Geetha Saaram 8-20 to 8-24

.slokam 8-20..Kumba konum Rama swami kovilil..ramar Pattaabisheha kolam.. villai lakshmanaridam koduthu erukiraar..seetha pirattiyum eruntha thiru kolam..rare ..sadrugnan veesuhirar..baradan kudai pidikiraar..anjeneyar thiruvadiyil..thamburaum ramayana pushtahamum vaithu kondu erukiraar..dakshina ayodhya..20,21 slokathaal kaivalyam pattri solluhiraan..boomiyil piranthaal modsham adaiya vazli vunndu..kaivalyam petraal athu kidaiyaathu..pralayathaalum azliyaathathu kaivalyam..

paras tasmat tu bhavo ’nyo
’vyakto ’vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarveshu bhutesu
nasyatsu na vinasyati

“Yet there is another unmanifest nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is.”
..Sarvshu bhuteshu = all living and non’living things [both karana or cause and karya or effect], nasyatsu = even when being destroyed, na vinasyati = [kaivalyam attained ones] will never get destroyed. He is muktatman; either in Vaikuntam or in Kaivalyam. Avyakta = moola prakruti [ the first raw material used by the Lord for creation], tasmad avyakta para = this [person in Kaivalyam ] is in a superior or higher place than the prime raw material. Anya bhava = different from all, experience, avyakta = can not be perceived by anyone as to what is [the person who has attained kaivalyam] his experience or how he lives, etc. Sanatana = he will remain ancient..

Ramanuja’s commentary..There is no commentary for this verse.

..slokam 8-21..kannadi arai..niraiya sirbangal.. ceiling niraiya ramayana oviyam ullana..orey thoonil ramar, seetha.lakshmana and hanuman..lakshmanar sugreeva pattaabisheham panuvathai veru thoonil paarkalaam..vamana thiru vikramanar ennoru thoonil.. manmadan veru ontril..rama eranndu ashrama yellam thara vallathu..

avyakto ’kshara ity uktas
tam ahuh paramam gatim
yam prapya na nivartante
tad dhama paramam mama

“That which the Vedantists describe as unmanifest and infallible, that which is known as the supreme destination, that place from which, having attained it, one never returns—that is My supreme abode.”

….Avyakta = can not be perceived by the sense organs…Aksharam = non- decaying..Ityukta = like this the muktatman is praised. Tam = reaching that muktatman stage, paramam gathim = a very noble attainment, ahu= so say them ..Yam prapya = by reaching which [Kaivalyam ], na nivartante = they do not return back to this samsaram, tad = that, mama = My [Sri Krishna’s], dhama paramam = noble creation..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

 

 

 

Lord Krishna now reveals His superior conscious avyakta or unmanifest which is different in principle and substance then the unconscious avyakta or unmanifest of Brahma which is non-intelligent and operates according to set parameters. Lord Krishna’s superior avyakta is characterised by eternality due to its possession atma tattva or soul realisation. Thus it is also characterised by jnana or consciousness. Avyakta is also known as indistinct because it beyond any perceptive faculty of the mind or senses to cognise it as a perceivable reality. The purport is that avyakta is a principle of self-consciousness and as such is completely unique in its nature. The word sanatanah meaning eternal because His supreior avyakta is not subject to combination and aggregation or resolution and disintegration and never disperses or dissipates when all the material elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether in there rudimental forms and derivative forms dissolve away although His superior avyakta abides within them. This is why the Vedic scriptures call it avyakta or indistinct as well as aksara or indestructible. Those steeped in the wisdom of the Vedic scriptures have declared that this is the paramam gatim or supreme exalted goal to be achieved. Lord Krishna previously mentioned aksara in verse three of this chapter and will later mention it again in chapters XII.III and XV.XVI.

