Geetha Saaram 13-14 to 13-18..

..sloham 13-14..Thiru mazisai  aazlvaar avathaara   thottamum mandabam-mey gjaanam vallara geethai-sudarsana amsam -4700 varusham  erunthu arullinaar.ezlil 120/96 eranndu  pira  bandam…baarghava-biruhu  maharishi- kana kaangiyenbavaledam  mayangi  …born as life less child -perumaalum thaayaarum eduthu -vueir vottamarullinaar –bakthi saarar – paarvathi/paramasivan  vanthu thantha  thiru  naamam  –thiru vaallan–pirambu  kudi -pangayaselvi  valarthaarkall- oru  piravil eranndu  piravi  konndaar pola-kannanukkum-sivanukku  kaal kannai  kaatiyavar– Aaraa amuthan-piraan peyarai  serthu  konnd-thiru mazisai  piraan aanaar –Aara amutha  aazlvaar  aanaar avanum..yuga sithi  petravar-Vyagra  vaahananai yohathaal jayithaar..

sarvendriya-gunabhasam
sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktam sarva-bhrc caiva
nirgunam guna-bhoktr ca

“The Supersoul is the original source of all senses, yet He is without senses. He is unattached, although He is the maintainer of all living beings. He transcends the modes of nature, and at the same time He is the master of all the modes of material nature..eranndu  nilai baktha aathma/ muktha aathmaa..

Sarva = all, indriya = organs’, guna = actions,-seyal paadukallaiyum- abhasam = carried out Sarva = all, indriya = organs’, guna = actions, abhasam = carried out .. Sarvendriya = all organs are, vivarjitam = left out or abandoned–vittu  viduthal-varjanam-Asaktam = not bound by any body [in Mukta state]-kattu  pada  villai  yentha  dehathilum  , sarva = all [bodies]–vulaham anaithumbagavaan evan yellaa vudalaiyum.., bhriccaiva = are also supported [in Bhaddha state-samsaara disaiyil-.Nirgunam = without [satva, rajas and tamas] qualities [in Mukta state], guna-bhoktr ca = and enjoys all [satva, rajas and tamas] qualities [in Bhaddha state]. In samsaram or in this Universe, atman is subject to all the qualities like satva, rajas and tamas..pulan  konndu  seyalpaadu/ vudambai thaanguthal/ muk  gunna serkkai  moontrum..muktha  thisaiyil -sareeram  venndiya  padi  kainkaryam panna yeduthu  kolvaan..eranndum  mudiyum....sloham 13-15.. Embaar  -avathara sthalam-Mathura mangalam-mazalai  mangalam-yenbar..Ramanuja padachhayaa govindahnapayini |
tata yatta swaroopasa jeeyan math visra mathsali ||..
.1021-thai-punar vasu..garudan amsam..sri  vaikundanaathaperumaal/kamala valli  thaayaar..garuda pushkarani–vetha aamotha  vimanam–saptha rishi/  suparna  mahaa-rajavukku  piradyadsham..  SWAMI  PERIYA NAMBI /SWAMI PERIYA THIRUMALAI NAMBI,/ SWAMI THIRUKKOSHTIYUR NAMBI,/ SWAMI THIRUMAALAI ANDAAN [திருமாலையாண்டான்] and AZHVAR THIRUVARANGA PERUMAL ARAIYAR. Along with SWAMI THIRUKKACCHI NAMBI-SIX  AACHARYAS  FOR -EMBERUMAANAAR..THIRU MALAI NAMBI-SISTERS SRI DEVI-KAMALA NAYANA BATTAR- GOVINDA BATTAR WAS BORN-EMBAAR /BOOMAA DEVI-aasoori  kesava  somayajulu-raamaa nujar avathaarm..eruvarum  maru  mahankall..ontru  vitta saho tharar kall-aacharya  beedamum alangarithaar.. battar  evarukku pinbu.. rama nujar  marumhan-mudali  aanndaan....emberumaanaar-thiru  naamam embaar  aaha surukki...guru  parambarai-

.vuthbahir antas ca bhutanam
acaram caram eva ca
suksmatvat tad avijneyam
dura-stham cantike ca tat

“The Supreme Truth exists outside and inside of all living beings, the moving and the nonmoving. Because He is subtle, He is beyond the power of the material senses to see or to know. Although far, far away, He is also near to all.”

