Archive for June, 2008

Gheethaa Saaram 9-1 to 9-4

June 18, 2008


Gitartha sangraha, by Swami Alavandar.

svam¯ah¯atmyam.manus.yatve mah¯atman¯am
 vi´ses.o navame yogo bhaktir¯upah.prak¯ırtitah. 13

Navame = in the 9th Chapter, yogo = yoga, bhaktirupa = in bhakti roopam, prakirtita = explained. In Chapter 9, Bhakti yoga is explained. Bhakti yoga explanation started in Chapter 7, but is concluded in this Chapter only. Four aspects are explained in this Chapter:
1) Sva mahatmyam = the Lord explains His glory Himself. This was told in Chapter7 but is repeated again by the Lord. Why should He repeat? If Arjuna had understood it properly, immediately Arjuna should have started the war as advised by Sri Krishna. So, repetition has become necessary.
2) Manusyatve paratvam = The Lord’s Supremacy, even born as a man. In whatever form He appears, His Superiority as the Lord of all the Worlds, is always exhibited.
3) Mahatmanam visesha = Glory of mahatman, that is Devotees of the highest order, like Thirumazhisai Alwar or Bhaktisara. His devotion was so great that the titles of the Lord and the devotee were exchanged.
4) Yogo bhakti rupa = Bhakti yoga is glorified.
His greatness, His ever supremacy irrespective of how He appears, greatness of devotees and Bhakti yoga are explained in Chapter 9.

In chapter nine Lord Krishna reveals that the sovereign science and the sovereign secret. He explains how the entire material existence is created, prevaded, maintained and annihilated by His external energy and all beings are coming and going under His supervision. The subjects matters covered subsequently are primarily concerned with devotional service and the Lord Himself declares that these subject matters are most confidential. Thus this chapter is entitled: Confidential Knowledge of the Ultimate truth..

..slokam 9-1..vidhrur,sanjayar prahaladar,dhuruvar pontra bakthimankall pola aahanum..Thiru enthaloor perumal.parimala rengan..suhanda vana nadhan..reclining posture..chandra sabam pona edam.indhu or chandra pushkarani..Humility is essential for Bhakti. Without that we can not worship the Lord. Ego should be totally absent.

sri-bhagavan uvaca
idam tu te guhyatamam
pravaksyamy anasuyave
jnanam vijnana-sahitam
yaj jnatva moksyase ’subhat

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, because you are never envious of Me, I shall impart to you this most confidential knowledge and realization, knowing which you shall be relieved of the miseries of material existence..

..Te idam = this, tamam = highest, guhya = secret. Sri Krishna is to tell the most precious of secrets- Bhakti yoga..Pravakshyami = I [Sri Krishna] am going to explain in detail [to Arjuna]. Jnanam = [knowledge] of Bhakti yoga, vijnana sahita = procedures to perform Bhakti yoga, yaj jnatva = by knowing which, moksyase = get liberated, asubhat = from all sins and punya [preventing to reach the Lord]. ..


Ramanuja’s Commentary 


The fundamental principles distinguishing the different kinds of devotees of the Supreme Lord were discussed in the previous chapter. Now Lord Krishna reveals in this chapter:


The glorious magnificence and greatness of the object of devotion, the Parama Purusa or Supreme Being will be delineated.


The importance of the saintly devotees of the Supreme Lord will be explained.


The nature of bhakti or pure love in devotion will be examined.


Lord Krishna uses the word anusuyave which means without duplicity. Such a sincere person

..slokam 9-2..chandra saba vimosana valli thaayar..sugantha vana nayahi..parimala renga nayahi..veda aamodha vimanam.aamodham=happiness..promodham anandam also same meaning..sugantham because he got the vedas back from madhu-kaidabars..

raja-vidya raja-guhyam
pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakshavagamam dharmyam
su-sukham kartum avyayam

“This knowledge is the king of education, the most secret of all secrets. It is the purest knowledge, and because it gives direct perception of the self by realization, it is the perfection of religion. It is everlasting, and it is joyfully performed

..Idam = this Bhakti yoga, raja-vidya = king among all knowledge, raja-guhyam = king among all secrets..Pavitram = capable of removing dirt, uttamam = best. Bhakti yoga is the best to remove all the dirt in us. That is removal of papa/punya and samsaram..Pratyaksham = perceptible, avagamam = feel of Me [Sri Krishna]. Person practicing Bhakti yoga can have the vision of the Lord..Dharmyam = is the means [to reach the Lord]. Kartum = while performing [Bhakti yoga], su-sukham = most comfortable or pleasing. Avyayam = never diminishing [ even after granting all the benefits]. ..


