Geethaa Saaram 8-1 to 8-4.

eethaartha sangraham….ai´svary¯aks.aray¯ath¯atmya bhagavaccaran.¯arthin¯am
 vedyop¯adeyabh¯av¯an¯am as.t.ame bheda ucyate 12

Bheda ucyate =The differences in the Eighth Chapter are told. That is the differences among the three types of devotees. Aisvarya = those seeking wealth or worldly pleasures, akshara = everlasting or never destructible [atman] [ different from worldly matters including our body], yatatmya = real and true meaning of this [atman]; that is those kaivalyarti who want to enjoy only atman and do not want to be reborn. Bhagavaccarana = [differing from the earlier two types] The Lord’s feet, arthi = seekers [of those divine feet]. Vedya = things or objectives they should know, upadeya = means to realize those objectives

…Thiruvallor,Adhanoor, Pullam boothamgudi and Ahobilam are the Divya Desams- under the care of Ahobila Madam ..in the lower Prahalada Varadan kovil Adi Sann Sadagoba jeeyar-onnaam Swaami is also gracing us..1378-1458..last year over 500,000 devoties came to Ahobilam–ten fold increase during one year..45 th jeeyar.Namm Azlwaar calls Him as Yen Singa Piraan..narasimhavapu,srimaan,kesava purushotama is the sequence of Namaavalli in Sahasranama..

..slokam 8-1..Thiruvelliyankudi shedram..This was called Brahma Puram in Kruda yugam..Parasara Puram in Theretha Yugam,Indra Puram in Dwabara Yugam..Bhargava Puram in Kali Yugam..Rama in reclining posture..Sthala vrusham is sevvaazlai maram..Pushpakala  vimanam..Maragatha valli Thaayar..Kola velli Raman..sukrachaarayaar regained his lost eye sight..so the name thiru vellian kudi..velli=sukran..netra deebam here near perumaal eppthum erukirathu..In these 1st and 2nd slokams Arjunan is asking the pracice of the three types of people..

arjuna uvaca
kim tad brahma kim adhyatmam
kim karma purushottama
adhibhutam ca kim proktam
adhidaivam kim ucyate

Kim tad brahma = which is brahmam?, kimadyatma = which is adyatma? Kimkarma = which is karma?, Purushottama = Sri Krishna, [to be followed by kaivalyarti type of devotees]. Adibhuta kim= which is atibhutha? Adideivamkim = which is adi deivam?..


8-1..Ramanuja’s Commentary  

In the seventh chapter Lord Krishna discoursed on the nature of Parabrahma the Supreme Being, Vasudeva the Supreme cause of all causes, the object of worship being: 1) The spiritual sovereignty of all living entities, sentient and the insentient. 2) The source and cause of all there is. 3) The support and preservation of everything 4) The ultimate reference of all language used as an expression of ideas which normally relate either to the Supreme Lord’s rupa which is His form, or His guna which are His qualities. The ultimate reference being the Supreme Lord Himself of whom all beings in existence are His transcendental rupa and all things existing arise from His transcendental gunas. 5) Isvara Parama or the Supreme Controller 6) The most exalted and glorious by the possession of omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence, and by the possession of all power, all beauty, all knowledge, all opulence, all fame and all renunciation.

Then Lord Krishna went on to explain the reasons why His supreme indomitable nature is concealed and inscrutable for normal human beings due to their committing iniquitous deeds in past lives from time immemorial and also being addicted to gratification of desires with the delights which the physical body and five senses stimulate while being covered with varying degrees of the triple qualities of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance.