Tat = that atman, bhutanam = Five great elements [pancha bhuta – space, air, fire, water and earth], bahi = outside, antas ca = and inside–velliyilum vullum erupar..mukthar velliyilum  bakthar  vudalil  vullum…Acaram = still or stationary, caram eva ca = also moving.–asainthum asaiyaamalum .. When residing in a body, atman moves about..mukthiadaintha pinbu  vudalyethaiyumyeduthu  kollalaam  asaiyavum  asaiyaamalum  erukkalaam….Sukshmatvat = [atman is] very minute. –aanai/ponai/ erumbu  aatma orey  maathiri minute  size-gjanam surungum  perukkum..Vedas say that the size of atman is one hundredth of one hundredth fraction of the tip of paddy [நெல்]. Tad avijneyam = and so not understood.-ariya pada  mudiyaathi– gjeyam-arivukku  vishayam  …Durastham = [atman is] very farther away.–aatma  gunnangall20  theriyaatha vanukku .Antike ca = and very nearby.– aathma  pannbukall  vallarntha  van edam– naan yennaiyey  therinthu  kola villai- aazvaar.. Thus atman is:vuyarthy  solkiraar ethaal..

  • inside and outside pancha bhuta,
  • moving and still,
  • minute,
  • unable to be understood, and
  • far away and closeby.
Ramanuja’s Commentary-sloham 13-15-..The words sarvendriya-gunabhasam means that the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence known as Parabrahma or the Supreme Being who is capable of illuminating all the senses with consciousness along with their faculties such as sight, sound, smell, taste and touch, etc. But devoid of all material qualities Parabrahma is capable to perform all the activities of the senses without the need of physical sense organs. The same holds true for the atma or immortal soul which is capable of experiencing the activities of the senses without sense faculties and which by its own virtue has the capacity of omniscience like Parabrahma. The word asaktam means indifferent or unattached to the material and yet is sarva-bhrt ca or capable of assuming all physical bodies and is the maintainer of all physical bodies. The Chandogya Upanisad VII.XXV beginning sa eva dhastat meaning the Supreme Lord is everywhere in all directions. The Supreme Lord is nirgunam meaning transcendental to the three modes of material nature pervading material existence which are goodness, passion and ignorance and yet the Supreme Lord is the ultimate experiencer of these three modes.   

  • SLOHAM 13-16.. VAIKUNTHA  PERUMAALL SANITHI..nintra thiru kolam..vaikunda  naathan nintra thiru kolamengey-Whoever chants Vedas, they will experience aamoda, pramoda and sammoda [ஆமோதம், பிரமோதம், சம்மோதம்]. Modam means delight-aanantham per aanantham miha per aanantham… It is delight, more delight and most delightful..KAMALA VALITHAAYAAR SANNITHI.. -ellaimai maaraatha  divya  kolam..garudanai anupi  yaaham mudithu  snaanam panna  pushkaranni- kaadcham  thanthaar vaikunda  perumaall..Swami Embar signalled to the Arayar who was dancing to show conch and discus. Arayar grasping that signal, in the next instance when appoocchi was mentioned showed signs of conch and discus held by the Lord.-sangu  chakaram kaatti yentruembaarkaatta -embaar ey  eruntheero yentraaraam  emberumaanaar…adyayana  vuthsavathil–vinnappam seyvaarkall-araiyar..mechuothu  sangampaasurathilapoochi  kaattu  hiraan -pillai thamizl  paadinaar settaikalai.. 

avibhaktam ca bhutesu
vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhuta-bhartr ca taj jneyam
grasisnu prabhavishnu ca

 

“Although the Supersoul appears to be divided among all beings, He is never divided. He is situated as one. Although He is the maintainer of every living entity, it is to be understood that He devours and develops all.”

Bhutesu = by [being resident of] bodies of various species [like Deva or human or animal or bird, etc], avibhaktam = not different.–atma  gjaanam  vullavanethai  therinthu  kolhuiraan..sarvathra  samadarsana-pandithar  yentyru sonna  maathiri..sareeram-villai nilamyentru therinthavan…vibaktham-pirivu..vibhaktam sthitam = [he is] difference exists [ from other atman residing in other bodies]. .. Tad = that atman, jneyam = is to be understood [as different from body], because , bhuta-bnartr = supports body-thaangu  hirathu… Bhuta means bodies made of the Five great elements…Grasisnu = absorbs.–grahikiraan-vunnavai vunnuhiraan..  aatmaa saappidaathu -aatma  ellatha  vudambu saappidaathu.thanithu  vudambu  vunnaathu..seyal paduvatharkku  vunnvuvatharkku  thoonnduthal.. Here it means eating the food, which is Achit. .. Prabhavishnu = and manifestation thereafter [such food becomes, after digestion,sperm or semen and after residing in womb is born as an infant,etc.]. Neither the sperm nor the womb is atman. But atman is different from all these.   veru paadu  theriya aatha  gjaanamum 20 gunangallum venndum..Thus atman is different from body, because of:

  • supporter of body.
  • eating food.
  • present in various manifestations of food.