Ramanuja’s Commentary ..

What is the tad brahma or the supreme,spiritual substratum pervading all existence? What is adhiyatma or the soul within all embodied beings? What is karma or the equal reaction to any action? How is it possible to effect moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death by knowing these things and taking shelter of Bhagavan or the possessor of full knowledge, full power, full fame, full wealth, full beauty and full renunciation, who is the Supreme Lord Krishna? What is the adhibhuta referring to embodied beings and adhidaivas referring to the demigods which the atharthis or seekers of wealth must know? What also is indicated by the term adhiyagna which all three classes of aspirants have to be cognisant of beings atharthis, jijnasurs or those desiring soul realisation and jnani’s or those exclusively seeking the Supreme Lord and why is it specially characterised? Finally Arjuna wanted to know specifically in what way is the Supreme Lord Krishna to be realised by persons of controlled mind and senses at the time of death

..slokam 9-3..veera sayanam with four arms here..bujanga sayanam is on adi seshan..anantha sayanam..thala sayanam..uthana sayanam..bala sayanam are the other sayanams..thalai pakkam ganga thayar..thiruvadiyil kaveri thayar..ganga came here to wash off her sins by bathin in kaveri..eippasi  mudalilum amavasai antrum kadaisi 120 naalum perumal  ezlunthu aruluhirar..udsavar perumal, thayar thiru muha mandalam azlahu..Upanishad says ‘nanya patha ayanaya vidhyate tamevam vidwan amrutha iha bhavati’. There is no other way, than to meditate on God and do bhakti. Ayanaya = attaining Sri Vaikuntam..

asraddadhanah purusha
dharmasyasya parantapa
aprapya mam nivartante

“Those who are not faithful in this devotional service cannot attain Me, O conqueror of enemies. Therefore they return to the path of birth and death in this material world.”..

..Asya dharnasya = this means or way ..Paranthapa = destroyer of enemies [Arjuna], ashraddha = without interest [ to attain the Lord]; ..Mam = Me [Sri Krishna], aprapya = not attaining, mrutyu = death like, samsaram =rebirths, varthmani = repetitive cycles.Nivartante = get fully involved [ in the rebirth and accumulation of more and more papa/punya]. Four words of this sloka are important: purusha, mam, aprapya and nivartante. Purusha means those who are eligible to reach the Lord by practicing Bhakti yoga. Such people discard this smooth path to reach Him. Mam – such people lose the greatest of wealth, the Lord. Aprapya – the Lord is waiting to take that person in His fold; but that person is not realizing and chooses other benefits. Nivartante– this samsaram is very inferior and many scholars and Acharyas have explained the disadvantages; despite all these, they want to live in this and get all disadvantage. So, Bhakti is essential to reach Him..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  What is designated in verse one as tad brahma or the supreme spiritual substratum pervading all existence is the aksaram paramam or the supreme indestructible atma or soul. Aksaram is that which is not subject to decay or imperishable and is the collective given by the ksetrajnanis or those knowledgeable of the field of action or the informers of uninformed matter and atma embodied beings. The Subala Upanisad II states avyakta the indiscernible compound of spirit and matter merges into the aksara the indivisible compound which descends into tamas or nescience. Parama aksaram is the superior indestructible atma nature which is completely disengaged from prakriti or the material substratum and not connected to even the aksaram which comprises embodied beings and combines both. The word svabhavo is also called adhyatma and indicates subtle material elements and its accompanying erratic tendencies. These subtle elements are what adheres to the atma in the descent of the supra subtle quintuple process from spirit to matter, the last being the fifth stage which becomes the seminal fluids referred to in the Panca-agni-vidva or five-fold sacrificial fires which are described in the Chandogya Upanisad:V.III-X which is essential and has to be known by all aspirants. Both aksara and adhyatma must be realised by the mumumkshus or emancipation seekers for moksa or liberation from material existence as aksara the immortal soul is that what is worthy of selection and adhyatma the embodied being incarcerated in matter is worthy of rejection. The sequence which manifests this descent into matter by the jiva or embodied being is called visargah and karma refers to that specific action which activates a corresponding reaction and determines the destination and manifestation of all creatures into embodied states whether human, animal, fish etc. The final action which actually causes manifestation into material existence is known as procreation between males and females of different species. The Vedic scriptures declare that in the fifth stage the male discharges the sacrificial water into the females sacrificial fire and a new embodied being is created. This act is known as karma. The knowledge of karma, aksara and adhyatma are all prerequisites of knowledge absolutely essential for those seeking moksa or liberation from the material existence. Otherwise one will be ignorant of what is worthy of rejection and what is worthy of attention and unable to properly interact accordingly. An example is following in verse 11 concerning brahmacarya or celibacy.

