Geethaa Saaram 8-15 to 8-19

..slokam 8-15..renganathar nintra thiru kolam.azlwar aruliya thiru palli ezlutchi kettu..thirumaal erum solai azlaharum thirumalai srinivasanum sevai saathikiraarkall..renganai kanna azlavaar vullam vuruhikannkallil erunthu kaaveri pola kanneer malhinaar aazlvar..thirumalai nama sangeerthana mahimai solluhirathu.bagavathlabarthi mattum mahatma yenkiraan..avan arulal thaan avanai peralaam..veda nool praayam nooru paasuram sonnathu pola seekiram avan arul pera venndi kollanum..

mam upetya punar janma
duhkhalayam asasvatam
napnuvanti mahatmanah
samsiddhim paramam gatah

“After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection.”

..Sam siddhim = supreme level of attaining the Lord [ siddhi = attaining atman and sam siddhi = attaining the Lord]. Paramam = nothing superior to that [sam siddhi]. Upetya = after reaching, mam = Me [Sri Krishna], alayam = abode of, dukha = sorrows, asasvata = temporary or non-permanent, punar janma = re-birth in a body, napnuvanti = [they] will never have..

 

Ramanuja’s Commentary 

 

 

 

 

Those who attain Lord Krishna do not return to the impermanent material existence and temporary condition of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death the abode of misery and suffering. The devotees of Lord Krishna are mahatmas or great, noble souls who have enlightened themselves as to the real nature of His nama or name, rupa or form, guna or attributes, dhama or abode and lila or divine pastimes. Such exalted beings feel such fervid love for Him in separation that their very life becomes unsupportable. Those whose mind are focused on Him and whose heart is only for Him in bhakti or loving devotion is the very heart in which He resides. Those who by incessantly meditating upon Him will attain the highest perfection which is the Supreme Lord Krishna. Next will be discussed why the arthathi or seeker of wealth return to material existence and the bhaktas or the devotees of Lord Krishna are liberated from material existence..

slokam 8-16.renganayahi thaayaar sannithi.oru thiru kaiyil malarntha pushbamum aduthathil moodiyathum.sengazlaneer vaay malarnthu aanbal vaay moodinathu pola..Sri vaikundam is nithya viboothi..ayodya..we should aim to get that with His grace..thirumalai membadu paasurathil aruliyathu pola..

-brahma-bhuvanal lokah
punar avartino ’rjuna
mam upetya tu kaunteya
punar janma na vidyate

“From the highest planet in the material world down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place. But one who attains to My abode, O son of Kunti, never takes birth again.”

..Lokah = worlds of, a brahma = starting from Brahma’s [satya loka] , bhuvana = all the worlds.Punar avartina= one day are bound to be destroyed. Where as the World of the Lord, Sri Vaikuntam, never gets destroyed..Tu =but if, upetya = [this devotee] attains, mam = Me [Sri Krishna], punar janma = re birth, na vidyate = never gets.

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

 

 

 

All the worlds throughout the Brahmanda or the levels of material creation from the topmost Brahmaloka down to lowest Pataloka are appointed realms where beings may taste as much as they are able material happiness in the form of wealth, power, dominion, etc. But these material realms are impermanent and perishable. Inasmuch as the very realms where such activities of enjoyment are unstable and transitory then it can be understood that the happiness and pleasures experienced there are fleeting and temporary and some time come to an end. This is inevitable. To the contrary those who perform bhakti or loving devotion to Lord Krishna who is omniscient and omnipotent and whom the complete cosmic manifestation of creation and dissolution is emanating from Him as mere sport. He who is the most compassionate, the most merciful, the most enduring being eternal; once His devotees attain Him there is no question of rebirth being reincarnated again in a womb in the material existence. By Lord Krishna’s grace they directly attain the eternal spiritual worlds in His association. The next three verses will be a dissertation on the great cycles of created beings as willed by the Supreme Lord which periodically regulates the appearance and disappearance of all regions in the material existence beginning with the realm of Brahma the designer and architect of creation.

