimination between spirit and matter and applying it diligently soon perceive the atma as well. Still others who are unfit for the regiment of jnana yoga and those who are fit but prefer an easier method and those whose duty it is to set an example for the common man; they all follow the path of karma yoga or the path of actions devoted to the Supreme Lord that embody devotion and training their minds to control the senses become established in yoga and eventually perceive the atma also.

..sloham 13-26..partha sarathy/rukmini thayar/ sarathy saathyahi/balaraman/pradyumnan/anirudran anaivaraiyum sevikalaam..thelliya singa perumaal sannithy..

yavat sanjayate kincit
sattvam sthavara-jangamam
kshetra-kshetrajna-samyogat
tad viddhi bharatarsabha

“O chief of the Bharatas, know that whatever you see in existence, both the moving and the nonmoving, is only a combination of the field of activities and the knower of the field.”

Bharatarishabha = Bull of Bharata dynasty [Arjuna], tad viddhi = understand this. Sri Krishna tells Arjuna that atman is imprisoned in a body due to past Karma. The Lord wants atman to be viewed separately from the body. . Yavat = whichever, sattvam = living being, sanjayate = is born [and dies]. Stavara – jangama = [living beings are] stationary and movable. Kshetra = body, kshetrajna = atman, samyogat = bondage.

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-26.. 

 

 

 

 

Continuing further with this theme Lord Krishna reiterates that still others who are incompetent to follow the paths of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness which lead to atma tattva or realisation of the soul. They must hear from the Vaisnavas the devotees of the Supreme Lord and follow the teachings of the sages and munis who are established in truth and righteousness. Then they can begin to traverse the path of karma yoga or devotional activities and then onto jnana yoga the perfecting of Vedic knowledge, etc. and commence actual contemplation of the atma or immortal soul. Also those who cannot even do that but are able to have faith in what they learn from superiors, they get purged of their sins and absolved can gradually embark upon the path of karma yoga and thus eventually surpass samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. The word api denotes the levels of competency that different gradations of human beings posess.

 

 

 

 

Next in order to discriminately comprehend the exact position of the atma residing within the jiva or embodied being perpetually within material existence it is emphasised that whatever comes into existence either movable or immovable is the product of the union of the sentient and the insentient known as chit and achit.

 

 

 

.sloham 13-27..gajendra varadar-ga kettathum jam yentru arai kulaiya thalai kulaiya vanthaan..

samam sarveshu bhutesu
tisthantam paramesvaram
vinasyatsv avinasyantam
yah pasyati sa pasyati

“One who sees the Supersoul accompanying the individual soul in all bodies, and who understands that neither the soul nor the Supersoul within the destructible body is ever destroyed, actually sees.”

Ya pasyati = [he] who sees, sa pasyati = he sees..Sarveshu = in all or every, bhutesu = living beings, tishtantam = established, parameswaram = the supreme leader [as told earlier this word denotes jeevatman and not the usual Lord, as atman rules any body. Atman is superior to body, organs and mind]. Samam = equal [in all living beings].  Vinasyatsu = in destroyable [body], avinasyantam = everlasting [atman], he who sees in the right perception, sees the truth..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-27.. 

 

 

 

 

Lord Krishna states yavat kincit whatsoever meaning anything mobile or immobile regardless of how grandiose or infinitesimal that is existing in any dimension of creation is the mutual combination of matter and spirit. It is always a compound existence with interdependence upon each other and never independence from each other.

 

 

 

..sloham 13-28..sri ramar sannithy.. anaivaraiyum sernthu sevikalaam..ramar nadanthau kaattiyathai kannan geethaiyaha arulinaan..

samam pasyan hi sarvatra
samavasthitam ishvaram
na hinasty atmanatmanam
tato yati param gatim

“One who sees the Supersoul equally present everywhere, in every living being, does not degrade himself by his mind. Thus he approaches the transcendental destination.”

Na hinasty = [he] does not harm, atmana = by mind, atmanam = to the soul..param gatim = the supreme place or passage, tato yati = [he] attains that..Sarvatra = everywhere, that is irrespective of the species like Devas, humans, movables and non-movables, etc. Samavasthitam = living same or equal, ishvaram = leader or commander, that is atman.

Yah pasyati = [like this] when sees, tatha = in that way, atmanam = atman or soul as, akartaram = non-performer, pasyati = is the [proper] viewer [perceptor or has vivekam].

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-28.. 