 ..slokam 9-4..sthala vrusham panneer maram..ekadesi mandabam azlahu..vaazlanthey pom neer yentru aazlvar paadi erukiraar..

maya tatam idam sarvam
jagad avyaktamurtina
mat-sthani sarvabhutani
na caham tesv avasthitah

“By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them.”

.Idam = this [ what we see and perceive], sarvam = entire, jagad =Universe, maya =by Me [Sri Krishna], tatam = is well pervaded..Avyakta murtina = [the Lord’s form is] imperceptible image..Vyapakatvam is for ruling and supporting, those objects. Mat sthani = Keeping Me [Sri Krishna] as dwelling place, sarva dbhutani = all living beings [ without exception]. ..Tesu = in those living beings, aham = I [Sri Krishna], na avastita = not there.

Ramanuja’s Commentary By the word adhibhutam or those things pertaining to physical objects sought after by aisvaryarthis or fortune seekers are those things of a perishable nature including the supra subtle principles of sound, sight, smell etc. which are latent in their elements of ether, fire, earth etc and develop therefrom into their support system being the senses. All these things must certainly be comprehended and contemplated by them.

The word adhidaivatam refers to the purusha or the ultimate, original supreme being whose status is superior and elevated above the 330 million demigods and all other celestials and lesser divinities and gods as well. This is the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the possessor and enjoyer of all the supramundane enjoyments of rare and equisite delights of His transcendental senses of sound and sight etc as the ultimate recipient of all yagna or worship and propitiation, even more then that experienced in the heavenly planets by Indra and Brahma. The aivaryarthis or fortune seekers must meditate on the purusha as the Supreme Being and ultimate enjoyer of all the subtle transcendental delights and this is what is called knowing the adhidaivatam.

The adhiyagna denotes the Supreme Lord Krishna, Himself. It is He as the indwelling monitor in all the demigods and other gods and all sentient beings and whose total aggregate of atmas or eternal souls constitute His transcendental, spiritual body and as such He receives first worship and propitiation from all yagnas. Thus as the adhiyagna he is the indwelling monitor established in the heart of all beings and He is the one whom the three classes of devotees have to realise and meditate upon as a maha yagna or great offering in all their nitya and namaitta or eternal and occasional acts of worship.



Geethaa Saaram 8-25 to 8-28

June 18, 2008

..slokam 8-25..komalavali thayar sannithi.. 10 nall udsavathil chakrabaniyum sernthu sevai..kalaivaay thunbam paasurathil nammaazlvar aaravamudan mattum thaan nam thunbam pokka mudiyum yenkiraar..dhoormadi margam pattri entha slokathil sollukiraan..dakshinayana vasalil naanghu narasimhar.mey vasal udaiyaar.lakshmi  narayanaraiyum sevikalaam.. yeera vasthirathudan ramar jadayukuum krishnar virudar darma puthirarukkum paninathu pola evarum karma panninaaraam..