 

..slokam 8-17..thiru kudanthai chakra bani sthalam..sarnga(-vill) baani..ramaswaami sannithi moontrum ..thiru kudanthai kumba konam baskara shedram kalyana puram pala peyarkall..kuda mooku thirinthu kumba konum aanathu..sooriyanar davam eruntha edam..masi maham..thirumazlisai aalwaarukkum entha shedrathukkum romba thodarbu..avarey sudarsana amsam..azlvar .piraan pattam orutharukku oruthar arulli – aaravamutha aazlwar aanaar evar..thiru mazlisai piraan aanaar avar..kala chakaram, yuga chakaram..jagad chakaram pattri chakarath aazlwaar sannithiyil villakka peruhirom..We have 365 days make one year and our life is 100 years. Lord Brahma also has 100 years of life; but the year here is Brahma year and not our years. To know how much is Brahma year, we have to know that one chatur yug has 4,320,000 our years. Thousand such years or 4,320,000,000 years is Brahma;s one day time Therefore two such periods make one full day or 8,640,000,000 years [ Eight billion and six hundred and forty million years] make one complete day for lord Brahma. 365 such days make oneBrahma year and 100 such years completes his life time [100X365X8,640,000,000 human years]..Some say this yug refers to the period in deva lok. Our one human year is one full day for devas. Based on this one can work out one deva year and 4,320,000 deva years make one chatur yug and then calculate lord Brahma’s life time..

..

sahasra-yuga-paryantam
ahar yad brahmano viduh
ratrim yuga-sahasrantam
te ’ho-ratra-vido janah

“By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together form the duration of Brahma’s one day. And such also is the duration of his night.”

Aho = day, ratra = night, vidu = those who know, jana = people.. Brahmana = lord Brahma…Sahasra = thousand, yuga = time of one Chatur yuga, aha = is a day [for lord Brahma]. Yuga = chatur yugs, sahasrantam = thousands of, ratrim = is one night for lord Brahma…

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary Those who through the power of yoga or the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness understand that Brahma’s’day lasts for 1000 Maha Yugas. Each of which is one cycle of the four yugas or ages combined which are Satya Yuga lasting 1,728,000 Earth years, Treta Yuga lasting 1,296,000 years, Dvarapa Yuga lasting 864,000 years and Kali Yuga lasting 432,000 years all together totalling 4,320,000 years. When multiplied by 1000 Brahma’s day equals 4 billion 320 million years. The same total applies also for Brahma’s night. So combined one day and one night of Brahma equals 8 billion 640 million years and this is known as a kalpa. One year of Brahma equals 360 of these kalpas totalling 26 trillion, 438 billion and 400 million. Brahma lives for 100 of these years.

..slokam 8-18..vijayavalli naatchiyaar sannithi..eranndu ayanangallukkum eranndu vaasalkall chakara baani kovilum..koorath aazlwaar sudarsana sathaham aruli erukiraar..samashti srushti avan panni brahmavai vyakti srushti panna vaikiraan..

avyaktad vyaktayah sarvah
prabhavanty ahar-agame
ratry-agame praliyante
tatraivavyakta-samjnake

“At the beginning of Brahma’s day, all living entities become manifest from the unmanifest state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifest again.”

Avyaktad = from Brahma’s body [ earlier we saw this word denoted moola prakruti]. Here this sloka describes all those emerging from the body of Brahma. Brahma was the creation of the Lord. Vyaktya = explicit creations like bhoo, bhuva and suva worlds, sarva = and all the contents of these worlds. Prabhavanti = all these are created. Ahar-agame = during day time [of Brahma]. .Brahma controls seven worlds – bhoo, buva, suva, maha, jana, tapa and satya lokas. This is to be split into two groups and we are talking of the first three worlds bhoo, buva and suva. These three are administered by Indra. Brahma is the leader of all gods and Indra is a sub-leader assisting Brahma. Ratri-agame = in the night [of Brahma], praliyante = they get dissolved [ layam means an object attaining its natural status. Mud pot becoming layam means it becomes mud. Karyam or end product, attaining its karana or starting status]. That is, all these three worlds get back into the body of Brahma and lose their vyakta form. Tatraiva = in the same place, avyakta samjyate = which is called avyaktam, ie.in Brahma they get dissolved. This is called Naimishtika srushti and naimishtika pralayam..