 

 

 

 

Lord Krishna confirms with the words pasyati meaning perceives or discriminates that one who realises that paramatma or the Supreme Soul existing equally within all jivas or embodied beings is the ksetrajna or knower of the sphere of activity and that it is distinctly distinguished from prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence which manifests as unlimited forms such as demigod, human, animal, etc. In other words recognising the Supreme Lord as the same omnipresent eternal consciousness localised within each and every living entity and realising that it is singular. Also distinguishing the fact that while all physical bodies decay and perish; the atma or individual immortal soul does not ever decay or perish because it has an eternal, transcendental nature. This is confirmed in the Vishnu Purana: VI.VII.LVIII beginning pradhanadi viseshantam meaning: the undecaying within the decaying. One who correctly comprehends the atma in this manner properly perceives reality. But one who thinks that the atma is subject to birth and death and that it is modifiable and variable like the forms of living entities which are always changing; then such a person will always remained confined in samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death in material existence.

 

Geetha Saaram 13-19 to 13-23..

February 26, 2009

..sloham 13-19..mudali aandaan..mudalvar aanathaal pettra peyar.. dasarathy eyar peyar..ramar/baradan eruvaraiyum kurikkum..chitirai punarvasu-purusha mangalam-pettai avathaaram..kanthaadai aandaan evar pudalvar..sanyasam yeduthu  kondaalum vidaatha vuravu evarathu..Today many descendents of Swami Mudaliyandan, are there as great Acharyas. They are all titled Kandadai [கந்தாடை]. One of them is Koil Kandadai Annan Swami in Srirangam. Another is Koil Kandadai Sirupuliyur Suddhasatvam Annan Swami, also in Srirangam. In Cholasimhapuram [Sholingur] two houses [திருமாளிகை] are there of Koil Kandadai Chandamarutam Doddayacharya Swami. Koil Kandadai Ilayavalli Swami also is present in Cholasimhapuram. In Sriperumbudur Koil Kandadai Appan Swami is there. In Tiruvallikeni [Triplicane] Koil Kandadai Appan Tirumalai Swami is there. Similarly, Koil Kandadai Appaacchi Anna [Kumara Varadacharya ] Swami is there. Like these Eight houses [tirumaligai ] are there..paaduhai/thiri thandam aaha erunthaar..athuzaay-periya nambi pudalvi- seethana vellattiyaha ponavar..pathu  vaarthaikall  arullinavar..

prakritim purusham caiva
viddhy anadi ubhav api
vikarams ca gunams caiva
viddhi prakriti-sambhavan

“Material nature and the living entities should be understood to be beginningless. Their transformations and the modes of matter are products of material nature.”

In this sloka, Sri Krishna tells how our body made of prakruti and atman are having indispensable relationship. In sloka 19, the Lord tells that atman is always associated with a body. In sloka 20, He tells the consequences of this bondage. In slokas 21 and 22, He tells why an atman is bonded like this. Thus, these Four slokas tell about the imprisonment of atman in a body. It is like Sri Sita imprisoned in Ashoka vana, according to Swami Mudaliyandan. Prakrutim = body. Earlier we had seen that prakruti is primordial matter. The Lord initially created using prakruti. Prakruti was transformed into pancha bhoota or the Five great elements – space, air, fire, water and earth. Our body is a compound of all these Five. So here we have to interpret prakruti as the body formed from prakruti. Purusham = atman or soul [and not males or females, but all living beings]. Anadi = [both body and soul] are beginningless; from time immemorial. Thus soul and body are related for very long time. Atman‘s present body alone is not mentioned, but all previous infinite births. Atman from time immemorial is bound by one body or the other. Thus we should know that both body and atman have been bonded together always. Vikaram = changes and, gunam ca = qualities are of the body. What are vikaram and guna? Vikara [विकारं] is iccha-dwesha, desire-hate, love-hate, etc. These feelings emanate from the body. Gunam [गुणं] are the Twenty noble qualities one should possess to acquire atman darshan..In explaining vikaram, Three things have to be remembered: Gyanam [intellct to percieve], Iccha [desire to acquire or hatred to discard] and Prayatnam [efforts]. If we see a thing, say gold, we percieve it as gold. Then we like to possess it. Then we make efforts to acquire that object, here gold. Similarly, if we may percieve danger, like a snake. Then we hate or have fear. Then we try to move away. Thus for any object we percieve, these three factors are encountered: Knowledge, desire or hatred and effort. These Three are indicated by the Lord in the word vikaram....sloham 13-20..brundaraanya shedram-kairavanni pushkaranni..neeraazi mandabam in the middle.. starting from masi -amavasai 7 days theppa uthsavam-mudal 3 naal paartha sarathy aduthu narasimhar/renganathan/ramar/varadar..indra/meena/soma/agni/vishnu..theerthangalum unndu..Float is floating on the water in the pond. The Lord is inside the float. Water in the pond is like our body; float is like the atman in the body; the Paramatman resides in atman, just like He is inside the float. This pond is near the ocean, where the Lord arrives, mounted on Garuda vahanam, for theerthavari [தீர்த்தவாரி], in Masi – Magam [மாசி மகம்].