dhooma=smoke..darknessFirst palce is therefore darkness and smoky. Second, is night. Third is the krishna paksh or wanining period of the moon. Fourth is Dakshinayanam, the Six months, when the Sun travels from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricon. These are all opposite of what we saw in the last sloka. [As mentioned in Upanishads] the Fifth place is Pithru lok [ world of deceased ancestors]. Sixth place is Akash or space. Seventh place would be chandra lok. Here also the Lord says yogi reaches Chandralok. But the yogi mentioned in the last sloka is the one who had realized the Brahmam, or Gyani. But here the yogi mentioned has performed lots of good deeds and wants to reach worlds of higher planes. He would have performed good deeds like building temples, creating ponds for public welfare, etc. Yogi = person who has performed such noble deeds, prapya = after reaching Chandra lok, nivartate = returns back to this karma bhoomi [Universe]. There are some called Ahivahika ..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  



The word dhumah meaning smoke indicates the presiding demigod of the path in which lies the Pitri-loka the realm of the manes or ancestors. The word yogi has been used to denote a spiritual person who performs Vedic activities.



..slokam 8-26..kidantha thiru kolam..andal evan soodiya thiru thuzlaay konndu thanai alangarikka sollukiraall..koonilatha mutham yenkiraar perialwar entha maadathai.. we have to have our sight on archiradhi marg, resembling the koonila muththam.

sukla-krsne gati hy ete
jagatah sasvate mate
ekaya yaty anavrttim
anyayavartate punah

“According to Vedic opinion, there are two ways of passing from this world—one in light and one in darkness. When one passes in light, he does not come back; but when one passes in darkness, he returns.”..

..Sukla = white, krsna =dark, gati = routes, hyete =these, jagata = here ..Sasvate = permanent, mate = is told. Ekaya = [of these two] in one [that is sukla or archiradhi marg], yati = reaches, anavrittim = no-return place, anyaya = [while] by the other different route [by Krishna marg], avartate = returns, puna = again..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  




The path of light is the archi-adi being illuminating and the path of darkness is the dhumadi or smoke. One who at death is guided on the path of light does not return to the worlds of mortals; but one who is at death guided on the path of darkness does return and must be reborn again. The path of light is dual for two types of aspirants being: the jnani the god seeker and the jijnasuh the soul seeker. The path of darkness is singular is for the atharthi or fruitive seeker who performs meritorious activities with the desire to reap the benefits and rewards in the hereafter. Thus two paths are given for the three types of aspirants. The Chandogya Upanisad V.X.I-III states: Those aspirants who have realized the atma or soul and those who in seclusion meditate with faith and devotion on the omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent Supreme Lord enter the archi-adi path of light and do not return. Those aspirants who in their daily affairs devote themselves to Vedic rituals, public works, charity and philanthropic activities as well as other pious acts, all enter the dhumo the path of darkness and must return.




..slokam 8-27..chitra ther thiru ezlu kootrirukkai..mara ther..kal ther garba graham..chitrai madam chitra nadshdrathil ther..aaravamuda perumal thiru mangai azlvarin aaraalum  mangalasasanam panna   paduhiraar..thiru nedum thandahathil kadaisiyilum evar thaan mangalasasanam panna paduhiraar..thiru kurumthandahathil evan a basket of precious stones is nothin compared to Him..

naite srti partha janan
yogi muhyati kascana
tasmat sarveshu kaleshu
yoga-yukto bhavarjuna

“Although the devotees know these two paths, O Arjuna, they are never bewildered. Therefore be always fixed in devotion.”

Arjuna = Arjuna, tasmat = therefore, sarveshu kaleshu = at all times and always, yoga-yukta = associated with yoga, bhava = be..Kascana yogi = any yogi, ete = these two, sriti = krishna and shukla routes, janan = knowledgeable, na muhyati = will not be worried..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  



Lord Krishna declares that knowing the archi-adi the path of light which leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and the path of darkness which leads to bondage in the material existence there will never be any infatuation and delusion at the time of death for a yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Such a yogi will travel by their own self earned divine path escorted by the presiding demigods of the path of light. Thus one should with great faith and enthusiasm meditate on and perform selfless Vedic activities without desire that keeps one firmly upon this path. Daily meditation constitutes the proper performance of one’s daily activities as authorised by the bonafide spiritual master either Vaisnava or Brahmana from one of the four bonafide sampradayas as revealed in Vedic scriptures.