 

  • Ramanuja’s Commentary….sloham 13-16–The word bahih means outside, this refers to the atma or immortal soul which still exists even when it departs a physical body at death and abandons the subtle body along with the five elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether although it is present within them as well. As confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad VI.VII.VII beginning sa ya esho animaitad means: The source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence is Parabrahma the Supreme Lord Krishna who is eternally existing in everything by His transcendental potency. By nature it is acaram or stationary and unmoving but it is caram or moving in its embodied state. Due to being supra-subtle without material, mundane qualities it is avijneyam or incomprehensible. The atma or immortal soul possesses all powers and knowledge although it occupies and inhabits a bodily form. Because it is subatomic it can not be perceived by technological methods and remains a mystery. Therefore it is extremely difficult for worldly people of logic and reason to understand it being separate and distinct from the physical body. The words durastham cantike ca tat means that the atma although present within their own bodies is very far away from those who are arrogant, ostentatious, irreverent, etc. who do not possesses the 20 virtues of righteousness given in verses 8 to 12 such as humility, reverence and nonviolence. But contrarily it is extremely near to those dear ones who possess the 20 virtues. This is because these 20 virtues facilitate a living entities ability to perceive internally and realize the atma.   

     

..SLOHAM13-17..AVATHARA MANDABAM-1 mile  thooram kovilil  erunthu ..paambu  kadithaalum  visham yeraathaam  ev vooril.. paambin  vaay  mullai  yeduthaar  embaar..radshippathu  namkadamai.paambin  vaay  visham vaithathu  paambin  kutramellai yey..atma gjaanamvanthavar..nadai  murai  paduthi  kaattinaar….Lakshminatha samarambham natha yamuna madyamam |asmad acharya paryantam vande guru paramparam ..EMBAAR- periya  thirumalai  nambikku-AACHARYAR   PADUKKAI   NALATHAA   YENTRU    SOTHITHU  PAARTHU   THARUVAAR– yenakku  naraham kidaithaalum  para  vaayillai sarama sloham arulli  raamaanujar  sonnathu  pola..moontru  murai  thiru  malaikku  poy  erukiraar  eberumaanaar.. embarai  kooti  kondu  vanthaar  oru  thadavai-kathaivai  thatti-VITTRA MAATTUKU PULEDUVAAR ENGU  YAARUMELLAI -VAASALTHIRAVAATHAAR..vaanginavan  thaan  pul  vaangi  tharanum..embar than gjaanam vunndu  yentru thalaiaatti -erukku  yentru  yetru  konndaar.ellai  yentraal sishyaraal  guruvukku  ellai  aahi  vidum  yentraaraam..baava suthi  padaithavar..pirathi  palippu  raamaa nujarai  polasevi–thiru  thandathudan..Actually it is not satari; because satari refers to Nammalwar. In fron of the Lord is Satari. Similarly, what is in front of Nammalwar is called Madurakavi; what is in front of Swami Ramanuja is called Mudaliyandan; and what is in front of Swami Embar is called [Prasara] Bhattar. ..

jyotisam api taj jyotis
tamasah param ucyate
jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam
hridi sarvasya visthitam

“He is the source of light in all luminous objects. He is beyond the darkness of matter and is unmanifested. He is knowledge, He is the object of knowledge, and He is the goal of knowledge. He is situated in everyone’s heart.”

..He tells that atman is more luminous than other luminous objects like Sun, Moon, nadshathram,fire,etc. Tad = that [atman], jyotisam api = even [lends] luminescence to, jyoti = luminous objects [like Sun, fire, etc.].  Param = superior to, Tamas = [here it is not to be taken as darkness, but] moola prakruti [primordial matter].–eruttai  kurikka  villai- Jneyam = [atman] has to be understood, jnanam = as [embodiment of] Gyana or knowledge, jnana-gamyam = attainable knowledge or Gyana. .-gjanam/gjana svarooam yentru  purinthu  kollanum/adaiya padubavanum yentru  therinthu  kolanum..20  pannbukallai  pazahi  konndu…sooshmaay oru  edathil erunthum yellaam therinthu konndu erukiraar..gjanam  konndu  porullai  purinthu  kollhirom.. atman is:

  • Brighter.
  • Superior to body.
  • Embodiment of knowledge.
  • Understood only by Gyana.
  • Result to be attained.
  • Residing in heart.
    Ramanuja’s Commentary…sloham 13-17..By the Supreme Lord Krishna who is known as Parabrahma intrinsic potency as the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence it is devoid of all divisions abiding everywhere within all creatures, demigods, humans etc. But to the spiritually unaware there appears to be divisions and differences due to variegation of forms. What Lord Krishna has stated in verse two of this chapter that those who are knowledgeable of the ksetra-jna are spiritually enlightened about the atma or immortal soul existing equally within all living entities distinctly separate from the physical body although resideing within the etheric heart of all sentient beings. When textural quotes are read as I am a demigod, I am a man, etc. it is only referring to the body, the physical form shrouding the atma due to karma the resultant reactions from past life activities. To comprehend the atma as a distinct, separate immortal entity can be discerned by reflection and contemplation inasmuch as the atma provides the support for the aggregate combination of the five fundamental elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether which in varying degrees make up the physical body. So Parabrahma is known as bhuta-bhartr the maintainer of all beings as distinguished from the maintained. Since Parabrahma exists after the time of universal destruction He is known as grasisnu the annihilator of the material elements as distinguished from the annihilated. Because Parabrahma is the causer of transformations He is known as prabha-visnu the creator of universal manifestation as distinguished from the created. Inasmuch as no such properties are ever present in a dead body it can be correctly concluded that mere matter possessed ksetra or field of activity is never capable of being the maintainer, the annihilator or the creator whereas the ksetra-jna is capable. 
  • ..SLOHAM 13-18..Pettai- varada raja  puram-purusha  mangalam/mudali aandaan-  avathaara sthlam- pachai  varanna perumaal..munaiyil  hanumaan sannithi– thiru panni  nadanthu  kondu  erukirathu  darma push karanni-darma  vimaanam..haareetha  vaarannar- yaanai-vaarannam.. darma  puthran-yuthishtran- raja suya yaaham -pannum pothu em berumaan vanthu  radshithu allitha  edam.. amarntha  thiru  kolam..yaanai-thiruma  kaanna vaikum-sevithaalum  vyappudan  sevika  vaikkum.. porum yentra  yennam varaathu nirangusa svaathanthram..bakthi maa vatti angusan-aazlvaar paasurangalukku adanguvaan.. baahan sangili thokki  vanthu  koduthu  katta  sollum.. bakthiyum avaney  tharuvaan..

    iti kshetram tatha jnanam
    jneyam coktam samasatah
    mad-bhakta etad vijnaya
    mad-bhavayopapadyate

    “Thus the field of activities [the body], knowledge and the knowable have been summarily described by Me. Only My devotees can understand this thoroughly and thus attain to My nature.”

    Mad bhava = My [Sri Krishna’s] nature, upapadyate = tries to attain, mad-bhakta = My [Sri Krishna’s] devotee..Iti = thus [as told in the last 17 slokas], kshetram = body [as told in slokas 5 and 6], thatha gyanam = and [then] Gyana [about attaining atman told in slokas 7 to 11, that is the 20 qualities to be acquired], jneyam = matter to be understood [atman, told in slokas 12 to 17] by Gyana..

     
  • deha atma veru  paadu  solluhiraan..18-ethu  kaarum sonnathai  summaraise  pannuhiraan..yen nilamai adaiya  muyantru -avan  nilamaiadaikiraan..mad-baavam -samsaaram  pattru  attra  nilai..ethi -evvaaraha shedram-vudal..dadaa gjaanam-atmapattriya  arivi -20  gunnangall..saathanam..7-11-slohangallilsonnaan.meley geyam-ariya thakkathai sonnaan 12-17 varai..samasathaha- oru sera surikku..vuba badyathey- adaikiraan.. mad baktha-atma saashaad kaarathukku-eisvaryam venum yenbavanum/avanai adainthu  anubavikanum  avanaiyey  kettu  peruhiraan..