Lord Krishna then revealed by what means this illusionary delusion can be removed by an embodied being who develops firm faith in the Supreme Lord and surrenders to Him, due to the grace of the spiritual master in Vedically authorised disciplic succession. This faith and resignation to the Supreme Lord manifests in following the instructions of the spiritual master and results in the performance of highly meritorious activities. Lord Krishna also showed how the differences in merit produces differences in results for different aspirants being the atharthis or seekers of fortune, the jijnansur or aspirants for realisation of the soul and jnani’s or seekers of the Supreme Lord. It was also shown how out of all these aspirants the jnani was the most exalted. The eminence of the jnani’s was derived from their constant devotion and unwavering love for the Supreme Lord exclusively, thus they became an object of the Supreme Lord who loves to reciprocate, warmest affection; but such a devotee of the Supreme Lord is rarely seen and very difficult to find. In conclusion Lord Krishna mentioned several requisites of knowledge which the three classes being atharthi’s, jijnansur’s and jnani’s have to be knowledgeable of and act in accordance to in order to realise the individual goals of future felicity which each class aspires for. Arjina continues asking questions in the next verse as well.

 
 
 

 

 

 

slokam 8-2.adhiyajnah katham ko ’tra
dehe ’smin madhusudana
prayana-kale ca katham
jneyo ’si niyatatmabhih

Adi yagna = which is called ati yagna? Atra = here, asmin = in this, dehe = body..Katham adi yagna = how it is called ati yagna?Prayana kale = in the last moments [of life’s journey], katam neyosi = how You [Sri Krishna] are to be worshiped?, niyatam atmaabhi = even by those who have controlled the mind and organs

8-2..Ramanuja’s Commentary .. What is the tad brahma or the supreme,spiritual substratum pervading all existence? What is adhiyatma or the soul within all embodied beings? What is karma or the equal reaction to any action? How is it possible to effect moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death by knowing these things and taking shelter of Bhagavan or the possessor of full knowledge, full power, full fame, full wealth, full beauty and full renunciation, who is the Supreme Lord Krishna? What is the adhibhuta referring to embodied beings and adhidaivas referring to the demigods which the atharthis or seekers of wealth must know? What also is indicated by the term adhiyagna which all three classes of aspirants have to be cognisant of beings atharthis, jijnasurs or those desiring soul realisation and jnani’s or those exclusively seeking the Supreme Lord and why is it specially characterised? Finally Arjuna wanted to know specifically in what way is the Supreme Lord Krishna to be realised by persons of controlled mind and senses at the time of death.

 
..slokam 8-3..uthsavar here in Thiruvelliyamkudi is Srungara Sundarar..Garudar here is unique with four arms..changu chakarathudan and with folded hands..mayan vendiya padi Perumal in wedding posture and gave changu and chakaram to garudan..
 

 

 

 

sri-bhagavan uvaca
aksharam brahma paramam
svabhavo ’dhyatmam ucyate
bhuta-bhavodbhava-karo
visargah karma-samjnitah

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Indestrutible atman is the superior [objective]. Natural association with prakruti to be avoided. all living beiggs ar the result of [male-female] intercourse to be understood”

..Here the word brahma indicates atman in muktatma swaroopam and not Paramatma. Brahma = mukta atman, parama = superior, aksharam = never decaying nor destructible..Swabhavam = prakruti, adyatma = that which is associated with soul always,but the not soul itself..Svabhavam means the habit..Bhuta bhava = all living beings like human and animals, etc., udbhava kara = actions which enable such births, visarga = the intercourse between male and female, karma = as avoidable actions, samjina = understand..

8-3..Ramanuja’s Commentary    

 