..slokam 8-28..nammazlvar thanathu thiru karathai eruthayathil vaithullaar..aaravamudan..Dravida sruthi darsakaya nama: Dravida sruthi implies Tamil Vedas, which is Nalayira Divya He summaraises..He is the means and cause for the universe..he supports all. he prevades all and comands all..

vedesu yajnesu tapahsu caiva
danesu yat punya-phalam pradistam
atyeti tat sarvam idam viditva
yogi param sthanam upaiti cadyam

” A person by understanding all these reaches beyond what by performing yagna, tapas and chairity as stipulated in Vedas, could yield noble results; he reaches the highest and most ancient place.”

Vedesu = in Vedas, yagnesu = yagnas, yat punya phalam = whatever punya results, pradhishtam = will be recieved. Similarly, tapasu = meditations, danesu = chairities..atyeti = stands beyond them..Idam sarvam = all these, viditva = having learnt, tat = that person. .Yogi = person now desirous of reaching the Lord, thinking always about archiradhi marg, param sthanam = higheast place [ Vaikuntam], adyam sthanam = very ancient place [ Vaikuntam], upaiti = reaches..

Yogi = person now desirous of reaching the Lord, thinking always about archiradhi marg, param sthanam = higheast place [ Vaikuntam], adyam sthanam = very ancient place [ Vaikuntam], upaiti = reaches

Ramanuja’s Commentary  



Now the result of knowing the Vedic conclusion to this chapter and the previous chapter is being stated by Lord Krishna with the words vedesu yagnesu,tapahsu caiva danesu. vedesu is the study of the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda and the Atharva Veda as well as all other Vedic scriptures. yagnesu is the performance of yagna or various Vedic ritualistic activities in propitiation tapahsu is engaging in tapasya or rigorous austerities and penance like extreme fasting danesu is giving charity and doing philanthropic works such as feeding the poor

All these four activities give great merit but whatever merits are assigned in the Vedic scriptures for these pious activities they are all eclipsed and surpassed by that liberated being who knows the glorious pre-eminent position of the Supreme Lord as revealed by Lord Krishna in these two chapters. Such a being transcends in their very existence. This means that the bliss in realising the ultimate reality of the Supreme Lord’s paramount and exalted state in comparison makes the rewards appointed in the Vedas as insignificant as a blade of grass. To be a yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, is assuredly achieved by this transcendence and such a one assuredly attains the ultimate goal in association with the Supreme Lord.



…slokam..thirumazlisai azlvar thiruvarasu..He lived for 4700 years and spent the last 700 years here..thirumazlisai piran and aravamuda az;var..they exchanged part of their amrs..bakthi sarar pohum edam ellaam thirumbi paarthaan..ezlunthirunthu pesu vazli kesaney yentraar..the essence of chapter 9 is that He will do any thing for bakthimaan..varantharum perumal moolavar bakthisara varadan udsavar padmasini thayar ..thiruvarasil sevai saathikiraarkall..nathamini, ramanujar,  maa muni sevaiyum vunndu..parvathi-siva sambasanai..Bhava sarma was a brahmin, living with all bad habits. He never did any of his prescribed duties. In the death bed he remembered the palm trees which yielded liquor and so after death he was born as a palm tree [ as mentioned in the Chapter 8, one attains the same thoughts in the last moments]. Under this tree there lived a brahmarakshas couple Kusubalan and Sumati. Before death, the wife out of greed forced her husband to beg in chairities indiscriminately, resulting in getting this brahmarakshas appearance after death. One day she asked her husband the means to get rid of the brahmarakshas form. The husband, who was well learned, explained that they should realize Brahman. She inadvarently, repeated the 1st sloka of Chapter 8, where the Lord is explained as Sri Purushottama. Instantly, listening to this, the palm tree with a blast broke up and Bhava sarma appeared. The brahmarakshas couple also regained their earlier forms.






