Gheethaa Saaram 9-1 to 9-4

..

Gitartha sangraha, by Swami Alavandar.

svam¯ah¯atmyam.manus.yatve paratvam.ca mah¯atman¯am
 vi´ses.o navame yogo bhaktir¯upah.prak¯ırtitah. 13

Navame = in the 9th Chapter, yogo = yoga, bhaktirupa = in bhakti roopam, prakirtita = explained. In Chapter 9, Bhakti yoga is explained. Bhakti yoga explanation started in Chapter 7, but is concluded in this Chapter only. Four aspects are explained in this Chapter:
1) Sva mahatmyam = the Lord explains His glory Himself. This was told in Chapter7 but is repeated again by the Lord. Why should He repeat? If Arjuna had understood it properly, immediately Arjuna should have started the war as advised by Sri Krishna. So, repetition has become necessary.
2) Manusyatve paratvam = The Lord’s Supremacy, even born as a man. In whatever form He appears, His Superiority as the Lord of all the Worlds, is always exhibited.
3) Mahatmanam visesha = Glory of mahatman, that is Devotees of the highest order, like Thirumazhisai Alwar or Bhaktisara. His devotion was so great that the titles of the Lord and the devotee were exchanged.
4) Yogo bhakti rupa = Bhakti yoga is glorified.
His greatness, His ever supremacy irrespective of how He appears, greatness of devotees and Bhakti yoga are explained in Chapter 9.

In chapter nine Lord Krishna reveals that the sovereign science and the sovereign secret. He explains how the entire material existence is created, prevaded, maintained and annihilated by His external energy and all beings are coming and going under His supervision. The subjects matters covered subsequently are primarily concerned with devotional service and the Lord Himself declares that these subject matters are most confidential. Thus this chapter is entitled: Confidential Knowledge of the Ultimate truth..

..slokam 9-1..vidhrur,sanjayar prahaladar,dhuruvar pontra bakthimankall pola aahanum..Thiru enthaloor perumal.parimala rengan..suhanda vana nadhan..reclining posture..chandra sabam pona edam.indhu or chandra pushkarani..Humility is essential for Bhakti. Without that we can not worship the Lord. Ego should be totally absent.

sri-bhagavan uvaca
idam tu te guhyatamam
pravaksyamy anasuyave
jnanam vijnana-sahitam
yaj jnatva moksyase ’subhat

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, because you are never envious of Me, I shall impart to you this most confidential knowledge and realization, knowing which you shall be relieved of the miseries of material existence..

..Te idam = this, tamam = highest, guhya = secret. Sri Krishna is to tell the most precious of secrets- Bhakti yoga..Pravakshyami = I [Sri Krishna] am going to explain in detail [to Arjuna]. Jnanam = [knowledge] of Bhakti yoga, vijnana sahita = procedures to perform Bhakti yoga, yaj jnatva = by knowing which, moksyase = get liberated, asubhat = from all sins and punya [preventing to reach the Lord]. ..

 

Ramanuja’s Commentary 

 

The fundamental principles distinguishing the different kinds of devotees of the Supreme Lord were discussed in the previous chapter. Now Lord Krishna reveals in this chapter:

 

The glorious magnificence and greatness of the object of devotion, the Parama Purusa or Supreme Being will be delineated.

 

The importance of the saintly devotees of the Supreme Lord will be explained.

 

The nature of bhakti or pure love in devotion will be examined.