 

 

 

 

The superior state of avyakta is where atma tattva or soul realisation abounds and when once reached immediately precludes forever the subjection to union with matter again as there is no more rebirth for reincarnation has been terminated. Lord Krishna specifies their destination with the words dhama paramam mama meaning His supreme personal abode of eternity, knowledge and bliss where all things reciprocate fully with Him and is the abode of the liberated beings. The word dhama also denotes luminosity as in the light of consciousness which is the primary attribute of the atma or soul. Thus Lord Krishna is indicating His paramam dhama as non-different from the infinite consciousness of the atma in contrast to the limited state of consciousness one possesses who is oblivious to the atma due to being deluded by the illusory material energy known as maya and cherishing the association of the senses with sense objects. The other avyakta where resides praktiti or the material substratum which contains all living entities and which is perishable is controlled by Lord Krishna as well through His manifestation as the eternal atma or soul within the etheric heart of all created beings throughout all existence. This is the abode of the non-liberated beings. From the superior avyakta there is no return to samsara the cycle of birth and death. The next verse will show how the goal of the jnani or knower of the Supreme Lord is the most sublime state of consciousness, more exalted than any other.

 

 

 

..slokam 8-22..rama navami antru ther..in soorya prabai rama is decorated as krishna..chitrai punarvasu..avadara and pattabisheha nadshadram..raghunada naikkum avar manaivikkum  nintru sevai thantha pinbu thirumbuhirar..chit ahit eranadaiyum vittu easvara anubavam peranum.. eisvaryam, kaivalyam eradaiyum vittu avanaiyey pera aasai padanum..guhanum, hanumanum pola erukkanum..

purushah sa parah partha
bhaktya labhyas tv ananyaya
yasyantahsthani bhutani
yena sarvam idam tatam

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is greater than all, is attainable by unalloyed devotion. Although He is present in His abode, He is all-pervading, and everything is situated within Him.”
..Para = supreme and the most exalted, purusha = Sriman Narayana, the Lord, labda = is reached or attained. Ananya = not diverted in other things, bhaktya = devoted, labda = attained..Poornathva possessing all auspicious qualities in total – also implies Purusha. Most ancient –purana and so Purusha. He is Purusha also because He grants anything desired..Yasya = in Him [Sri Krishna], anta sthani = are established inside, bhutani = all living matters..Yena = by Whom, sarvam idam = all things we see, tatam = are pervaded. ..

,,

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

 

 

 

The Supreme Purusa is He in whom all things reside and who resides in all things. He the Supreme Being is accessible only by bhakti or unadulterated loving devotion.

 

..slokam 8-23..potramai kulam in saranga pani kovil..thaayar perumal thiru kalyanam on pongal-mahara sangranthi ..masi maham theppodsavam..kanu moontru thaayarum-komala valli ,vijaya valli and seetha piratti.. yezluvaarkall engey..

yatra kale tv anavrttim
avrttim caiva yoginah
prayata yanti tam kalam
vaksyami bharatarsabha

“O best of the Bharatas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, the yogi does or does not come back.”..

..Bharatarsabha = noble one of Bharatha dynasty [Arjuna], yatra = in which, kale = path [here kale does not mean time but the route].Anavrittim = no-return [to samsaram] , avrittim = return [back to samsaram],yogina = yogis would attain. Prayata = travelling, yanti = attain, vaksyami = I [Sri Krishna] will tell [Arjuna..Here yogi means gyani who will seek only the Lord and would attain Him. They will attain a place from where there would be no more return [anavrutti] to this Universe..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

 

 

 

Now the journey which is known as archir-adi or the path beginning with light which is common to the jijnasur the knower of atma tattva or soul realisation as well as the bhakta or loving devotee of the parama purusa the supreme personality. The Vedic scriptures declare that the archir-adi is the path by which both these types of aspirants travel at the time of death. It is the road travelled by which there is no returning to the worlds of mortals. The Vedic scriptures when explaining panca-agni-vidya the system of the five fires states: Those who have realised the atma or soul, those who meditate on the Supreme Lord with full faith, those who worship the Supreme Lord with bhakti or loving devotion. Those who do these activities alone in a private place reach the archi the deity of light, from there to the deity of day etc. as explained in the Chandogya Upanisad V.II-XV beginning tad ya ittham vidur. One who travels by the archi-adi path reaches Parabrahma the supreme being and thus returns not to the material worlds. This is confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad IV.XV.IV beginning enan Brahma gamayati which states: He the servitor named Amanava to the appropriate demigod, escorts the souls who have achieved moksa or liberation from material existence to Brahmaloka from where they are no longer subjected to reincarnation in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

 

 

 