Geetha Saaram 8-20 to 8-24

June 18, 2008

.slokam 8-20..Kumba konum Rama swami kovilil..ramar Pattaabisheha kolam.. villai lakshmanaridam koduthu erukiraar..seetha pirattiyum eruntha thiru kolam..rare ..sadrugnan veesuhirar..baradan kudai pidikiraar..anjeneyar thiruvadiyil..thamburaum ramayana pushtahamum vaithu kondu erukiraar..dakshina ayodhya..20,21 slokathaal kaivalyam pattri solluhiraan..boomiyil piranthaal modsham adaiya vazli vunndu..kaivalyam petraal athu kidaiyaathu..pralayathaalum azliyaathathu kaivalyam..

paras tasmat tu bhavo ’nyo
’vyakto ’vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarveshu bhutesu
nasyatsu na vinasyati

“Yet there is another unmanifest nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is.”
..Sarvshu bhuteshu = all living and non’living things [both karana or cause and karya or effect], nasyatsu = even when being destroyed, na vinasyati = [kaivalyam attained ones] will never get destroyed. He is muktatman; either in Vaikuntam or in Kaivalyam. Avyakta = moola prakruti [ the first raw material used by the Lord for creation], tasmad avyakta para = this [person in Kaivalyam ] is in a superior or higher place than the prime raw material. Anya bhava = different from all, experience, avyakta = can not be perceived by anyone as to what is [the person who has attained kaivalyam] his experience or how he lives, etc. Sanatana = he will remain ancient..

Ramanuja’s commentary..There is no commentary for this verse.

..slokam 8-21..kannadi arai..niraiya sirbangal.. ceiling niraiya ramayana oviyam ullana..orey thoonil ramar, seetha.lakshmana and hanuman..lakshmanar sugreeva pattaabisheham panuvathai veru thoonil paarkalaam..vamana thiru vikramanar ennoru thoonil.. manmadan veru ontril..rama eranndu ashrama yellam thara vallathu..

avyakto ’kshara ity uktas
tam ahuh paramam gatim
yam prapya na nivartante
tad dhama paramam mama

“That which the Vedantists describe as unmanifest and infallible, that which is known as the supreme destination, that place from which, having attained it, one never returns—that is My supreme abode.”

….Avyakta = can not be perceived by the sense organs…Aksharam = non- decaying..Ityukta = like this the muktatman is praised. Tam = reaching that muktatman stage, paramam gathim = a very noble attainment, ahu= so say them ..Yam prapya = by reaching which [Kaivalyam ], na nivartante = they do not return back to this samsaram, tad = that, mama = My [Sri Krishna’s], dhama paramam = noble creation..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  




Lord Krishna now reveals His superior conscious avyakta or unmanifest which is different in principle and substance then the unconscious avyakta or unmanifest of Brahma which is non-intelligent and operates according to set parameters. Lord Krishna’s superior avyakta is characterised by eternality due to its possession atma tattva or soul realisation. Thus it is also characterised by jnana or consciousness. Avyakta is also known as indistinct because it beyond any perceptive faculty of the mind or senses to cognise it as a perceivable reality. The purport is that avyakta is a principle of self-consciousness and as such is completely unique in its nature. The word sanatanah meaning eternal because His supreior avyakta is not subject to combination and aggregation or resolution and disintegration and never disperses or dissipates when all the material elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether in there rudimental forms and derivative forms dissolve away although His superior avyakta abides within them. This is why the Vedic scriptures call it avyakta or indistinct as well as aksara or indestructible. Those steeped in the wisdom of the Vedic scriptures have declared that this is the paramam gatim or supreme exalted goal to be achieved. Lord Krishna previously mentioned aksara in verse three of this chapter and will later mention it again in chapters XII.III and XV.XVI.





The superior state of avyakta is where atma tattva or soul realisation abounds and when once reached immediately precludes forever the subjection to union with matter again as there is no more rebirth for reincarnation has been terminated. Lord Krishna specifies their destination with the words dhama paramam mama meaning His supreme personal abode of eternity, knowledge and bliss where all things reciprocate fully with Him and is the abode of the liberated beings. The word dhama also denotes luminosity as in the light of consciousness which is the primary attribute of the atma or soul. Thus Lord Krishna is indicating His paramam dhama as non-different from the infinite consciousness of the atma in contrast to the limited state of consciousness one possesses who is oblivious to the atma due to being deluded by the illusory material energy known as maya and cherishing the association of the senses with sense objects. The other avyakta where resides praktiti or the material substratum which contains all living entities and which is perishable is controlled by Lord Krishna as well through His manifestation as the eternal atma or soul within the etheric heart of all created beings throughout all existence. This is the abode of the non-liberated beings. From the superior avyakta there is no return to samsara the cycle of birth and death. The next verse will show how the goal of the jnani or knower of the Supreme Lord is the most sublime state of consciousness, more exalted than any other.