 

Lord Krishna uses the word anusuyave which means without duplicity. Such a sincere person

..slokam 9-2..chandra saba vimosana valli thaayar..sugantha vana nayahi..parimala renga nayahi..veda aamodha vimanam.aamodham=happiness..promodham anandam also same meaning..sugantham because he got the vedas back from madhu-kaidabars..

raja-vidya raja-guhyam
pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakshavagamam dharmyam
su-sukham kartum avyayam

“This knowledge is the king of education, the most secret of all secrets. It is the purest knowledge, and because it gives direct perception of the self by realization, it is the perfection of religion. It is everlasting, and it is joyfully performed

..Idam = this Bhakti yoga, raja-vidya = king among all knowledge, raja-guhyam = king among all secrets..Pavitram = capable of removing dirt, uttamam = best. Bhakti yoga is the best to remove all the dirt in us. That is removal of papa/punya and samsaram..Pratyaksham = perceptible, avagamam = feel of Me [Sri Krishna]. Person practicing Bhakti yoga can have the vision of the Lord..Dharmyam = is the means [to reach the Lord]. Kartum = while performing [Bhakti yoga], su-sukham = most comfortable or pleasing. Avyayam = never diminishing [ even after granting all the benefits]. ..

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary ..

What is the tad brahma or the supreme,spiritual substratum pervading all existence? What is adhiyatma or the soul within all embodied beings? What is karma or the equal reaction to any action? How is it possible to effect moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death by knowing these things and taking shelter of Bhagavan or the possessor of full knowledge, full power, full fame, full wealth, full beauty and full renunciation, who is the Supreme Lord Krishna? What is the adhibhuta referring to embodied beings and adhidaivas referring to the demigods which the atharthis or seekers of wealth must know? What also is indicated by the term adhiyagna which all three classes of aspirants have to be cognisant of beings atharthis, jijnasurs or those desiring soul realisation and jnani’s or those exclusively seeking the Supreme Lord and why is it specially characterised? Finally Arjuna wanted to know specifically in what way is the Supreme Lord Krishna to be realised by persons of controlled mind and senses at the time of death

..slokam 9-3..veera sayanam with four arms here..bujanga sayanam is on adi seshan..anantha sayanam..thala sayanam..uthana sayanam..bala sayanam are the other sayanams..thalai pakkam ganga thayar..thiruvadiyil kaveri thayar..ganga came here to wash off her sins by bathin in kaveri..eippasi  mudalilum amavasai antrum kadaisi 120 naalum perumal  ezlunthu aruluhirar..udsavar perumal, thayar thiru muha mandalam azlahu..Upanishad says ‘nanya patha ayanaya vidhyate tamevam vidwan amrutha iha bhavati’. There is no other way, than to meditate on God and do bhakti. Ayanaya = attaining Sri Vaikuntam..

asraddadhanah purusha
dharmasyasya parantapa
aprapya mam nivartante
mrityu-samsara-vartmani

“Those who are not faithful in this devotional service cannot attain Me, O conqueror of enemies. Therefore they return to the path of birth and death in this material world.”..