karya-karana-kartrtve
hetuh prakritir ucyate
purushah sukha-duhkhanam
bhoktrtve hetur ucyate

“Nature is said to be the cause of all material causes and effects, whereas the living entity is the cause of the various sufferings and enjoyments in this world.”

There are Two versions of this sloka. One is Kaarya -kaarana [கார்ய காரண कार्य कारण] and the other is Kaarya -karana [கார்ய கரண कार्य करण]. Better is Kaarya’kaarana. Karya indicates the body and kaarana indicates the Eleven organs in the body [Five karmendriya, Five Gyanendriya and Mind]. Kartrtve = their actions [of the body and the Eleven organs], hetu = cause, prakruti = body.  Purusha = atman, sukha-dukhanam = happiness and sorrow [as results of the actions of the body], bhoktrtve = experiences, hetu = cause. ucyate = is told.

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-20.. 

 

 

 

 

Here Lord Krishna explains that from the beginning of time purusa or the immortal soul and prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence have been existing united together. The word vikarams means modifications and transformations this denotes non-spiritual material attributes and passions. The word gunas or three modes of material nature being sattva or goodness with its virtues, rajas or passion with its desires and tamas or nescience with its ignorance are all by products of prakriti. Virtuous qualities such as reverence and humility are situated in sattva and effectuate moksa or liberation from material existence. The qualities of passion with their desires and attachments are situated in rajas and effectuates bondage to material existence. The qualities of ignorance with sense gratification as the goal of existence is situated in tamas and effectuates degeneration into less evolved species next life. Purusa uniting with prakriti has been perpetuating since the beginning of time and expresses itself as a ksetra or field of activity which is a physical body. The jiva or embodied being influenced by the modifications of rajas and tamas in the form of desire and attachment, attraction and aversion, shrouds the atma or immortal soul and keeps it in bondage. Contrarily the jiva being influenced by the modifications of sattva in the form of the 20 super excellent attributes of spiritual endowment given in verses 8 to 12 headed by reverence and humility constitutes the cause of the atma attaining moksa.

 

 

 

..sloham 13-21..brunda is also thulasi..thulasi kaanana shedram..thondai mandala rajakal kainkaryam pannina shedram.. nam aazlvaar -10 naal uthsavam.. ubadesa mudrai udan sevai..[செத்ததின் வயிற்றில் சிறியது பிறந்தால், எத்தை தின்று எங்கே கிடக்கும்?]’ Alwar opened his mouth and answered: ‘atthai thinru ange kidakkum! [அத்தை தின்று அங்கே கிடக்கும்!]’ ….

purushah prakriti-stho hi
bhunkte prakriti-jan gunan
karanam guna-sango ’sya
sad-asad-yoni-janmasu

“The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil among various species.”

It is a cause – effect – cause cycle. Purusha =atman, prakruti-stha = residing in body, gunan = [satva, rajo and tamo] qualities, prakruti-jan = always associated with body. These three satva-rajas- tamas qualities are always associated with the body. Action is propelled by these three qualities. That is why pleasures and pains. Thus atman housed in body, experiences happiness and sorrow, result of the actions driven by satva-rajo-tamo qualities of the body. Sad-asad-yoni-janmasu = [thus, atman] takes variety of births in many bodies [like Devas, human, animal, bird,etc.], karanam = reason being, guna-sangha = [attachment to] the group of [satva-rajo-tamo] qualities..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-21.. 