Those who have realised the atma are not in the same category as those aspirants who diligently practice the para-vidya the supreme knowledge declared by Brahma because success in that is determined first by atma tattva or soul realisation. Otherwise if there was no difference between the two then it would have been unnecessary for Lord Krishna to mention the path leading to rebirth and the path leading to no rebirth. The Chandogya Upanisad V.IX.I states: Thus do the waters come to be designated as the Purusa in the fifth oblation. Those who have performed righteous deeds and those who have performed abominable deeds receive physical forms in conjunction and accordance with these activities and are fashioned out of the five elements in which water is predominant. The atma is not these forms but just embodied in these forms by the dictates of karma or reactions from past actions. So this is the distinction and those who understand the reality of atma in this way qualify for the archi-adi and achieving moksa or liberation no longer return to the realms of mortal existence. The conclusive understanding is that non-intelligent nature being material like the physical body is always fit to be discarded and the intelligent nature being spiritual like the atma is always fit to be embraced. Those who follow the spiritual nature and realise the atma travel the path of archi-adi and return not to samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

The previous passage that the servitor Amanava escorts the souls to Brahmaloka is applicable to both the followers of the spiritual nature being the jijnasuh or the soul seeker and the jnani the god seeker, as the meditation of the former consists of reflecting on the atma, devoid of matter without any material conceptions as being one with the brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence,. This conforms with the Vedic axiom known as tat krata-nyaya or that similar efforts yield similar results; therefore when realisation of the brahman is the focus of one’s aspirations then one devotes themselves to contemplation of the brahman. So the realisation of the brahman is achieved by dint of the aspirants contemplation on the brahman. How exactly is the jijnasur to contemplate the brahman is that they look at the brahman as ancillary to the atma which is the primary goal. Whereas the jnani meditates on the brahman as the effulgence of the Supreme Lord Himself and looks at the atma as ancillary to that, the Supreme Lord being the primary goal. Giving credence to the fact that the atma or soul is in reality part and parcel of the eternal ultimate Supreme Being as well as the brahman is verified in the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad V.VII.XXII beginning ya atmani tisthan which states: The brahman abides in the atma, by whom the atma is the body.

..slokam 8-24..saranga pani kovil–150adi vuryara goburam..perumal theril..geethai sonna kananum theril..thayar hema maharishi -brhu maharishi reborn.-penn…vaidiha vimanam–same as pranavakara vimanam as in Srirengam..pathala srinivasar sannithi..utharayana vasal vazli vanthau thiruvadi sevai..utharayana means great..Here in this sannidhi while doing archana to the Lord one Divine name is mentioned. ‘ Ayana dvisaya utrancha prani moksha pradhayaka‘. Two ayanams- Utharyanam and Dakshinayanam, utrancha = exiting, prani = living beings, moksha pradhayaka = grants Moksham..

agnir jyotir ahah suklah
san-masa uttarayanam
tatra prayata gacchanti
brahma brahma-vido janah

“Those who know the Supreme Brahman attain that Supreme by passing away from the world , crossing the places of light, place of the gods for daytime, waxing phase of moon, utharyanam.”

..Archit means light and so archiradhi marg means firstly light filled route. That is why Sri Krishna tells jyoti = light. Aha = the place of residence of the god for day time. Sukla = place of the god for shukla paksha or the growing phase of the Moon. Utharayanam = the place of the god for Utharayanam..Thus four places, viz. of light, of Daytime, of Shukla paksh and of Utharayanam are mentioned. In Upanishads in addition the place of Samvatsaram [ god for year], Vayu [air] lok, Surya lok, Chandra lok, Vidyut [lightning] lok, Varuna [rain god] lok, Indra lok and Satya lok [of Brahma] are mentioned. Thus there are 12 places [ Four mentioned in the Gita sloka and eight more mentioned in Upanishads] the atman crosses…Tatra prayata = those travelling in this route, brahma vido = desirous of reaching Brahmam, brahma gacchanti = they reach the place of Brahmam, that is Vaikuntam

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

 

 

Time in this verse indicates the route where the presiding demigods over the various time divisions from the day up to a year, reside in great numbers. Their route is either that path going by which yogis or those perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness are not subject to rebirth; or that path where persons of righteous deeds are born again. This last path Lord Krishna is describing now. The mention of fire, illumination, day, waxing moon and the suns six month sojourn on its waxing northern journey implies the year as well.

 

 

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