What is designated in verse one as tad brahma or the supreme spiritual substratum pervading all existence is the aksaram paramam or the supreme indestructible atma or soul. Aksaram is that which is not subject to decay or imperishable and is the collective given by the ksetrajnanis or those knowledgeable of the field of action or the informers of uninformed matter and atma embodied beings. The Subala Upanisad II states avyakta the indiscernible compound of spirit and matter merges into the aksara the indivisible compound which descends into tamas or nescience. Parama aksaram is the superior indestructible atma nature which is completely disengaged from prakriti or the material substratum and not connected to even the aksaram which comprises embodied beings and combines both. The word svabhavo is also called adhyatma and indicates subtle material elements and its accompanying erratic tendencies. These subtle elements are what adheres to the atma in the descent of the supra subtle quintuple process from spirit to matter, the last being the fifth stage which becomes the seminal fluids referred to in the Panca-agni-vidva or five-fold sacrificial fires which are described in the Chandogya Upanisad:V.III-X which is essential and has to be known by all aspirants. Both aksara and adhyatma must be realised by the mumumkshus or emancipation seekers for moksa or liberation from material existence as aksara the immortal soul is that what is worthy of selection and adhyatma the embodied being incarcerated in matter is worthy of rejection. The sequence which manifests this descent into matter by the jiva or embodied being is called visargah and karma refers to that specific action which activates a corresponding reaction and determines the destination and manifestation of all creatures into embodied states whether human, animal, fish etc. The final action which actually causes manifestation into material existence is known as procreation between males and females of different species. The Vedic scriptures declare that in the fifth stage the male discharges the sacrificial water into the females sacrificial fire and a new embodied being is created. This act is known as karma. The knowledge of karma, aksara and adhyatma are all prerequisites of knowledge absolutely essential for those seeking moksa or liberation from the material existence. Otherwise one will be ignorant of what is worthy of rejection and what is worthy of attention and unable to properly interact accordingly. An example is following in verse 11 concerning brahmacarya or celibacy.

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

.slokam 8-4.Maragatha valli thaayaar sannithi..

adhibhutam ksaro bhavah
purushas cadhidaivatam
adhiyajno ’ham evatra
dehe deha-bhrtam vara

“O best of the embodied beings, the physical nature, which is constantly changing, is called adhibhuta [the material manifestation]. The universal form of the Lord, which includes all the demigods, like those of the sun and moon, is called adhidaiva. And I, the Supreme Lord, represented as the Supersoul in the heart of every embodied being, am called adhiyajna [the Lord of sacrifice..

..Deham = body, bhrtam = possessing, vara = great [Arjuna, is praised as greatest among men..So, the common pleasure by all these aiswaryartis , is to see with eyes, listen with ears, and so on. All these sensual pleasures emanate from the five great elements- pancha maha bhuta– we have seen earlier [ space- sound, air – touch, fire – image, water – taste and earth – scent]. So these are called adi bhutam . Ksara = decaying or perishing, bhava = habit.. Purusha = equal to Brahma, possessor of all the worlds, adi daivatam = to be like that god [ Brahma..Adi yajnam = god to be worshiped by Yagna, aham eva = Me [Sri Krishna alone]. Atra dehe = all these [ other gods to whom everyone thinks he is doing the yagna] are mere bodies [ and the soul is Sri Krishna]…So the Lord is adiyajna. They[all gods] get these because they are His body and not on their own..

8-4..Ramanuja’s Commentary By the word adhibhutam or those things pertaining to physical objects sought after by aisvaryarthis or fortune seekers are those things of a perishable nature including the supra subtle principles of sound, sight, smell etc. which are latent in their elements of ether, fire, earth etc and develop therefrom into their support system being the senses. All these things must certainly be comprehended and contemplated by them.The word adhidaivatam refers to the purusha or the ultimate, original supreme being whose status is superior and elevated above the 330 million demigods and all other celestials and lesser divinities and gods as well. This is the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the possessor and enjoyer of all the supramundane enjoyments of rare and equisite delights of His transcendental senses of sound and sight etc as the ultimate recipient of all yagna or worship and propitiation, even more then that experienced in the heavenly planets by Indra and Brahma. The aivaryarthis or fortune seekers must meditate on the purusha as the Supreme Being and ultimate enjoyer of all the subtle transcendental delights and this is what is called knowing the adhidaivatam.The adhiyagna denotes the Supreme Lord Krishna, Himself. It is He as the indwelling monitor in all the demigods and other gods and all sentient beings and whose total aggregate of atmas or eternal souls constitute His transcendental, spiritual body and as such He receives first worship and propitiation from all yagnas. Thus as the adhiyagna he is the indwelling monitor established in the heart of all beings and He is the one whom the three classes of devotees have to realise and meditate upon as a maha yagna or great offering in all their nitya and namaitta or eternal and occasional acts of worship.

 
 
 

 

 

 

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