 

 

 

 

The word karya meaning effect refers to the physical body. The word karana means the instrument of action denoting the senses of perception, the organs of action and the mind. In the activation of both karya and karana to function the atma or immortal soul alone is the cause. This confirms that all manifest activity by which the jiva or embodied being experiences existence is dependent upon prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which is predicated by the impulses of the atma. The atma merely performs its natural function as monitor and director of the jiva in all respects. Affirmation of this is given in the following Vedic aphorism found in the Vedanta Sutra II:III.XXXX beginning krita prayatna apekesah meaning the Supreme Lord induces the atma to act according to the effects experienced by the jiva so that there is no contradiction in the prohibitions and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The function of the atma is to witness the karma or reactions to one’s actions and govern the jiva effects of karma as they evolve and grow. The atma being embodied is the sole cause for a jiva to experience joy and grief through the medium of matter. Thus the difference in function in regard to both the atma and the physical body has been briefly elaborated seperately and in conjunction.

 

 

 

 

The process by which the inherently pure and spiritual atma which is most blessed comes to experience pleasures and pain derived from contact with products of matter is through the three gunas being modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which are effects of prakriti and figuratively symbolise all derivatives of matter as all matter is within the purvey of the three gunas. Here in this verse the word purusa is referring to His expansion as the atma within the heart of all living entities which by its own intrinsic nature is liberated and blissful but by the influence of karma and prakriti is entangled in the material existence undergoing experiences of enjoyment and suffering based on this relationship which manifest according to the dicitates and constraints of the adventitiously and contrary circumstances of past actions from which arise effects known as karma. The word bhoktrtve meaning the experience of happiness and distress confirms this.

..sloham 13-22..peyaazvaar sannithy..thaayar avan nenjil erupathai mangalaa saasanam seythavar.. thiru kanndeyn yentru aarambithaar.. naachiyaar  thiru kolathudan brahmodsavathil paartha sarathy yum azlahiya singarum 5th naall ezluvaarkall evar sanithykku..saathu murai antru maa muniyum ezluvaar..

upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe ’smin purushah parah

“Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul.”

Asmin deha = in this body [anyone’s body], para = supreme, purusha = soul or jeevatman. Atman is superior to body as atman is everlasting and is not made of the Five great elements. Atman is embodiment of Gyana or intellect, and ananda or happiness. But due to karma, is bound by a body. Upadrasta = seeing [the nature of body] for activation.

upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe ’smin purushah parah

“Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul.”

Asmin deha = in this body [anyone’s body], para = supreme, purusha = soul or jeevatman. Atman is superior to body as atman is everlasting and is not made of the Five great elements. Atman is embodiment of Gyana or intellect, and ananda or happiness. But due to karma, is bound by a body. Upadrasta = seeing [the nature of body] for activation. Atman sees with the eyes of the body; atman hears with the ears in the body; atman tastes with the tongue of the body, etc. When we say we taste, what is actually meant is that the atman in our body tastes the food with the aid of the tongue in the mouth of the body! Soul sees through the eyes in the body, etc. This is implied in the word upadrasta. Anumanta ca = and permits or understands [that such actions are done by the body]. Bharta = supporter [normally, this word is used to denote husband. It is also correct, as usually husband supports the family]. Soul supports the body. This is evident when soul departs the body. Atman supports the body by its power. Bhokta = experiences pleasures and pains of the body. Maheswara = great commander, atman. We should not mistake it for the Lord, here. Atman commands and rules this body and so is iswara for the body. This power of the atman is its natural power. Paramatma = atman, the superior..

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-22.. 

The atma or immortal soul is compelled to accept unlimited varieties of physical bodies from all levels of creation. Sometimes as a demigod, sometimes as a human, sometimes as an animal etc. These forms are neutrally awarded according to the gunas or three modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which adhere in strict accordance to the karma or reactions from past actions in proportion to the degree of attachment and cravings one is predisposed to pursue in order to procure pleasure and enjoy sense gratification. Taking birth one launches into activities pursuing good and evil in order to satisfy and gratify ones desires and propensities. Hence is order to exhaust the karma one is incessantly creating by innumerable actions one is born into wombs of good and evil perpetually in material existence. That is why it is stated that attachment to the gunas is the cause of birth in good and evil wombs. Born one performs actions and from the reactions one is forced to take birth again and again without cessation. This circumvolution never ends until by the aggregation of sukriti or pious activities one seemingly by chance has the auspicious opportunity to attain the association of a Vaisnava devotee of the Supreme Lord Krishna and being blessed by them alters the course of their destiny and upgrades their karma as Lord Krishna Himself confirms in chapter seven verse 19 beginning bahunam janmanam ante meaning after many births a knowledgeable living entity gets association of a mahatma or great soul.