..Asya dharnasya = this means or way ..Paranthapa = destroyer of enemies [Arjuna], ashraddha = without interest [ to attain the Lord]; ..Mam = Me [Sri Krishna], aprapya = not attaining, mrutyu = death like, samsaram =rebirths, varthmani = repetitive cycles.Nivartante = get fully involved [ in the rebirth and accumulation of more and more papa/punya]. Four words of this sloka are important: purusha, mam, aprapya and nivartante. Purusha means those who are eligible to reach the Lord by practicing Bhakti yoga. Such people discard this smooth path to reach Him. Mam – such people lose the greatest of wealth, the Lord. Aprapya – the Lord is waiting to take that person in His fold; but that person is not realizing and chooses other benefits. Nivartante– this samsaram is very inferior and many scholars and Acharyas have explained the disadvantages; despite all these, they want to live in this and get all disadvantage. So, Bhakti is essential to reach Him..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  What is designated in verse one as tad brahma or the supreme spiritual substratum pervading all existence is the aksaram paramam or the supreme indestructible atma or soul. Aksaram is that which is not subject to decay or imperishable and is the collective given by the ksetrajnanis or those knowledgeable of the field of action or the informers of uninformed matter and atma embodied beings. The Subala Upanisad II states avyakta the indiscernible compound of spirit and matter merges into the aksara the indivisible compound which descends into tamas or nescience. Parama aksaram is the superior indestructible atma nature which is completely disengaged from prakriti or the material substratum and not connected to even the aksaram which comprises embodied beings and combines both. The word svabhavo is also called adhyatma and indicates subtle material elements and its accompanying erratic tendencies. These subtle elements are what adheres to the atma in the descent of the supra subtle quintuple process from spirit to matter, the last being the fifth stage which becomes the seminal fluids referred to in the Panca-agni-vidva or five-fold sacrificial fires which are described in the Chandogya Upanisad:V.III-X which is essential and has to be known by all aspirants. Both aksara and adhyatma must be realised by the mumumkshus or emancipation seekers for moksa or liberation from material existence as aksara the immortal soul is that what is worthy of selection and adhyatma the embodied being incarcerated in matter is worthy of rejection. The sequence which manifests this descent into matter by the jiva or embodied being is called visargah and karma refers to that specific action which activates a corresponding reaction and determines the destination and manifestation of all creatures into embodied states whether human, animal, fish etc. The final action which actually causes manifestation into material existence is known as procreation between males and females of different species. The Vedic scriptures declare that in the fifth stage the male discharges the sacrificial water into the females sacrificial fire and a new embodied being is created. This act is known as karma. The knowledge of karma, aksara and adhyatma are all prerequisites of knowledge absolutely essential for those seeking moksa or liberation from the material existence. Otherwise one will be ignorant of what is worthy of rejection and what is worthy of attention and unable to properly interact accordingly. An example is following in verse 11 concerning brahmacarya or celibacy.

 ..slokam 9-4..sthala vrusham panneer maram..ekadesi mandabam azlahu..vaazlanthey pom neer yentru aazlvar paadi erukiraar..

maya tatam idam sarvam
jagad avyaktamurtina
mat-sthani sarvabhutani
na caham tesv avasthitah

“By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them.”

.Idam = this [ what we see and perceive], sarvam = entire, jagad =Universe, maya =by Me [Sri Krishna], tatam = is well pervaded..Avyakta murtina = [the Lord’s form is] imperceptible image..Vyapakatvam is for ruling and supporting, those objects. Mat sthani = Keeping Me [Sri Krishna] as dwelling place, sarva dbhutani = all living beings [ without exception]. ..Tesu = in those living beings, aham = I [Sri Krishna], na avastita = not there.

Ramanuja’s Commentary By the word adhibhutam or those things pertaining to physical objects sought after by aisvaryarthis or fortune seekers are those things of a perishable nature including the supra subtle principles of sound, sight, smell etc. which are latent in their elements of ether, fire, earth etc and develop therefrom into their support system being the senses. All these things must certainly be comprehended and contemplated by them.

The word adhidaivatam refers to the purusha or the ultimate, original supreme being whose status is superior and elevated above the 330 million demigods and all other celestials and lesser divinities and gods as well. This is the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the possessor and enjoyer of all the supramundane enjoyments of rare and equisite delights of His transcendental senses of sound and sight etc as the ultimate recipient of all yagna or worship and propitiation, even more then that experienced in the heavenly planets by Indra and Brahma. The aivaryarthis or fortune seekers must meditate on the purusha as the Supreme Being and ultimate enjoyer of all the subtle transcendental delights and this is what is called knowing the adhidaivatam.

The adhiyagna denotes the Supreme Lord Krishna, Himself. It is He as the indwelling monitor in all the demigods and other gods and all sentient beings and whose total aggregate of atmas or eternal souls constitute His transcendental, spiritual body and as such He receives first worship and propitiation from all yagnas. Thus as the adhiyagna he is the indwelling monitor established in the heart of all beings and He is the one whom the three classes of devotees have to realise and meditate upon as a maha yagna or great offering in all their nitya and namaitta or eternal and occasional acts of worship.

 

 

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