..slokam 8-22..rama navami antru soorya prabai rama is decorated as krishna..chitrai punarvasu..avadara and pattabisheha nadshadram..raghunada naikkum avar manaivikkum  nintru sevai thantha pinbu thirumbuhirar..chit ahit eranadaiyum vittu easvara anubavam peranum.. eisvaryam, kaivalyam eradaiyum vittu avanaiyey pera aasai padanum..guhanum, hanumanum pola erukkanum..

purushah sa parah partha
bhaktya labhyas tv ananyaya
yasyantahsthani bhutani
yena sarvam idam tatam

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is greater than all, is attainable by unalloyed devotion. Although He is present in His abode, He is all-pervading, and everything is situated within Him.”
..Para = supreme and the most exalted, purusha = Sriman Narayana, the Lord, labda = is reached or attained. Ananya = not diverted in other things, bhaktya = devoted, labda = attained..Poornathva possessing all auspicious qualities in total – also implies Purusha. Most ancient –purana and so Purusha. He is Purusha also because He grants anything desired..Yasya = in Him [Sri Krishna], anta sthani = are established inside, bhutani = all living matters..Yena = by Whom, sarvam idam = all things we see, tatam = are pervaded. ..


Ramanuja’s Commentary  




The Supreme Purusa is He in whom all things reside and who resides in all things. He the Supreme Being is accessible only by bhakti or unadulterated loving devotion.


..slokam 8-23..potramai kulam in saranga pani kovil..thaayar perumal thiru kalyanam on pongal-mahara sangranthi ..masi maham theppodsavam..kanu moontru thaayarum-komala valli ,vijaya valli and seetha piratti.. yezluvaarkall engey..

yatra kale tv anavrttim
avrttim caiva yoginah
prayata yanti tam kalam
vaksyami bharatarsabha

“O best of the Bharatas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, the yogi does or does not come back.”..

..Bharatarsabha = noble one of Bharatha dynasty [Arjuna], yatra = in which, kale = path [here kale does not mean time but the route].Anavrittim = no-return [to samsaram] , avrittim = return [back to samsaram],yogina = yogis would attain. Prayata = travelling, yanti = attain, vaksyami = I [Sri Krishna] will tell [Arjuna..Here yogi means gyani who will seek only the Lord and would attain Him. They will attain a place from where there would be no more return [anavrutti] to this Universe..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  




Now the journey which is known as archir-adi or the path beginning with light which is common to the jijnasur the knower of atma tattva or soul realisation as well as the bhakta or loving devotee of the parama purusa the supreme personality. The Vedic scriptures declare that the archir-adi is the path by which both these types of aspirants travel at the time of death. It is the road travelled by which there is no returning to the worlds of mortals. The Vedic scriptures when explaining panca-agni-vidya the system of the five fires states: Those who have realised the atma or soul, those who meditate on the Supreme Lord with full faith, those who worship the Supreme Lord with bhakti or loving devotion. Those who do these activities alone in a private place reach the archi the deity of light, from there to the deity of day etc. as explained in the Chandogya Upanisad V.II-XV beginning tad ya ittham vidur. One who travels by the archi-adi path reaches Parabrahma the supreme being and thus returns not to the material worlds. This is confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad IV.XV.IV beginning enan Brahma gamayati which states: He the servitor named Amanava to the appropriate demigod, escorts the souls who have achieved moksa or liberation from material existence to Brahmaloka from where they are no longer subjected to reincarnation in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.