 

 

..sloham 13-23..thiru mazisai aazvaar sannithy.. 10 naal uthsavam.. saathu murai antru  pey aazlvaar prasadam evarukku kidaikka yerpaadu. einthalai naaha sayana perumaal. sri mannaathan -yennai aall vudai appan naangu thiru karangal.. divya  aayutham entri kidantha sevai.. saathu muraiku varadarum ezunthu arullukiraar..Swami Alavandar in his Gitarta sangraha, has summarized the aspects covered by Chapter 13. Deha swaroopam – body’s real nature, atma apti hetu – means like the Twenty qualities, to reach or visualize atman, atma vicodanam – understanding atman and realizing the same, reason why atman is imprisoned in a body [this we had seen very recently: inherent qulaities of satvam- rajas -tamas in the body, consequent pleasures and pains, and atman, desiring to experience them, resides in a body. Once bonded, atman can not retrace the path; so, what should be done after atman is bonded in a body? Atman should try to avoid further birth in future. For this first, it should be understood that atman is different from body. If this difference is not understood, then body will be misunderstood as atman, and pleasures of body will be thought as happiness for atman. All those which cause sufferings to body, will not be done, thinking they are bad for atman. This way neither kaivalyam nor atman reaching Vaikuntam, will ever be attempted. Therefore, viveka gyana – analysing knowledge is needed. That is to clearly understand, atman is different from bodyprakritim ca gunaih saha
sarvatha vartamano ’pi
na sa bhuyo ’bhijayate

“One who understands this philosophy concerning material nature, the living entity and the interaction of the modes of nature is sure to attain liberation. He will not take birth here again, regardless of his present position.”

The Lord tells that he who understands these, even if he [atman] is in a body, and experiencing pleasures and pains, would never have rebirths. Evam = this, purusham = atman, vetti = is understood [of its nature], prakrutim = [and] prakruti [its Five great elements and the body made of them]. Earlier the Lord told the body as Kshetram or cultivable land, and atman which realizes so is Kshetragya. Gunai saha = the Three qualities of satvam, rajas and tamas. That is atman’s nature, body’s nature and the body associated Three qualities are to be understood. Such a person, sarvatha vartamano’pi = even if residing in a body always, sa = such a person [jeevatman], na bhuya = never again, abhijayate = will have birth. .

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-23.. 

The purusah or the manifestation of the Supreme Lord Krishna transcends both the body and the mind dwelling within all sentient beings as paramatma the Supreme Soul and is upadrasta or the impartial witness who by means of the will directs the operations pertaining to the physical body and anumanta or sanctions the activities performed by all jivas or embodied beings that lead to joy and grief in pursuing activities in material existence. Thus by virtue of ruling, supporting and guiding the jivas the purusah is the Mahesvarah the Supreme controller of the physical body, the senses and the mind of all jivas. The conjunctive particle api meaning also refers to the epithet of great lord which denotes that as far as the body is concerned it applies to paramatma as well. The phrase purusah parah means that the Supreme Being as paramatma is to be differentiated and separate due to its unlimited omnipresence within all jivas, from the atma or individual soul which is localised within each jiva. Although both are immortal and possess the omniscient propensities of infinite cognizance and divine consciousness.

 

Ramanuja’s Commentary..13-19.. 

Previously a concise description of what is to be known as constituting the ksetra or field of activity has been given by Lord Krishna beginning in verse six with maha-bhutani meaning the five fundamental elements of material nature and in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanivitam or reverence the 20 excellent are enumerated as the means for acquiring the knowledge of atma-tattva or soul realisation up to perception of the eternal spiritual reality, knowing the Supreme Lord reside within the etheric heart of all living beings. Here Lord Krishna states mad bhakta meaning His devotees are knowledgeable of the reality regarding the ksetra, knowledgeable of the means by which to realise the atma or immortal soul which is of the nature of ksetra-jna or knower of the sphere of activity and distinctly different from the ksetra. Only His devotees are those situated in such knowledge and mad bhavayopapadyate meaning qualified to attain exclusive loving devotion to Him which is everlasting and eternal and which is different from samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next Lord Krishna will explain the beginingless state of the two distinct natural verities of matter and soul conjoined together and the different functions each is engendered to perform as well as how these two verities came to be situated in this condition.