..Ramanuja’s Commentary .sloham13-18…Lights are those found in the sun, the stars, fire, gems, etc. The light of these lights denotes that which illuminates all these or that by which they are perceived denoting the light of consciousness by which all luminaries such as the sun and the stars are seen to shine. As for human made lights such as lamps, torches and the rest, they only dispel the darkness intervening between the sense of sight and its object and their illuminating power is limited to the sense perception of sight. But there is no limitation with the light and sight of the atma once it has been realised. The words tamasah param means beyond darkness referring to the darkness of tamas or ignorance designating the subtle but limited conditions of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence; but the atma or immortal soul being eternal is transcendental to any conditions or limitations. The words jnanam jneyam means knowledge worthy of being known comprehensible by the intellect and characterised by consciousness. The words jnana gamyam means wisdom accessible through knowledge or that wisdom gained from embodying and living the 20 virtues given in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanitvam or reverence. These exalted virtues which constitute spiritual knowledge are the means to achieve the wisdom of the atma. As the atma is situated within the heart of all sentient beings, the Supreme Lord Krishna known as Parabrahma is hrdi sarvasy dhisthitam situated in the heart of all sentient beings.Ramanuja’s Commentary….The words sarvendriya-gunabhasam means that the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence known as Parabrahma or the Supreme Being who is capable of illuminating all the senses with consciousness along with their faculties such as sight, sound, smell, taste and touch, etc. But devoid of all material qualities Parabrahma is capable to perform all the activities of the senses without the need of physical sense organs. The same holds true for the atma or immortal soul which is capable of experiencing the activities of the senses without sense faculties and which by its own virtue has the capacity of omniscience like Parabrahma. The word asaktam means indifferent or unattached to the material and yet is sarva-bhrt ca or capable of assuming all physical bodies and is the maintainer of all physical bodies. The Chandogya Upanisad VII.XXV beginning sa eva dhastat meaning the Supreme Lord is everywhere in all directions. The Supreme Lord is nirgunam meaning transcendental to the three modes of material nature pervading material existence which are goodness, passion and ignorance and yet the Supreme Lord is the ultimate experiencer of these three modes.  Ramanuja’s Commentary…Lord Krishna begins this verse with sarvatah pani-padam tat meaning the Supreme Lords has hands and feet everywhere. This denotes that by His potency the Supreme Lord is capable of doing everywhere what all hands and feet do in the embodied state. Similarly He speaks sarvatah srutimal loke meaning He hears everything in all directions internally and externally. This denotes that He is capable of performing the functions of the senses such as hearing and seeing without the need of any physical sense organ. The Supreme Lord known as Parabrahman although possessing not hands and feet is able to perform the activities of hands and feet. The Svetasvatara Upanisad III.IXX beginning apani pado jivana grihita meaning: Footless and handless He moves and grasps; eyeless and earless He sees and hears. That the atma or immortal soul of every sentient being even situated as an infinitesimal particle of Parabrahman also has the capacity of performing functions without organs as well. This is confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad III.I.VIII beginning tatha vidva punya-pape vidhuya niranjana param samyam upaiti means: The atma casting off the dross of merit and demerit becomes purified attaining qualitative sameness in transcendence as the brahman. So in conclusion the ksetra-jna abides throughout all creation encompassing everything. This means that the atma pervades all things in creation without exception for the atma has no limitations of time and space. The atma is qualitatively equated to Parabrahman but quantitatively it is minuscule similar to a ray of light from the sun.   

Ramanuja’s Commentary-for sloham 13-14……Lord Krishna begins this verse with sarvatah pani-padam tat meaning the Supreme Lords has hands and feet everywhere. This denotes that by His potency the Supreme Lord is capable of doing everywhere what all hands and feet do in the embodied state. Similarly He speaks sarvatah srutimal loke meaning He hears everything in all directions internally and externally. This denotes that He is capable of performing the functions of the senses such as hearing and seeing without the need of any physical sense organ. The Supreme Lord known as Parabrahman although possessing not hands and feet is able to perform the activities of hands and feet. The Svetasvatara Upanisad III.IXX beginning apani pado jivana grihita meaning: Footless and handless He moves and grasps; eyeless and earless He sees and hears. That the atma or immortal soul of every sentient being even situated as an infinitesimal particle of Parabrahman also has the capacity of performing functions without organs as well. This is confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad III.I.VIII beginning tatha vidva punya-pape vidhuya niranjana param samyam upaiti means: The atma casting off the dross of merit and demerit becomes purified attaining qualitative sameness in transcendence as the brahman. So in conclusion the ksetra-jna abides throughout all creation encompassing everything. This means that the atma pervades all things in creation without exception for the atma has no limitations of time and space. The atma is qualitatively equated to Parabrahman but quantitatively it is minuscule similar to a ray of light from the sun.   

 

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