Those who have realised the atma are not in the same category as those aspirants who diligently practice the para-vidya the supreme knowledge declared by Brahma because success in that is determined first by atma tattva or soul realisation. Otherwise if there was no difference between the two then it would have been unnecessary for Lord Krishna to mention the path leading to rebirth and the path leading to no rebirth. The Chandogya Upanisad V.IX.I states: Thus do the waters come to be designated as the Purusa in the fifth oblation. Those who have performed righteous deeds and those who have performed abominable deeds receive physical forms in conjunction and accordance with these activities and are fashioned out of the five elements in which water is predominant. The atma is not these forms but just embodied in these forms by the dictates of karma or reactions from past actions. So this is the distinction and those who understand the reality of atma in this way qualify for the archi-adi and achieving moksa or liberation no longer return to the realms of mortal existence. The conclusive understanding is that non-intelligent nature being material like the physical body is always fit to be discarded and the intelligent nature being spiritual like the atma is always fit to be embraced. Those who follow the spiritual nature and realise the atma travel the path of archi-adi and return not to samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

The previous passage that the servitor Amanava escorts the souls to Brahmaloka is applicable to both the followers of the spiritual nature being the jijnasuh or the soul seeker and the jnani the god seeker, as the meditation of the former consists of reflecting on the atma, devoid of matter without any material conceptions as being one with the brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence,. This conforms with the Vedic axiom known as tat krata-nyaya or that similar efforts yield similar results; therefore when realisation of the brahman is the focus of one’s aspirations then one devotes themselves to contemplation of the brahman. So the realisation of the brahman is achieved by dint of the aspirants contemplation on the brahman. How exactly is the jijnasur to contemplate the brahman is that they look at the brahman as ancillary to the atma which is the primary goal. Whereas the jnani meditates on the brahman as the effulgence of the Supreme Lord Himself and looks at the atma as ancillary to that, the Supreme Lord being the primary goal. Giving credence to the fact that the atma or soul is in reality part and parcel of the eternal ultimate Supreme Being as well as the brahman is verified in the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad V.VII.XXII beginning ya atmani tisthan which states: The brahman abides in the atma, by whom the atma is the body.

..slokam 8-24..saranga pani kovil–150adi vuryara goburam..perumal theril..geethai sonna kananum theril..thayar hema maharishi -brhu maharishi reborn.-penn…vaidiha vimanam–same as pranavakara vimanam as in Srirengam..pathala srinivasar sannithi..utharayana vasal vazli vanthau thiruvadi sevai..utharayana means great..Here in this sannidhi while doing archana to the Lord one Divine name is mentioned. ‘ Ayana dvisaya utrancha prani moksha pradhayaka‘. Two ayanams- Utharyanam and Dakshinayanam, utrancha = exiting, prani = living beings, moksha pradhayaka = grants Moksham..

agnir jyotir ahah suklah
san-masa uttarayanam
tatra prayata gacchanti
brahma brahma-vido janah

“Those who know the Supreme Brahman attain that Supreme by passing away from the world , crossing the places of light, place of the gods for daytime, waxing phase of moon, utharyanam.”

..Archit means light and so archiradhi marg means firstly light filled route. That is why Sri Krishna tells jyoti = light. Aha = the place of residence of the god for day time. Sukla = place of the god for shukla paksha or the growing phase of the Moon. Utharayanam = the place of the god for Utharayanam..Thus four places, viz. of light, of Daytime, of Shukla paksh and of Utharayanam are mentioned. In Upanishads in addition the place of Samvatsaram [ god for year], Vayu [air] lok, Surya lok, Chandra lok, Vidyut [lightning] lok, Varuna [rain god] lok, Indra lok and Satya lok [of Brahma] are mentioned. Thus there are 12 places [ Four mentioned in the Gita sloka and eight more mentioned in Upanishads] the atman crosses…Tatra prayata = those travelling in this route, brahma vido = desirous of reaching Brahmam, brahma gacchanti = they reach the place of Brahmam, that is Vaikuntam


Ramanuja’s Commentary  



Time in this verse indicates the route where the presiding demigods over the various time divisions from the day up to a year, reside in great numbers. Their route is either that path going by which yogis or those perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness are not subject to rebirth; or that path where persons of righteous deeds are born again. This last path Lord Krishna is describing now. The mention of fire, illumination, day, waxing moon and the suns six month sojourn on its waxing northern journey implies the year as well.