..Ramanuja’s commentary..There is no commentary for this verse.

..slokam 8-19..chakrabani sevai..eught thiru kaikall..moontru thiru kannkall..Soorya, sage Ahirbudhnya and god Agni are on one side..brahma on the other..In the right four arms the Lord is holding the discus, a pestle , a goad and a lotus. In the left four arms are held conch, mace, noose and bow with arrow. The Lord’s discus has Five parts. Rim with whirling fire is one part. Inner circumference is called meni, is the second part. Third is spokes joining rim and center, aram. Four- center with one side dented is aksham and raised is called kumbham. Five- the Central Force of the Lord is called Purusha. Our mind also is constantly revolving like the discus…sudarsanam=sowmya darsanam..pleasing look..kodi sooriyarkallin prakasamum yeedu kodukka mudiyaathu..

bhutagramah sa evayam
bhutva bhutva praliyate
ratryagamevasah partha
prabhavaty aharagame

“Again and again, when Brahma’s day arrives, all living entities come into being, and with the arrival of Brahma’s night they are helplessly annihilated because of karma.”

..Avasa = because all are bound by karma, they are born and die. Bhuthagrama = all living beings bound by karma, as an entity, avasa = bound by karma, bhutva = get created..Praliyate = gets dissolved [to reach the original status], ratryagame = in the night time [ of Brahma..

..

Ramanuja’s Commentary  

Those who understand the succession of Brahma’s day and night as established by the Supreme Lord Krishna applicable for all created beings from human up to the highest material being know that the duration of Brahma’s day is 4 billion 320 million years and an equal duration is his night. At the dawning of Brahma’s day all beings and things in the threefold regions of material existence along with their bodies and senses, objects of enjoyment and locations of enjoyment all in a subtle form issue out of an avyakta or unmanifest state emanting Brahma’s subtle body. When Brahma’s night draws nigh all that issued out are all once again reabsorbed into that avyakta state of his subtle body. The exact same groups and species of variegated beings adhere to the stringent law of karma or the reactions to previous actions are bound in the material existence and come and go. Appearing in Brahma’s day and vanishing in his night again and again perpetually.

One year of Brahma equals 26 trillion, 438 billion and 400 million years. When the duration of Brahma’s life which is 100 of such years ends. Then immeadiately all systems of all material worlds in existence, operating in tandem or at random up to Brahma’s own planet and even Brahma himself are ended and dissolve into the infinite. This dissolution has an order as confirmed in the Subala Upanisad beginning: Prithivy apsu praliyate, apas tejas liyante meaning Earth is devolved into water, water is devolved into fire. Fire is devolved into air etc. air is devolved into ether, ether is devolved into the cosmos, the cosmos devolves into avyakta the unmanifest, the unmanifest devolves into the aksara the imperishable, the imperishable devolves into tamas or darkness and the darkness merges finally back into the Supreme Being. Thus all things except the Supreme Lord are regulated and controlled by time. All things without exception owe their existence to the Supreme Lord Krishna, deriving their inception from Him and concluding their absorption in Him. In the material worlds there is absolutely no alternative to the cycle of birth and death. Thus at the end of life the forced relinquishing of material wealth and opulence for those who wasted there lives to obtain it is inevitable. But for those who instead used their precious human life to attain the Supreme Lord Krishna, having Him as there sole refuge and goal; for them rebirth is not even to be considered as they are automatically liberated from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next will be shown that there is also no rebirth for those who have achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul.

 

 

 

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